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Full text of "The constitution of the Presbyterian church in the United States of America"

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THE 



CONSTITUTION 



or THl 



PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 



IK THB 

UNITED STATES OF AMEBICA, 
ooOTAnmta 

THB CONFESSION OF FAITH, THI CATSOHISHS, AND TBI 
DIBXCTOST FOR THB WORSHIP OF GOD : 

SOOXTBia WRB TEX 

PLAN OP GOVERNMENT AND DISCIPLINE, 

AS BAUFBD BT THS OENSRAL ASSEMBLT, AT TH^IB SBSSIOIIS 15 MAT, 
1821; AOD AXSSDKD m 1833. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION, 

266 CHESTNUT STBBBT. 



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ACT OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 
Mai/ 29th, 1839. , 

Eesolvedf That the permission heretofore granted 
by the Assembly to publish the Confession of Faith 
in contravention of the copyright, be, and the same 
is hereby revoked. 

Resolved, That the Presbyterian Board of 
Publication is hereby directed to take the charge, 
oversight, and agency of printing and selling the 
authorized copy of the Constitution of the Presby- 
terian Church, in the United States of America :— 

Resolved, That the standing committees to super- 
vise the publication of the Constitution, within the 
bounds of the several Synods, be, and the same axe 
hereby abolished. 



(iii) 



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CONTENTS. 



I. CovnssioK OT Faith •*• 5 

I. Of the Holy Scripture 9 

n. Of God, and of the Holy Trinity 18 

III. Of God's Eternal Decree 25 

IV. Of Creation 82 

V. Of Providence 84 

VI. Of the Fall of Man, of £in, and of the 

Punishment thereof 42 

VII. Of God's Covenant with Man 46 

VIIL Of Christ the Mediator 62 

IX. Of Freewill 62 

X. Of Effectual Calling 66 

XL Of Justification 70 

XII. Of Adoption 76 

XIII. Of Sanctification 77 

XIV. Of Saving Faith 80 

XV. Of Repentance unto Life 83 

XVL Of Good Works 88 • 

XVII. Of the Perseverance of the Saints 96 

XVIII. Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation. 99 

XIX. Of the Law of God 104 

XX. Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of 

Conscience Ill 

XXI. Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath 

Day 116 

XXIL Of Lawful Oaths and Vows 126 

XXin. Of the Civil Magistrate 130 

XXIV. Of Marriage and Divorce 184 

XXV. Of the Church 188 

(V) 



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VI CONTENTS. 

riun 

XXYI. Of the Commnnioa of Salntfl 142 

XXVII. Of the Sacraments 146 

XXVm. Of Baptism 148 

XXIX. Of the Lord's Supper 158 

XXX. Of Church Censures 169 

XXXI. Of Synods and Councils 162 

XXXII. Of the State of Man after Death, and 

of the Resurrection of the Dead 164 

XXXIII. Of the Last Judgment 166 

II. Thb Labobb Catbohism 171 

in. Thb Shobtbk Catbohism • 881 

The Ten Commandments 402 

The Lord's Prayer 40a 

The Creed 404 

17. Thb Fobm or Qotbbnment 406 

I. Of Goyernment 406 

1. Preliminary 406 

2. Of the Church 409 

8. Of the Officers of the Church 411 

4. Of Bishops or Pastors 412 

6. Of Ruling Elders 418 

6. Of Deacons • 414 

7. Of Ordinances in a Particular Church. 416 

8. Of Church Government, and the 

several Kinds of Judicatories 417 

9. Of the Church Session 419 

10. Of the Presbytery 422 

11. Of the Synod 427 

12. Of the General Assembly 429 

18. Of Electing and Ordaining Ruling 

Elders and Deacons 482 

14. Of Licensing Candidates or Proba- 
tioners to Preach the Gospel 486 

16. Of the Election and Ordination of 

Bishops or Pastors and Evangelists. 441 
16. Of Translation, or Removing a Min- 
ister from one Charge to Another.... 449 



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CONTENTS. TU 

PAOl 

17. Of Resigning a Pastoral Charge 468 

18. Of Missions 454 

19. Of Moderators 466 

20. Of Clerks 466 

21. Of Vacant Congregations Assembling 

for Public Worship 467 

22. Of Commissioners to the General As- 

eemblj 468 

XL Of Discipline 469 

1. General Principles of Discipline 460 

2. Of Private Offences 461 

8. Of Public Offences 463 

4. Of Actual Process 464 

6. Of Process against a Bishop or Min- 
ister 470 

6. Of Witnesses 474 

7* Of the various ways in which a Cause 
mAy be carried from a lower Judi- 
catory to a higher 478 

(1.) General Review and Control... 479 

(2) Of Reference 481 

(8) Of Appeals 488 

(4) Of Complaints 486 

8. Of Dissents and Protests 488 

9. Of New Testimony 490 

10. Of Jurisdiction 492 

11. Limitation of Time 493 

Y. DiBBOTOKT FOK THE WOBSHTP OT GoD 496 

f I. Of the Sanctification of the Lord*s Day... 496 
II. Of the Assembling of the Congregation 
and their behaviour during Divine Ser- 
vice 497 

UL Of the Public Reading of the Holy Scrip- 
tures 497 

IV. Of the Singing of Psaljns 498 

V. Of Public Prayer 499 

VL Of the Preaching of the Word 60i* 



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▼m OONTENTS. 

VII. Of the Admimstration of Baptism 604 

VIII. Of the Administration of the Lord's Sup- 
per 606 

IX. Of the Admission of Persons to Sealing 

Ordinances 611 

X Of the Mode of Inflicting Church Cen- 
sures 612 

XI. Of the Solemnization of Marriage 617 

XII. Of the Visitation of the Sick 521* 

XIII Of the Burial of the Dead 624 

XIV. Of Fasting, and of the Observation of the 

Days of ThanksgiTing 624 

XV. The Directory for Secret and Family Wor- 
ship 626 

VL Appendix. 

General Bules for Judicatories 29 



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THE 



CONFESSION OF FAITH. 



CHAPTER I. 

or THE HOLY BCRIPTXTBI. 



Although the light of nature, and the 
works of creation and providence, do so far 
manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of 
God, as to leave men inexcusable ; • yet 
are they not suflBcient to give that knowledge 
of God, and of his will, which is necessary 
unto salvation;^ therefore it pleased the 

» Rom. ii. 14, 15. For when the Qentiles, which have 
not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, 
these, having not the law, are a law unto themselyes; 
which show the work of the law written in their hearts, 
their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts 
the meanwhile accusing, or else excusing one another. 
Bom. i. 19, 20. Because that which maj be known of 
God is manifest in them : for Qod hath showed it unto 
them. For the inyisible things of him from the creation 
of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the 
things that are made, eyen his eternal power and God- 
head ; so that they are without excuse* Psa. xix. 1—3. 
The heayens declare the glory of God, and the firmament 
Bhoweth his handiwork. Day unto day uttereth speech, 
and night unto night showeth knowledge. There is no 
speech nor language where their yoice is not heard. See 
Bom. i. 82, with Rom. ii. 1. 

i> 1 Cor. i. 21. For after that in tho wisdom of God, 

(«) 

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10 CONFESSIOW OF FAITH. [OHAP. I. 

Lord, at sundry times, atid in divers manners, 
to reveal himself, and to declare that his will 
unto his church ; ^ and afterwards for the bet- 
ter preserving and propagating of the truth, 
and for the more sure establishment and com- 
fort of the church against the corruption of the 
flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, 
to commit the same wholly unto writing;* 
which maketh the Holy Scripture to be most 
necessary;* those former ways of God's re- 

the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by 
the foolishness of preaching to save them that belieYe. 
1 Cor. ii. 18, 14. Which things also we speak, not in the 
words which man's wisdoqi teacheth, but which th« 
Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with 
spiritual. But the natural man receiyeth not the things 
of the Spirit of God ; for they are foolishness unto him : 
neither can he know them, because they are spiritually 
discerned. 

c Heb. i. 1. God, who at sundry times, and in diyers 
■ manners, spake in time past unto the fathers by the pro- 
phets — 

d Luke i. 3, 4. It seemed good to me also, haying had 
perfect understanding of 'all things from the yery first, 
to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, 
that thou mightest know the certainty of those things 
wherein thou hast been instructed. Rom. xy. 4. For 
whatsoeyer things were written aforetime were written 
for our learning ; that we, through patience and comfort 
of the Scriptures, might haye hope. Isa. yiii. 20. To 
the law and to the testimony: if they speak not accord- 
ing to this word, it is because there is no light in them. 
Key. xxii. 18. 

• 2 Tim. iii. 15. And that Arom a child thou hast 
known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee 
wise unto salyation through faith which is in Christ 
Jesus. 2 Pet. i. 19. We haye also a more sure word 
•f prophecy ; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, 

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9sor. n.l 



(xmnssiON oi vaith. 



11 



realing his will anto his people being now 
ceased/ 

II. Und^r the name of Holy Scripture, or 
the word of God written, are now contained 
all the books of the Old and New Testament, 
which are these : 

OP THE OLD TESTAMENT. 



it 


Genesis. 


Chronicles, IL Daniel. 




Exodus. 


Ezra. Hosea. 


J- 


Leviticus. 


Nehemiah. Joel. 


— 


Numbers. 


Esther. Amos. 


6* 


Deuteronomy. 


Job. Obadiah. 


JoBhua. 


Psalms. Jonah. 


[id 


Judges. 


ProTerbs. Mioah. 


19 


&ath. 


Eoolesiastes. Nahum. 


th 


Samu^ L 


The Song of Songs. Habakkuk. 


a$ 


Samuel, U. 


Isaiah. Zephaniah. 


o 

a* 


Kings, I. 


Jeremiah. Haggai. . 


Jf 


Kings, IL 


Lamentations. Zechariah. 


^J 


Cluronioles, I. 


Ezekiel. Malachi. 


•0- 


»* OP THE NEW TESTAMENT. 




1 The Gospels ac- 


Galatians. The Epistle of 


ftd 


cording to 


Ephesians. James. 


st, 


Matthew. 


Philippians. The first, and se« 


IS, 


Mark. 


Colossians. cond Epistles of 


;g9 


Euke. 


Thessalonians, I. Peter, 


'or 


John. 


Thessalonians, II. The first second 


en 


1 The Acts of the 


To Timothy, I. and third Epis- 


)rt 


1 Apostles. 


To Timothy, IL ties of John. 


To 


. Paul's Epistles to 


To Titus. The Epistle of 


•d- 


, the Koinans. 


To Philemon. Jude. 


iiu 


Corinthians, I. * 


The Epistle to the The Beyelation. 


^6t 


Corinthians, II. 


Hebrews. 



as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day 
dawn, and the day-star arise in your hearts. 
i Heb. i. 1, 2. God who, at sundry times, and in 



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12 eiONVESSION OF VAITH. [CHAP. L 

All vhich are given by inspiration of God, 
to be the rule of faith and life.* 

III. The books commonly called Apocry- 
pha, not being of divine inspiration, are no 
part of the canon of the Scripture ; and there- 
fore are of no authority in the Church of God, 
nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use 
of, than other human writings.** 

IV. The authority of the Holy Scripture, for 
which it ought to be believed and obeyed, de- 



dWers manners, epake in time past unto the fathers by 
the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto ns by 
his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, kry 
whom also he made the worlds. 

% £ph. ii. 20. And are built upon the foundation 
of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself 
being the chief corner-stone. Rev. xxii. 18, 19. For I 
testify unto every man that heareth the words of the pro- 
phecy of this book, if any man shall add unto these things, 
God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in 
this book: and if any man shall take away from the 
words of the. book of this prophecy, God shall take away 
his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, 
and -from the things which are written in this book. 
2 Tim. iii. 16. All Scripture is given by inspiration of 
God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correc- 
tion, for instruction in righteousness. 

b Luke zxiv. 27, 44. And beginning at Moses and 
all the projhets, he expounded unto them in all the Scrip- 
tures, the things concerning himself. And he said unto 
them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while 
I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled 
which were written in the law of Moses, and in the 
prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me. 2 Pet. i. 21. 
For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of 
man ; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by 
the Holy Ghost 



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8FCT.T.] OONFSSBIOIf <» VAITS. 18 

pendeth Qot npou the testimony of any man or 
church, but wholly upon God, (who is truth 
itself,) the author thereof; and therefore it is to 
be received, because it is the word of God.* 

V. We may be moved and induced by the 
testimony of the church to an high and reve- 
rent esteem for the Holy Scripture;^ and 
the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of 
the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the con- 
sen V of all the parts, the scope of the whole, 
(which is to give all glory to God,) the- full dis- 
covery it makes of the only way of man's sal- 
vation, the many other mcomparable excel- 
lencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are 
arguments whereby it doth abundantly evi- 
dence itself to be the word of God ; yet, not- 
withstanding, our full persuasion and assurance 
of the infallible truth, and divine authority 
thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy 



J 2 Tim. iii. 16. All Scripture la given by inspi- 
ration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, 
for correction, for instruction in rlghteousnesa. 1 John 
Y. 9. If we receive the witness of men, the witness 
of God is greater : For this is the witness of God which 
he hath testified of his Son. 1 Thess. ii. 13. For this 
cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when 
ye received the word of God, which ye heard of us, ye 
received it not as the word of men, but ^as it is in truth) 
the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you 
that believe. 

J 1 Tim. iii. 15. But if X tarry long, that thou mayest 
know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house 
of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar 
imd ground of the truth. 
2 

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14 OONffESfflCON OF FAITH. [cHAP. L 

Spirit, bearing witness by and with the word in 
our hearts.*^ 

VI. The whole counsel of God, concerning 
all things necessary for his own glory, man's 
salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set 
down in Scripture, or by good and necessary 
consequence may be deduced from Scripture : 
unto which nothing at any time is to be added, 
whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or 
traditions of men.^ Nevertheless we acknow- 



k 1 John ii. 20, 27. Bat ye have an unction from the 
Holy One, and ye know aU things. — But the anointing 
whick ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye 
need not that any man teach you : but as the same anoint- 
ing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, 
and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. 
John xvi. 13, 14. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, 
is come, he will guide you into all truth : for he shall not 
speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that 
shall he speak ; and he will show you things to come. — 
He shall glorify me : for he shall receive of mine, and 
shall show it unto you. — 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. But God hath 
revealed them unto us by his Spirit ; for the Spirit search- 
eth all things, yea the deep things of God. — For what 
man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man 
which is in him ? even so the things of God knoweth no 
man, but the Spirit of God. 

1 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. All Scripture is given by in- 
spiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for re- 
proof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness : 
that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished 
unto all good works. — Gal. i. 8. But though we, or an 
angel from heaven, preach any other gosptel unto you than 
that which we have preached unto you, let him be ac- 
cursed. — 2 Thess. ii. 2. That ye be not soon shaken ia 
mindy or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, 



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8BCT.TII.] CX>NFESSION OV VAITH. 15 

ledge the inward illumination of the Spirit 
of God to be necessary for the saving under- 
standing of such things as are revealed in the 
word;" and that there are some circumstances 
concerning the worship of God, and govern- 
ment of the church, common to human actions 
and societies, which are to be ordered by the 
light of nature and Christian prudence, accord- 
ing to the general rules of the word, which are 
always to be observed,* 

yil. All things in Scripture are not alike 
plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all;* 

nor by letter as from ub, as that the day of Christ is 
at hand. 

■ John Ti. 46. It is written in the prophets, And they 
shall be all tanght of God. Every man therefore that 
hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto 
me. 1 Cor. ii. 9, 10, 12. Bat as it is written. Eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the 
heart of man, the things whioh God hath prepared for 
them that love him. But God hath revealed them unto 
US by his Spirit : for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea 
the deep things of God. — ^Now we have received, not the 
spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God ; that we 
might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 

■ 1 Cor. zi. 13, 14. Judge in yourseWes: Is it 
comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered ? Doth 
not even nature itself teach you, that if a man have long 
hair, it is a shame unto him ? 1 Cor. ziv. 26, 40. How 
is it then, brethren ? when ye come together, every one 
of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath 
a revelation, hath ao interpretation. Let all things be 
done unto edifying. — Let all things be done decently and 
in order. 

« 2 Pet. iii. 16. As also in all his epistles, speaking 
in them of these things ; in which are some things hard 
to be understood, which they that are unlearned and un- 

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16 CONFESSION OF FAITH, [chap. Z. 

yet those things which are necessary to be 
known, believed, and observed, for salvation, 
are so clearly propounded and opened in some 
place of Scripture or other, that not only the 
learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the 
ordinary means, -inay attain unto a sufficient 
understanding of them.^ 

VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew, 
(which was the native language of the people 
of God of old,) and the New Testament in 
Greek, (which at the time of the writing of it 
was most generally known to the nations,) 
being immediately inspired by God, and by his 
singular care and providence, kept pure in all 
ages, are therefore authentical ; ^ so as in all 
controversies of religion the church is finally 
to appeal unto them.' But because these 
original tongues are not known to all the peo- 
ple of God who have right unto, and inter-* 
est in the Scriptures, and are commanded, in 

stable wrest, as thej do also the other Scriptures, unto 
their own destruction. 

p Psa. cxiz. 105, 130. Thy word is a lamp unto 
my feet, and a light unto my path. The entrance of thy 
words giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the 
simple. 

<i Matt. y. 18. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven 
and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass 
from the law, till all be fulfilled. 

. ' Isa. viii. 20. To the law and to the testimony ; if 
they speak not according to this word, it is because there 
is no light in them. Acts xv. 15. And to this agree 
the words of the prophets. John v. 46. For had ye 
believed Moses, ye would have believed me : for he wrote 
9f me. 

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BBCT. vin.] CONFESSIOBr OF FAITH. 17 

the fear of God, to read and search them/ 
therefore they are to be translated- into the 
vulgar language of every nation unto which 
they come,* that the word of God dwelling * 
plentifully in all, they may worship him in an 
acceptable manner,'* and, through patience 
and comfort of the Scriptures, may have 
hope/ 

> John y. 89. Search the Scriptures ; for in them ye 
think ye haye eternal life : and they are they which testify 
0/ me. 

« 1 Cor. xiv. 6, 9, 11, 12, 24, 27, 28. Now, brethren, 
if I come onto you speaking with tongues, what shall 
I profit you, except I shall speak to you either by 
revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophesying, or by 
doctrine ? — ^So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue 
wards easy to be understood, how shall it be known 
what is spoken ? for ye shaU speak into the air. — There- 
fore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shaU be, 
unto him that speaketh, a barbarian, and he that speak- 
eth shaU be a barbarian unto me. Even so ye, for as 
much as ye are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek that ye 
may excel to the edifying of the church. — But if aU pro- 
phesy, and there come in one that believeth not, or one 
unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all.— 
If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, 
or at most by three, and that by course ; and let one in- 
terpret. But if there be no interpreter, let him keep 
silence in the church ; and let him speak to himself, and 
to God. 

» Col. iii. 16. Let the word of Christ dweU in you 
richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one 
another in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, sing- 
ing with grace in your hearts to the Lord. 

^ Rom. XV. 4. For whatsoever things were written 
aforetime were written for our learning ; that we, through 
patience and comfort of the Scriptures, might have 
hope. 

2* 

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18 OOIIFESSION OV FAITH. [chap. n. 

IX. The infallible rule of interpretation of 
Scripture, is the Scripture itself; and there- 
fore, when there is a question about the true 

I and full sense of any scripture, (which is not 

I manifold, but one,) it may be searched and 

known by other place* that speak more clearly.^ 

X. The Supreme Judge, by which all con- 
troversies of religion are to be determined, and 
all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient 
writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, 
are to be examined, and in whose sentence 
we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy 
Spirit speaking in the Scripture.* 



CHAPTER II. 

OF GOD, AND OF THE HOLY TRINITT. 

There is but one only^^ living and true 

^ Acts XT. 15. And to this agree the words of the 
prophets. John v. 46. For had ye believed Moses, je 
would have belieyed me : for he wrote of me. 

' Matt. xxii. 29, 81. . Jesus answered and said unto 
them. Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the 
power of God. — But as toaching the resurrection of the 
dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto 
you by God. Eph. ii. 20. And are tuilt upon the founda- 
tion of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself 
being the chief corner-stone. Acts xxviii. 26. And when 
they agreed not among themseWes, they departed, after 
that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy 
Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers. 

7 Deut vi. 4. Hear, O Israel ; the Lord our God is one 
Lord. 1 Cor. viii. 4, 6. As concerning therefore the eat- 
ing of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, 
we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that 

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BCT. X.] GONIXSSIDN OF FAITH. 19 

God,' who IB infinite in being and perfec- 
tion/ a naost pure spirit,* invisible,* with- 
out body,' parts, ^ or passions,* immnta* 

III I I .A 

there is none other God bat one. — But to ns there is bat 
one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in 
him ; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all tldngs, 
and we by him. 

* 1 ThesB. i. 9. — ^Ye tnmed to God from idols, to serve 
the living and true God. Jer. x. 10. — But the Lord is 
the true God, he is the liylDg God, and an eyerlastlng 
King. 

« Job xi. 7, 8, 9, and xxyi. 14. Canst thou by search- 
ing find out God ? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto 
perfection ? It is as high as heaven ; what canst thou do ? 
deeper than hell ; what canst thou know ? The measure 
thereof is longer than the earth, and broader than the 
sea. — Lo these are parts of his ways ; but how little a 
portion is heard of him I but the thunder of his power, 
who can understand? 

** John iv. 24. God is a Spirit, and they that worship 
him, must worship him in spirit and in truth. 

* 1 Tim. i. 17. Now unto the King eternal, immortal, 
in-visible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever 
and ever. Amen. 

' Deut. iv. 15, 16. Take ye therefore good heed unto 
yourselves, (for ye saw no manner of similitude on the' 
day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb out of the 
midst of the fire,) lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make 
yon a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the like- 
ness of male or female. Luke xxiv. 89. Behold my hands 
andlny feet, that it is I myself; handle me and see ; for 
a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. 
Jolm iv. 24. 

* Acts xiv. 11, 15. And when the people saw what 
Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the 
speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the 
likeness of men. — And saying. Sirs, why do ye these 
things ? We also are men of like passions with you, and 
preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities 



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20, OONVSSSION 0¥ VAITH. [OHAP. lb 

ble,' immeBse,<^ eternal,^ incomprehensible/ 
almighty, J most wise, *^ most holy, ^ most 
free, "* most ^ absolute, "" working all things 
according to the counsel of his own immu- 
table and most righteous will, ° for his own 

unto the living God, which made heaven, and earth, and 
the sea, and all things that are therein. 

' James i. 17 — The Father of lights, with whom is no 
Tariableness, neither shadow of turning. Mai. iii. 6. For 
I am the Lord, I change not 

K 1. Kings viii. 27. But will God indeed dwell on the * 
earth ? Behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens can- 
not contain thee ; how much less this house that I have 
builded! Jer.xxiii. 23, 24. Am I a God at hand, saith 
the Lord, and not a God afar off ? Can any hide Inm- 
eelf in secret places that I shall not see him? saith 
the Lord. Do not I fill heaven and earth ? saith th« 
Lord. 

h Psa. zc. 2. Before the mountains were brought 
forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, 
even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. 1 Tim. 
i. 17. Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, 
the onl J wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. 
Amen. 

' Psa. czlv. 8. — His greatness id unsearchable. 

* Gen. xvii. 1. — I am the Almighty God; walk before 
me, and be thou perfect. Eev. iv. 8. 

*■ Rom. xvi. 27. To God only wise, be glory through 
Jesus Christ for ever. Amen. 

1 Isa. vi. 8. And one cried unto another, and said, 
Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts : the whole earth is 
full of His glory. Rev. iv. 8. 

B Psa. cxv. 8. But our God is in the heavens : He 
hath done whatsoever he pleased. 

■ £x. iii. 14. And God said unto Moses, I am that i 
AH ; and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children 
of Israel, I am hath sent me unto you. 

^ £ph. i. 11. In whom also we have obtained an 
inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose 



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ncT.Y.]' OONVS88XON OV PAITH. 21 

glory;' most loving,* gracious, merciful, long- 
Buffering, abundant in goodness and truth, 
forgiving iniquity, transgression, and. sin;' 
the rewarder of them that diligently seek him ;■ 
and vithat most just and terrible in his judg- 
ments ; * hating all sin,'', and who will by no 
meai^ clear the guilty/ 

af him irho worketh aU things after the counsel of his own 

win. 

p ProY. zTi. 4. The Lord hath made aU things for 
himself : yea, even the wicked for the day of ctU. Rom. 
zi. 36. For of him, and through him, and to him art 
mil tilings : to whom be glory for eyer. Amen. Ber. 
iv. 11. 

4 1 John iT. 8. He that loTeth not, knoweth not God; 
for God is Iotc. 

^ Ex. xzxiT. 6, 7. And the Lord passed by before him, 
and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and 
gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and 
trutii ; keeping mercy for thousands, forgiring iniquity 
and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clea^ 
the guilty. 

■ Heb. xi. 6. — For he that cometh to God must beliere 
that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that dili- 
gently seek him. 

< Neh. ix. 82, 88. Now,, ther^ore, our God, the great* 
the mighty, and the terrible God, who keepest coTcnant 
and mercy, let not all the trouble seem little before thee, 
that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, 
and on our priests, and on pur prophets, and on our 
fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the kings 
of Assyria, unto this day. Howbeit, thou art just in all 
that is brought upon us; for thou hast done right, but wt 
haye done wickedly. 

• Psa. y. 5, 6. The foolish shall not stand in thy sight ; 
thou hatest aU workers of iniquity. Thou shalt destroy 
them that speak leasing : the Lord will abhor the bloody 
and deceitful man. 

V Nahum L 2, 8. God is Jealous, and the Lord ro^ 

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22 CONFESSION OF FAITH. [OBAP.ib 

11. God hath all life,^ glory,* goodness/ 
blessedness,' in and of himself; and is alone 
in and unto himself all-sufficient, not stand- 
ing in need of any creatures which he hath 
made,* nor deriving any glory from them,* 
but only manifesting his own glory in, by, 
unto, and upon them : he is the alone foun- 
tain of all being, of whom, through whom, 
and to whom, are all things ; "^ and hath most 

vengeth, and is furious ; the Lord will take yengeanoe on 
his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies. 
The Lord is slow to anger, and great in power, and will 
not at all acquit the wioked.. See Ex. xxxiv. 7. 

^ John T. 26. For as the Father hath life in 
himself, 80 hath he given to the Son to have life in 
himself. 

X Acts Tii. 2. And he said, Men, brethren, and fathers, 
hearken; The God of glory appeared nnto our father 
Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he dwell 
in Charran. ^ 

I 7 Psa. cxiz. 68. Thou art good, and doestgood ; teaolT 
jne thj statutes. 

s 1 Tim. vi. 15. Which in his times he shall show, who 
is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and 
Lord of lords. Rom. ix. 5. — ^Who is over all, God hies* 
eed for ever. Amen. 

*■ Acts xvii. 24, 25. God that made the world, and all 
things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and 
earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands ; neither 
is worshipped with men's hands, as though he needed 
any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all 
things. 

b Job xxii. 2, 8. Can a man be profitable unto God, as 
he that is wise may be profitable unto himself ? Is it any 
pleasure to the Almighty that thou are righteous ? or is it 
gain to him that thou makest thy ways perfect ? 

c Bom. xi. 36. For of him, and through him, and 
to him, are all things ; to whom be glory for ever. Amen. 

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ncr. n.] CONFESSION OP FAITH. 23 

sovereign dominion over them, to do by them, 
for them, or upon them, whatsoever himself 
pleascth.* In his sight all things are open and 
manifest ; • his knowledge is infinite, infallible, 
and independent upon the creature;' so as' 
nothing is to him contingent or uncertain.* 
He is most holy in all his counsels, in all 
his works, and in all his commands.^ To him 
is due from angels and men, and every 

d RcT. !▼. 11. Thou art worthy, Lord, to receire 
glory, and honour, and power : for thou hast created aU 
things, and for thy pleasure they are, and were created. 
Dan. iv. 25, 86. The Most High ruleth in the kingdom 
of men, and giyeth it to whomsoever he will. — And aU 
the inhabitants of the earth are repated as nothing : and 
he doeth according to his wiirin the army of heaven, and 
among the inhabitants of the earth : and none can stay 
his hand, or say unto Bim, What doest thou ? See 1 Tim. 
Ti. 15, on the letter f. 

• Heb. iv. 13. Neither is there any creature that is not 
manifest in his sight : but all things are naked and opened 
unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do. 

' Rom. xi. 83, 84. the depth of the riches both of 
the wisdom and knowledge of God I how unsearchable are 
his judgments, and his ways past finding out! — For who 
hath known the mind of the Lord ? or who hath been hia 
counsellor ? Psa. cxlvii. 5. Great is our Lord, and of 
great power : his understanding is infinite. 

s Acts XV. 18. Known unto God are all his works from 
the beginning of the world. Ezek. xi. 5. And the Spirit 
of the Lord fbll upon me, and said unto me. Speak, Thus 
saith the Lord, Thus have ye said, h^use of Israel ; for 
I know the things that come into your mind, every one of 
them. 

^ Psa. cxlv. 17. The Lord is righteous in all his ways, 
and holy in all his works. Rom. Tii. 12. Wherefore the 
law is holy, and ^e commandment holy, and just, and 
good. 

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24 OONFBSSIOW OF PAITH» [cbaf. n. 

Other creature, whatsoever worship, service, 
or obedience, he is pleased to require of 
them/ ^ 

III. In the unity of the Godhead there be 
three persons of one substance, power, and 
eternity ; God the Father, God the Son, and 
God the Holy Ghost.J The Father is of none, 
neither begotten nor proceeding ; the Son is 
eternally begotten of the Father ; ^ the Holy 

I Rev. V. 12-»-14. Saying, with a loud Toice, Worthy 
16 the Lamb that was slain to reoeive power, and riches, 
and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and 
blessing. And every creature which is in heaven, and on 
the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the 
sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying. Blessing, and 
honour, and glory, and power be unto him that sitteth 
upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. 
And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty 
elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever 
and ever. 

) 1 John T. 7. For there are three that bear record in 
heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost ; and 
these three are one. Matt. iii. 16, 17. And Jesus, when he 
was baptized, went up straightway out of the water ; and 
lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the 
Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon 
him : And lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my 
beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Matt, zxviii. 
19. Go ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost 2 Cor. xiii. 14. The grace of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of 
the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen. 

k John i. 14, 18. And the Word was made flesh, and 
dwelt among us (and we beheld his glory, the glovy as of 
the only begotten of the Father) full of grace and truth. — 
No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, 
which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him* 

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noci.] ooNnssiON ov vatth. S( 

Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father 
and the Son.^ 



CHAPTER III, 
OF god's sternal decrees. 

God from all eternity did by the most wise 
and holy counsel of his own will, freely and 
unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to 
pass ; ■* yet so as thereby neither is God the 
author of sin ; ** nor is violence offered to the 

« John XT. 26. But when the Comforter is come, 
whom I will send nnto you from the Father, even the 
Spirit of truth, which proceedeth ftrom the Father, he 
shall testify of me. Gal. iv. 6. And because ye are sons, 
God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, 
erying, Abba, Father. 

■* £ph. i. 11. In whom also we hare obtained an in- 
heritance', being predestinated according to the purpose 
of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own 
will. Rom. xi. 83. the depth of the riches both of 
the wisdom and knowledge of God ! how unsearchable 
are his judgments, and his ways past liDdiDg out ! Heb. 
vi. 17. "Wherein God, willing more abundantly to show 
unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, 
confirmed it by an oath. Rom. ix. 16, 18. For he saith 
to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, 
and I will haye compassion on whom I will have compas- 
sion. — Therefore bath he mercy on whom he will have 
mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth. 

■ Jam. i. 13, 17. Let no man say, when he is tempted, 
I am tempted of God ; for God cannot be tempted with 
eril, neither tempteth he any man. — Every good gift, 
and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down 
from the Father of lights, with whom is no variable- 
ness, neither shadow of turning. 1 John i. 6. Tfahi 
8 

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S6 GONVXSSION OF FAITH. [cHAP. nt. 

^11 of the creatures, nor is the liberty or con- 
tingency of second causes taken away, but 
rather established." 

II. Although God knows whatsoever may 
or can come to pass, upon all supposed con- 
ditions ; P yet hath he not decreed any thing 

then is the message which we have heard of him, and de- 
clare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no dark- 
ness at all. Ec'cl. vii. 29. 

o Acts ii. 28. Him, being delivered l?y the deter- 
minate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken^ 
and by wicked hands have crucified and slain. Matt, 
zvii. 12. But I say unto you, that Elias is come already, 
and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatso- 
ever they listed ; likewise shall also the Son of man suf- 
fer of them. Acts iv. 27, 28. For of a truth against thy 
holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod 
and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of 
Israel, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy 
hand and thy counsel determined before to be done. John 
zix. 11. Jesus answered, Thou couldst have no power 
at all against nle, except it were given thee from above : 
therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater 
sin. Prov. xvi. 83. The lot is cast into the lap ; but 
the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord. TActs xxvii. 
23, 24, compared with v, 8£J *" 

p Acts XV. 18. Known unto God are all his works 
from the beginning of the world. 1 Sam. xxiii. 11, 12. 
Will the men of Eeilah deliver me up into nis hand? 
Will Saul come down, as thy servant bath heard ? 
Lord God of Israel, I beseech thee, tell thy servant. 
And the Lord said, He will come down. Then said 
David, Will the men of Keilah deliver me and my men 
into the hand of Saul? And the Lord said, They will 
deliver thee up. Matt. xi. 21, 23. Woe unto thee, 
Chorazin I woe unto thee, Bethsaida I for if the mighty 
works which were done-in* you had been done in Tyre 
and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sack- 
cloth and ashes. — ^And thou, Capernaum, wMoh art ex« 

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8BCT.XT.] Q0NYX8SIOK OY YAITH. 2T 

because he foresaw it as future, or as that 
which would come to pass^ upon such condi- 
tions.* 

IIL Bj the decree of God, for the mani- 
festation of his glory, some men and angels' 
are predestinated unto everlasting life, and 
others foreordained to everlaBting death.* 

lY. These angels and men, thus prodesti-' 
nated and fore-ordained, are particularly and 
unchangeably designed; and their number is 

alted unto heanren, shalt be brought down to heUj for if 
the mighty works which have been done in thee, had been 
done jn Sodom, it would have remained until this day. 

4 Bom ix. 11, 13, 16, 18. For the children being not 
yet bom, neither having done any good or evil, that the 
purpose of God according to election might stand, not of 
works, but of him th%t calleth ; — As it is written, Jacob 
have I loved, but Esairhave I hated. — So then, it is not 
of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God 
that showeth mercy. — Therefore hath he mercy on whom 
he will have mercy, and whom he wiU he hardeneth. 

' 1 Tim. T. 21. I charge thee before God and the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels. Matt. xxv. 41. 
Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, De- 
part from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared 
for the devil and his angels. 

• Rom. ix. 22, 23. What if God, willing to show his 
wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much 
long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction : 
And that he might make known the riches of his glory 
on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared 
unto glory? £ph. i. 5, 6. Having predestinated us 
wnto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, 
according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise 
of the glory of his grace, wherein ho hath made us ac- 
cepted in the Beloved. Prov. xvi. 4. The Lord hath 
made all things for himself; yea, even the wicked for the 
4^7 of evil 

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29 OqHOFMBBION OT VAZTS* [aUP.fll|i^ 

80 certain and definite that it cannot be either 
increased or diminished.^ 

y. Those of mankind that are predestinated 
unto life, God, before the foundation of the 
irorld was laid, according to his eternal and 
immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and 
good pleasure of his will, hath chosen in Christ, 
unto everlasting glory,'* out of his mere free 
grace and love, without any foresight of faith 
or good works, or perseverance in either of 
them, or any other thing in the creaturCi aa 
conditions, or causes moving him thereunto;^ 
and all to the praise of his glorious grace.^ 
^ • 

t 2 Tim. ii. 19. Nevertheless, the foundation of Ood 
etandeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them 
that are his. John xiii. 18. I speak not of you aU ; I 
know whom I have chosen. * 

« Eph. i. 4, 9, 11. According als he hath chosen us in 
Mm, before the foundation of the world, that we should 
be holy and without blame before him in love ; — Having 
made known unto us the mystery of his will, according* 
to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed in himself. 
— In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being 
predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh 
all things after the counsel of his own will. Bom. viii» 
80. Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also 
called ; and whom he called, them he also justified ; and 
Whom he justified, them he also glorified. 2 Tim. i. 9. 
Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, 
not according to our works, but according to his own 
purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus 
before the world began. 1 Thess. v. 9. For Gtod hath 
not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

^ Rom. ix. 11, 13, 16. See letter (q), page 27. Eph. 
i. 4, 9. See letter (") above. 

^ Eph. i. 6, 12. To the praise of the glory of his 
grace, wherein he hath made ue accepted in the Beloved: 

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mn.Tti oramntioai ot waok. . 29 

YI. Afi Grod hath appointed the elect unto 
glory, BO hath he, hy the eternal and most free 
purpoee of his will, fore-ordained all the means 
thereunto.* Wherefore they who are elected 
being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ,' 
are effectually called unto faith in Christ by 
his Spirit working in due season ; are justified 
adopted, sanctified,' and kept by his power 
through faith unto salvation/ Neither are any 
other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, 
justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the 
elect only.* 

that we should be to the praise of his glory, who first 
trasted in Christ 

' £ph. i. 4. According as he hath chosen us in him 
before the foundation of the world, that we should be 
holy and without blame before hiiu in love. Eph. ii. 10. 
For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus 
onto good works, which God hath before ordained that 
we ahould walk in them. 2 Thess. ii. 13. But we are 
bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren 
beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the begin- 
ning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of 
the Spirit, and belief of the truth. 

7 1 Thess. V. 9, 10. For God hath not appointed us to 
wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who died for us, that whether we wake or sleep, we should 
live together with him. Tit. ii. 14. ^ 

« Rom. viii. 30. — Them he also called. Eph. i. 5.— 
According to the good pleasure of his will. 2 Thess. ii. 
13. — Through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of 
the truth. 

a 1 peter i. 5. Who are kept by the power of God 
through faith unto salvation. 

b John xvii. 9. I pray for them : I pray not for the 

world, but for them which thou hast given me ; for they 

are thine. Rom. viii. 28. And we know that all things 

trork together for good, to them that love God, to them 

8* 

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80: . OONfKVSlOK 09 YAHV.' [oaiKflV 

YII. The rest of mankinci, God was pleased, 
according to the unsearchable counsel of his 
own^ will, whereby he extendeth or withhold- 
eth mercy as he pleaseth, for the glory of his 
sovereign power over his creatures, to pass by, 
and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath for 
their sin, to the praise of his glorious justice.* 

who are the called according to his purpose, &c. [to the 
end of the chapter.] John vi. 64, 65. But there are some 
of you that belieye not. For Jesus knew from the be- 
ginning who they were that believed not, and who should 
betray him. And he said, Therefore said I unto you, 
that no man can come unto me, except it were giyen unto 
him of my Father. See John viii. 47, and z. 26.— 
1 John ii. 19. They went out from us, but they were not 
of us ; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt 
hsTO continued with us; but they went out, that they 
might be made manifest that they were not all of us. 

« Matt. xi. 25, 26. At that time Jesus answered and 
said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, 
because thou hast hid these things from the wise and 
prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Eyen so. 
Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight. Rom. is. 
17, 18, 21, 22. For the Scripture saith unto Pharaoh, 
Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that 
I might show my power in thee, and that my name 
might be declared throughout all the earth. Therefore 
hath he mercy, &c. — Hath not the potter power over the 
clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, 
and another unto dishonour? What if God, willing to 
show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured 
with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to 
destruction. 2 Tim. ii. 20. — But in a great house there - 
are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood 
and of earth ; and some to honour, and some to dishonour. 
Jude 4. For there are certain men crept in unawares, 
who were before of old ordained to this condemnation ; 
ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lascivious* 
"^esSy and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus 

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noj] oovnMioH ov wAmU' St 

YIIL The doctrine of this high mystery 
of predestination is to be handled with special 
prudence and care,^ that men attending the 
irill of God revealed in his word, and yielding 
obedience thereunto, may, from the certainty 
of their effectual vocation,^ be assured of their 
eternal election/ So shall this doctrine af- 
ford matter of praise, reverence, and admira- 
tion of God ; ' and of humility, diligence, and 
abundant eonsolatioui to all that sincerely obey 
the gospel.* ' 

CliriBt. 1 P«t ii. 8 — ^being disobedient; whereunto also 
tiiej were appointed. 

< Bom. ix. 20, and xi. 88. Nay, bat, man, wbo art 
thoQ, tbat repliest against Gh>d? shall the thing formed 
say to him that formed it. Why hast thon made me 
thus? O the depth of the riohes both of the wisdom 
and knowledge of God I how unsearchable are his judg- 
ments, and his ways past finding out ! Deut. xxix. 29. 
The secret things belong unto the Lord our God ; but 
those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our 
ehildren for ever, that we may do all the words of iMa 
law. 

* 2 Pet. i. 10. — Give diligence to make your calling 
and election aure; for if ye do these things, ye shall 
neyer fall. 

i Eph. 1. 6. To the praise of the glory of his grace, 
wherein he hath made us accepted in the BeloTed. See 
&om. id. 88, letter (<i), above. 

s Rom. xi. 5, 6, 20, and viii. 83. Even so, then at this 
present time also there is a remnant according to the 
election of grace. And if by grace, then is it no more 
of works ; otherwise grace is no more grace. But if ii 
be of works, then is it no more grace ; otherwise work is 
no more work.— Well; because of unbelief they wore 
broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not high« 
minded, but fear.— Who shall lay any thing to the charge 
«f God's oloot t It is God that justlfieth. Lake x. 20. 

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82 ooifnseioN or TAxm. [ob&kvt. 

CHAPTER IV. 

OF CREATION. 

It pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost,^ for the manifestation of the glory of 
his eternal power, wisdom and goodness,' in 
the beginning, to create or make of nothing 
the world, and all things therein, whether visi- 
ble or invisible, in the space of six days^ and 
all very good.J 

II. After God had made all other crea- 
tures, he created man, male and female,^ with 

Notwithstanding, in this rejoice, not that the spirits are 
subject unto you ; but rather rejoice, because your names 
are written in heaven. 

^ Heb. i. 2. Hath in these last days spoken unto ns 
by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, 
by whom albo be made the worlds. John i. 2, 8. The 
same was in the beginning with Ood. All things were 
made by him ; and without him wi^s not any thing made 
that was made. Job zxvi. 13, and xxxiii. 4. By his 
Spirit he hath' garnished the heaycns ; his hand hath 
formed the crooked serpent. — The Spirit of God hath 
made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me 
Ufe. 

i Bom. i. 20. For the invisible things of him from the 
creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood 
by the things that are made, even his eternal power and 
Godhead ; so that they are without excuse. Psa. civ. 24. 
Lord, how manifold are thy works ! in wisdom hast 
thou made them all ; the earth is full of thy riches. 

i Gen. 1st chap, throughout. Col. i. 16. For by him 
were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are 
in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, 
or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things 
were created by him and for him. 
^k Gen. L 27. So God created man in bis own image^ 

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HMA &] oovntsioK Of wAvm* 8S 

reasonable and immortal souls,^ endued with 
knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, 
after his own image,"^ having the law of God 
written in their hearts,"" and power to fulfil 
it;°and yet under a possibility of transgres- 
sing, being left to the liberty of their own 
will, which was subject unto change.^ Beside 
this law written in their hearts, they received 
a command not to eat of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil ; which while they 

in the image of God created he him ; male and female 
created he them. 

1 Gen. ii. 7. And the Lord God formed man of the 
dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the 
Ivreath of liCa; and man became a Uving soal. Lnke. 
zziii. 48. See also £ccL xii. 7. Then shaU the dust re- 
turn to the earth as it was ; and the spirit shaU return to 
God who gaTe it. And Matt. x. 28. And fear not thent 
which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul ; but 
mther fear him which is able to deslaroj both soul and 
bodj in helL 

» Gen. i. 26. And God said, Let us make man in oov 
image, after our likeness. 

• Rom. ii. 14, 15. For when the (Gentiles, which haytf 
not the law, do by nature the things contained in the 
law, these having not the law, are a law unto them- 
•elree. Which show the work of the law written in their 
hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their 
thoughts the mean while accusing, or else excusing one 
another. 

« EcoU vii. 29. Lo, this only have I found, that God 
hath made man upright ; but they have sought out many 
invefitions. 

F Gen. iii. 6. And when the woman saw that the tree 
was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, 
and a tree to be desired to make one wise ; she took of 
the fnut thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her hua- 
hand with her, and he did eat &«e £ooL yiL 29. 

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84 OOMPICSSION OY YAITH. [OBAFw V 

kept they were happy in their commiim<m 
with God,^ and had dominion over the crea- 
tures/ 



CHAPTER T. 

OP PEOVIDENCE. 



Gob, the great Creator of all things, doth 
uphold,* direct, dispose, and govern all crea- 
tures, actions, and things,^ from the greatest 
even to the le^st,"" by his most wise and holy 

. 4 Gen. ii. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of 
good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it ; for in the day that 
thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely dle« See Gen. iii. 
8— xi. 28. 

r Gen. i. 28. — ^And have dominion over the fish of 
the sea, and oyer the fowl of the air, and orer eTery 
living thing that moveth upon the earth. See Psa. Tiii. 
6, 7, 8. 

• Heb. i. 8. Who being the brightness of his glory, 
»nd the express image of his person, and upholding all 

things by the word of his power, . 

. t Dan. iv. 84, 85.— I blessed the Most High, and I 
praised and honoured him that liveth for eyer, whose 
dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is 
from generation to generation. And all the inhabitants 
of the earth are . reputed as nothing : and he doeth ac- 
cording to his will in the army of heaven, and among the 
inhabitants of the earth ; and none can stay his hand, or 
say unto him, "What doest thou ? Psa. cxxxv. 6. What- 
soever the Lord pleased, that did he in heaven, and in 
earth, in the seas, and all deep places. See also Acts 
xvii. 25, 26, 28, and Job xzzviii. zzxiz. xl. xli. chap« 
ters. 
^ « Matjb. z. 29, 80, 81. .Are not two sparrows sold 

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•BCV. n.] CONFESSION OF FAITH. 85 

providenoe,^ according to his infallible fore- 
knowledge,^ and the free and immutable couxl- 
sel of his own will,* to the praise of the glory 
of his wisdom, power, justice, goodness and 
mercy/ 

II. Although in relation to the foreknow^ 
ledge and decree of God, the first cause, all 
things come to pass immutably and infallibly/ 
yet, by the same providence, he ordereth 
them to fall out according to the nature of 

for a farthiog ? And one of them shaU not faU on the 
ground without your Father. But the very hairs of yonr 
head are all numbered. Fear ye not, therefore, ye are 
of more value than many sparrows. See also Matt, yi, 
26, 30. 

^ Prov, XV. 8, The eyes of the Lord are in every 
place, beholding the evil and the good. 2 Ghron. xvi. 9. 
For the eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the 
whole earth, to show himself strong in the behalf of them 
whose heart is perfect towards him. See also Psa. cxlv. 
17, and civ. 24. 

^ Acts zv. 18. Known unto God are all his works 
from the beginning of the world. 

> £ph. i. 11. — Who worketh all things after the ooun- 
sel of his own will. Psa. xxxiii. 11. The counsel of the 
Lord Btandeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all 
generations. 

7 £ph. iii. 10. To the intent that now unto the prin- 
dpalities and powers in heavenly places might be known 
by the church the manifold wisdom of God. Rom. ix. 
17. For the Scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this 
same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might show 
my power in thee, and that my name might be declared 
thronghont all the earth. Psa. cxlv. 7. They shall 
abundantly utter the memory of thy great goodness, and 
Mhall sing of thy righteousness. 

« Acts ii. 28. Uim, being delivered by the determinate 



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'86 CONFESSION OF FAITH. [OHAF.T. 

second causes, either necessarily, freely or con- 
tingently.* ^ 

III. Grod, in his ordinary providence, 
maketh use of means,* yet is free to work 

^OQiiBel and foreknowledge of God, je hare taken, and 
by wicked hands have crucified and slain. 

« Gen. Till. 22. While the earth remaineth, seedtime 
and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, 
and day and night, shall not cease. Jer. xxxi. 85. 
Thus saith the Lord, which giveth the sun for a light by 
day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars 
for a light by night, which diyideth the sea when the 
wayes thereof roar ; the Lord of hosts is his name. Ex. 
'xxi. 13. If a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him 
into his hand, then I will appoint thee a place whither 
-he shall flee. 1 Kings xxii. 84. And a certain man 
drew a bow at a venture, and smote the king of Israel 
between the joints of the harness : wherefore he said 
unto the driver of his chariot. Turn thine hand, and carry 
me out of the host; for I am wounded. Isa. x. 6, 7. I 
will send him against an hypocritical nation ; and against 
the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take 
the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down. 

Howbeit, he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart 

think so ; but it is in his heart to destroy, and cut off na- 
tions not a- few. 

b Acts xxvii. 24, 81. Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou 
must be brought before Caesar : and lo, God hath given 
thee all them that sail with thee. — Paul said to the cen- 
turion, and to the soldiers. Except these abide in the 
ship, ye cannot be saved. Isa. Iv. 10, 11. For as the 
rain cometh down, and the snow, from heaven, and re- 
turneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh 
it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the 
Bower, and bread to the eater: so shall my word be 
that goeth forth out of my mouth ; it shall not return, 
unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which 
I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I 
sent it. 



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mor. IT.] 00»rtl98I0K Of FAITH. S7 

without,* itboye,^ and againBt them, at his 
pleasure.* 

lY. The almighty power, unsearchable wis- 
dom, and infinite goodness of God, so far mi^ 
nifest themselves in his providence, that it 
extendeth itself even to the first fall, and all 
other sins of angels and men,' and that not by 

e Ho8. i. 7. But I will hare mercy upon the house of 
Jadah, and I will save them by the Lord their God, and 
will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, 
by horses, nor by horsemen. 

' Rom. iv. 19, 20, 21. And being not weak in faith, 
be considered not his own body now dead ; when he was 
about an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of 
Sarah's womb. He staggered not at the promise of God 
through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory 
to God. And being fully persuaded that what he had 
promised, he was able also to perform. 

• 2 Kings vi. 6. And the man of God said. Where 
fell it? And he showed him the place. And he cift 
down a stick, and cast it in thither, and the iron did 
swim. Dan. iii. 27. And the princes, governors, and 
captains, and the king's counsellors, being gathered to- 
gether, saw these men, upon whose bodies the fire had 
no power, nor was an hair of their heads singed, neither 
.were their coats changed, nor the smell of fire had passed 
on them. 

t Bom. xi. 82, 33. For God hath concluded them 
Jill in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon alL 
the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and know- 
ledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, 
and his ways past finding out I 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, with 
1 Chron. xxi. 1. And again the anger of the Lord was 
kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them 
to say, Go, number Israel and Judah. 1 Chron. x. 4, 
13, 14. Then said Saul to his armour-bearer. Draw thy 
sword, and thrust me through therewith ; lest these un- 
circumcised come, and abuse me. But his armour- 
bearer would not, for he was sore afraid. So Saul took 
4 

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38 CONFESSION or TATTH. [chap. V*, 

a bare permission, but such as hath joined with 
it a most wise and powerful bounding,* and 
otherwise ordering and governing of them, 
in a manifold dispensation, to his own holy 
ends ; ^ yet so, as the sinfulness thereof pro- 

a sword, and fell upon it. — So Salil died, for his trans- 
gression which he committed against the Jjord, even 
against the word of the Lord which he kept not, and also 
for asking counsel of one that had a familiar spirit to in- 
quire of it ; and inquired not of the Lord ; therefore he 
slew him, and turned the kingdom unto David the son 
of Jesse. 2 Sam. xvi. 10. And the king said, What 
have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah ? So let him 
curse, because the Lord hath said unto him. Curse David. 
Who shall then say, Wherefore hast thou done so ? See 
also Acts iv. 27, 28. For of a truth against thy holy 
child Jesus whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and 
Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Is- 
rael, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy 
head and thy counsel determined before to be done. 

e Psa. Ixxvi. 10. Surely the wrath of man shall praise 
thee ; the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain. 
2 Kings xix. 28. Because thy rage against me and thy 
.tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I will put 
my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I 
will turn thee back by the way which thou camest. 

^ Gen. 1, 20. But as for you, ye thought evil against 
me ; but God meant it unto good, to bring to pass, as it 
is this day, to save much people alive. . Isa. x. 6, 7, 12. 
I will send^him against an hypocritical nation, and 
against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, 
to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them 
down like the mire of the streets. Howbeit, he meaneth 
not so, neither doth his heart think so, but it is in his 
heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. — "VPiere- 
fore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath per- 
formed liis whole work upon Mount Zion, and on Jeru- 
salem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the 
king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looksr 



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fBOT.T.] 00NR88ION or FAITH. M 

ceedeth only from the creature, and not from 

God ; who being most holy and righteoney 
neither is, nor can be the author or approver 
of sin.* 

y. The most wise, righteous and gracious 
God, doth oftentimes leave for a season his 
own children to manifold temptations and the 
corruption of their own hearts, to chastise 
them for their former sins, or to discover unto 
them the hidden strength of corruption and 
deceitfulness of their hearts, that they may be 
humbled;^ and to raise them to a more close 

i 1 John ii. 16. For all that is in the world, the lust 
of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of 
£fe, is not of the Father, but is of the world. Psa. 1. 21. 
These things hast thou done, aad T kept sitence : thoa 
thoughtest that I was altogether such a one as thyself: 
but I will reprove thee, and set them in order before 
fhine eyes. — See also, James i. 18, 14, 17. Let no man 
Bay when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God 
cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any 
man : but eyery man is tempted, when he is drawn away 
of his own lust, and enticed. — ^Every good gift and every 
perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the 
Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither 
shadow of turning. 

i 2 Chron. xxxii. 25, 26, 81. But Hezekiah rendered 
not again according to the benefit done unto him ; for 
his heart was lifted up : therefore there was wrath upon 
him, and upon Judah and Jerusalem. Notwithstanding 
Hezekiah humbled himself for the pride of his heart, 
both he and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the 
wrath of the Lord came not upon them in the days 
of Hezekiah. — Howbeit, in the business of the ambas- 
sadors of the princes of Babylon, who sent unto him to 
inquire of the wonder that was done in the land, God 
left him to try him, that he might know all that was in 
his heart. 

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40 coNjntssiON or yaith. [cBA9.y« 

and coBStant dependence for their support 
upon himself, and to make them more watchful 
against all future occasions of sin, and for 
sundry other just and holy ends.^ 

VI. As for tho^e wicked and ungodly men 
whom God, as a righteous judge, for former 
sins, doth blind and harden;^ from them he 
not only withholdeth his grace, whereby they 
might have been enlightened in their under* 
standings, and wrought upon in their hearts ; ^ 

*■ 2 Cor. xii. 7, 8, 9. And lest I should be exalted 
flkbore measure through the abundance of the revelations, 
there was giyen to me a thorn in the flesh, the measenger 
of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above mea- 
sure. For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that i% 
might depart from me. And he said unto me, My grace 
is sufScient* for the : for my strength is made perfect iq 
weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in 
my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon 
me. ' Psa. Ixxiii. throughout. Paa. Ixxvii. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8, 9, 10, 12. Mark xiv. 66th ver. to the end, John 
xxi. 15, 16, 17. 

» Rom. i. 24, 26, 28, and xi. 7, 8. Wherefore God 
also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of 
their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between 
themselves ; — For this cause God gave them up unto vile 
affections ; for even their women did change the natural 
use into that which is against nature: — And even as they 
did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave 
them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which 
are not convenient. — Whkt then? Israel hath not ob- 
tained that which he seeketh for, but the election hath 
obtained it, and the rest were blinded, (Accordiug as it 
is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, 
eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should 
not hear ;) unto this day. 

" Deut. xxix. 4. Yet the Lord hath not given you an 
beart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto 
this day. 

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fSCT.Ti.] OONPESSION 01* FAITH. 41 

but sometimes also withdraweth the ^fts which 
they iad ; *" and exposeth them to such ob- 
jects as their corruption makes occasion of 
sin;' and withal, gives them over to their 
own lusts, the temptations of the world, and 
the power of Satan ; ^ whereby it comes to 
pass that they harden themselves, even under 
those means which God useth for the softening 
of others. 

■ Matt. xiii. 12. But whosoever hath not, from him 
shaU be taken awaj even th^t he hath. See Matt 
XXV. 29. 

• 2 Kings viii. 12, 13. And Hazael said, Why weepeth 
my Lord ? And he answered. Because I know the evil 
that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel : their 
strongholds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men 
wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash their child- 
ren, and rip up their women with child. And Hazael 
said, But what, is thy servant a dog that he should do 
this great thing ? And Elisha answered, The Lord hath 
showed me that thou shalt be king over Syria. ^ 

P Psa. Ixxxi. 11, 12. But my people would nothevrken 
to my voice ; and Israel would none of me. So I gave 
them up unto their own hearts' lust ; and they walked in 
their own counsels. 2 Thess. ii. 10, 11, 12. And with 
all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that per- 
ish ; because they received not the love of the truth ; that 
they might be saved. And for this cause God shall send 
them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie; 
that they all might be damned, who believed not the 
truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 

4 Ex. viii. 15, 82. But when Pharaoh saw that there 
was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not 
nnto thejn ; as the Lord had said ; — and Pharaoh har- 
dened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the 
people go. 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. For we are unto God a 
sweet savour of Christ in ihem that are saved, and in 
them that perish : to the one we are the sayour of death 
4* 

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a ooimsBsiON or vaith. [cba.p. yi^ 

Vn. A8 the proridence of God doth, in ge- 
neral, reach to all creatures ; so, after a most 
special manner, it taketh care of his church, 
and disposeth all things to the good thereof. ' 



CHAPTER VI. 

OF THE PALL OF MAN, OP SIN, AND OP THE PUNISH- 
MENT THEREOF. 

Our first parents, being seduced by the sub- 
tilty and temptation of Satan, sinned in eating 
the forbidden fruit." This their sin God was 
pleased, according to his wise and holy coun^ 

unto death ; and to the other, the savour of life unto life. 
Isa. Tiii. 14. And he shall be for a sanctuary ; but for a 
stone of stumbling, and for a rock of offence to both the 
houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabi- 
tants of Jerusalem. See also Ex. vii. 3 ; 1 Pet. ii. 7, 8 ; 
Isa. vi. 9, 10, with Acts xxviii. 26, 27. 

' Amos ix. 8, 9. Behold, the eyes of the Lord God are 
upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off 
the face of the earth ; saving that I will not utterly de- 
stroy the house of Jacob, saith the Lord. For lo, I will 
command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all 
nations, like as com is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the 
least grain fall upon the earth. Rom. viii. 28. And we 
know that all things work together for good to them that 
lov^God, to them who are the called according to his 
purpose. 

• Gen. iii. 13. — And the woman said. The serpent be- 
guiled me, and I did eat. 2 Cor. xl. 3. But I fear lest 
by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his 
■ubtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the 
vtmpUcity that is in Christ. 

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ncT.*m.] 0ONVB8SION OV VAITH. 43 

sel, to permit, having parposed to order it to 
his own glory. * 

II. By this sin they fell from their original 
righteousness, and communion with God,* 
and so became dead in sin, " and wholly de- 
filed in all the faculties and parts of soul and 
body. ^ 

III. They 1)eing the root of all mankind, the 
guilt of this sin was imputed, * and the same 

t Rom. xi. 82. For God hath concluded them all in 
wibelief, that he might have mercy upon all. 

* Gen. iii. 7, 8. And the eyes of them both were 
opened, and they knew that they were naked : and they 
sewed fig leayes together, and made themselves aprons. 
And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the 
garden in the cool of the day : and Adam and his wife 
hid themselves from the presence of the Lord Go4 
amongst the trees of the garden. Eccl. vii. 29. Lo, 
this only have I found, that God bath made man up- 
right ; but they have sought out many inventions. Rom. 
iii. 23. For all have sinned and come short of the glory 
of God. 

▼ £ph. ii. 1. And you hath he quickened, who were 
dead in trespasses and sins. Rom. v. 12. Wherefore, 
as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by 
sin ; and so death passed upon all -men, for that all have 
sinned. 

^ Gen. vi. 6. And God saw that the wickedness of 
man was great in the earth, and that every imagination 
of the thoughts of his heart, was only evil continually. 
Jer. xvii. 9. The heart is deceitful above all things, and 
desperately wicked ; who can know it ? See also Rom. 
iii. 10, to the 19th ver. 

' Acts xvii. 26. And hath made of one blood all 
nations of men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, 
and hath determined the times before appointed, and 
the bounds of their habitation ; and Gen. ii. 16, 17, 
with Rom. v. 12, 16, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 1 Cor. xv. 21, 
22, 45, 49. For since by man came death, by man oame 

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44 CONFESSION CI* VATTH. [CBAP. TI» 

death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to 
all their posterity, descending from them by 
ordinary generation, ^ 

IV. From this original corruption, whereby 
we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made 
opposite to all good, " and wholly inclined to 
all evil,* do proceed all actual transgres- 



also the resurrection of the dead : for as in Adam aU 
die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive : — and so it 
is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul ; 
the last Adam was made a quickening Spirit. — And as 
we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also 
bear the image of the heavenly. 

y Psa. li. 5. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity ; and in 
Bin did my mother conceive me. Gen. v. 3. And Adam 
• lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his 
1)wn likeness, after his image : and called his name Seth. 
Job xiv. 4. Who can bring a clean thing out of an un* 
clean? not one. Job xv. 14. What is man that he 
should be clean ? and he which is born of a woman, that 
he should be righteous ? 

« Rom. V. 6. For when we were yet vdthout strength, 
in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Rom. viii. 7. 
Because the carnal mind is enmity against God ; for it is 
not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. 
John iii. 6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh ; 
and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Rom. vii. 
18. For I know that in me, (that is, in my flesh,) 
dwelleth no good thing ; for to will is present with me, 
but how to perform that which is good I find not. 

* Gen. viii. 21. And the Lord said, The imagination 
of man's heart is evil from his youth. Rom. iii. 10, 11, 
12. As it is written. There is none righteous, no, not 
one ; there is none that understandeth, there is none 
that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the 
Way, they are together become unprofitable, there is none 
that doeth good, no, not one. 

^ James i. 14, 15. But every man is tempted when he 



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nor.Tl*l OaNnSBIOM on FAITH. 4A 

y. This corruption of nature, during this 
life, doth remain in those that are regene- 
rated : ^ and although it be through Christ 
pardoned and mortified, yet both itself, and 
all the motions thereof, are truly and properly 
ain.* 

VI. Every sin, both original and actual, 
being a transgression of the righteous law of 

is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Then 
when lust hath conoeived, it bringeth forth sin; and 
sin when it is finished, bringeth fortii death. Matt xy. 
19. For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, mur- 
ders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blas- 
phemies. 

« Rom. Til. 14, 17, 18, 23. For we know that the law 
b spiritual ; but I am oarnal, sold under sin. — Now, then, 
it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. For 
I know that in me, (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good 
Ching: for to will is present with me, but how to perform 
that which is good, I find not. — But I see another law in 
my members, warring against the law of my mind, and 
bringing me into captiTity to the law of sin which is in 
my members. James ill. 2. For in many things we offend 
aU. ProY. XX. 9. Who can say, I have made ray heart 
clean, I am pure from my sin ? £ccl. vii. 20. For there 
is not a just man upon earth that doeth good and-sinneth 
not. 

d Rom. Yii. 5, 7, 8, 25. For when we were in the flesh, 
the motions of sin, which were by the law, did work in 
our members to bring forth fruit unto death. — What shall 
we say then ? Is the law sin ? God forbid. Nay I had 
not known sin, but by the law ; for I had not known 
lust, except the law had said. Thou shalt not covet. Bui 
sin taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me 
aU manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin 
was dead. — So then with the mind I myself serve the iair 
of Qod ; but with the flesh the law of sin. 



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46 comrxssiON or vaith, [ohap.va 

God, and contrary thereunto,* doth, in its own 
nature, bring guilt upon the sinner,' whereby 
he is bound over to the wrath of God,' and 
curse of the law,^ and so made subject to 
death,^ with all miseries spiritual,^ temporal,^ 
and eternal.^ 



CHAPTER YII. 
or god's covenant with man. 

Thb distance between God and the creature 
is so great, that although reasonable creatures 

• 1 John iii. 4. Whosoeyer committeth sin trans* 

S'esseth also the law, for sin is the transgressiott of th« 
w. 

t Bom. iii. 19. Now we know, that what things soeTev 
the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law ; 
that every month may be stopped, and all the world may 
become guilty before God. 

f £ph. il. 8. — =-and were by nature the children of 
wrath, eyen as others 

b Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the works of the 
law are under the curse : for it is written, Cursed is every 
one that oontinueth not in all things which are written in 
the book of the law to do them. 

* Rom. vi. 23. For the wages of sin is death. 

^ £plL iy. 18. Having the understanding darkened^ 
being alienated from the life of God through the igno- 
rance that is in them, because of the blindness of their 
heart. 

^ Lam. iii. 89. Wherefore doth a living man complain, 
a man for the punishment of his sins ? 

1 Matt. zzv. 41. Then shall he say also unto them on 
the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting 
fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. 2 Thess. 1. 9. 
Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction Arom 
the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. 

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tmn.TLl CONFESSION OF FAITH. 47 

do owe obedience unto him as their Creator, 
yet they could never have any fruition of him, 
as their blessednesd and reward, but by some 
voluntary condescension on God's part, which 
he hath been pleased to express by way of 
covenant."* 

n. The first covenant made with man was 
a covenant of works,* wherein life was pro- 
mised to Adam, and in him to his posterity,* 
upon condition of perfect and personal obe- 
dience.' 

"> Job ix. 82, 83. For he is not a man as I am, that I 
shoald answer him, and we should come together in judg- 
ment Neither is their any days-man betwixt us, that 
might lay his hand upon us both. Psa. cxiii. 5, 6. Who 
is Uke unto the Lord our Qod, who dwelleth on high ; 
who humbleth ' himself to behold the things that are in 
heaven, and in the earth. Acts xvii. 24, 25. God that 
made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is 
Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made 
with hands ; neither is worshipped with men's hands, as 
though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life. 
Bfkd breath, and all things. See also Job xxxy. 7, 8, and 
Lnke xvii. 10. 

■ Gal. iii. 12. And the law is not of faith : but the 
man that doeth them shall live in them. Hosea vi. 7. 
Gen. ii. 16, 17. 

• Rom. X. 5. For Moses describeth the righteousness 
which is of the law, that the man which doeth those 
things shairiive by them. 

p Gen. ii. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of 
good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it ; for in the day that 
thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Gal. iii. 10. 
For as many as are of the works of the law, are under 
the curse ; for it is written. Cursed is every one that con- 
tanueth not in all things which are written in the book of 
the law to do them. 

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48 eoNisssiON of faith. [cv^. rm 

III. Man, by his fall, hayiiig mad^ himself- 
incapable of life by that covenant, the Lord 
was pleased to make a second,^ commonly 
called the eoyenant of grace : wh^ein he 
freely offered unto sinners life and salvation 
by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, 
that they may be saved,' and promising tp give 
unto all those that are ordained unto life, hib 
Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to 
believe." 

« Gal. iii. 21. — For if there had been a law giyen 
which could have given life, verily righteousness should 
have been by the law. Rom. viii. 8. For what the 
law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, 
God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, 
and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh. Isa. xlii. 6. I 
the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will 
hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give (hee for a 
covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles. ' Gen. 
iii. 15. 

' Mark xvi. 15. 16. And he said unto them, Go ye into 
all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. 
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved ; but he 
that believeth not shall be damned. John iii. 16. For 
God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten 
Son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, 
but have everlasting life. 

• Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27. A new heart also will I give 
you, and a new spirit will I put within you, and I will 
take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will 
give you an heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit 
within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and .ve 
shall keep my judgments and do them. John vi. 87, 44. 
All that the Father giveth me shall come to me ; 
and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast 
out. — No man can come to me, except the Father, which 
hath sent me, draw him ; and I will raise him up at the 
last day. 



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n€T.T.] ooNHEcmoN ot vatth. 48 

lY. This covenant of grace is frequently set 
forth in the Scrij)tare bj the name of a testfr* 
ment, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ, 
the testator, and. to the everlasting inheritance, 
with all things belonging to it, therein be- 
queathed.^ 

V. This covenant was differently adminis- 
tered in the time of the law, and in the time 
of the gospel : "* under, the law it was admi- 
nistered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, 
circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types 
and ordinances delivered, to the people of the 
Jews, all fore-signifying Christ to come,"^ which 

< Heb. ix. 15, 16, 17. And for this cause he is the 
mediator of the new testament, that by means of' death 
for the redemption of the transgressions that were under 
the first testament, they which are called might receive 
•the promise of eternal inheritance. For where a testa- 
ment is, there must also of necessity be the death of the 
testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead ; 
otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator 
liyeth. Heb. vii. 22. By so much was Jesus made a 
surety of a better testament. Luke xzii. 20. Likewise 
also Uie cup after supper, saying, l^his cup is the new 
testament in my blood, which is shed for you. See also 
1 Cor. xi. 25. 

■ 2 Cor. iii. 6, 7, 8, 9. Who also hath made us ablo 
ministers of the new testament ; not of the letter, but of 
the spirit ; for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. 
But if the ministration of death written and engrayed in 
stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could 
not steadfastly behold the face of Moses, for the glory of 
his countenance, which glory was to be done away, how 
shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious ? 
For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much 
moredoth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory. 

▼ Heb. Tiii. ix. x. chapters. Bom. iy. 11. And he 
6 

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to CONFESSION OV VAIXH. [orap. TBk 

were for that time sufficient and efficacious, 
through the operation of the Spirit to instruct 
and build up the elect in faith, in the promised 
Messiah,^ by whom they had full remission of 
sins, and eternal salvation ; and is called the 
Old Testament/ 

received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteous- 
ness of the faith which he had, yet being uncircnmcised ; 
that he might be the father of all them thatbelieye, though 
they be* not circumcised; that righteousness might be 
imputed unto them also. Col. ii. 11, 12. In whom also ye 
are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, 
in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the 
circumcision of Christ. Buried with him in baptism, 
wherein also ye are risen with him, through the faith of 
the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead. 
1 Cor. V. 7. Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye 
may be a new lump, as ye are jinleavened. For even 
Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. Col. ii. 17. 
Which are a shadow of things to come ; but the body is 
of Christ. 

" 1 Cor. X. 1, 2, 8, 4. Moreover, brethren, I would 
not that ye sbould be ignorant, how that all our fathers 
were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea ; 
and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in 
the sea. And did all eat the same spiritual meat ; and 
did all drink the same spiritual drink ; for they drank 
of that spiritual Rock that followed them ; and that 
Bock was Christ. Heb. zi. 13. These all died in faith, 
not having received the promises ; but having seen them 
afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced 
- them, and confessed that they were strangers and pil- 
grims on the earth. John viii. 66.- Your father Abra- 
ham rejoiced to see my day ; and he saw it and was 
glad. 

« Gal. iii. 7, 8, 9, 14. Know ye, therefore, that they 
which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. 
And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the 
heathen through faith preached before the gospel onto 



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vcT.Ti.] coKnssiOK or faith. 61 

VI. Under the gospel, when Christ the sub- 
Btance,^ was exhibited, the ordinances in 
which this covenant is dispensed, are the 
preaching of the word, and the administration 
of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's 
Bupper;" which, though fewer in number, 

Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed, 
go then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful 
Abraham. — That the blessing of Abraham might come on 
the Gentiles through Jesus Christ ; that we might receiye 
the promise of the Spirit through faith; 

7 Col. ii. 17. Which are a shadow of things to come: 
but the body is of Christ. 

s Matt xxviii. 19, 20. Go ye, therefore, and teach 
all nations, baptizing them in iJie name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them 
to obserre aU things whatsoever I have commanded you : 
and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the 
world. Amen. 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24, 25. For I have re- 
oeiyed of the Lord, that which also I delivered unto you, 
that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was be- 
trayed, took bread: and, when he had given thanks, he 
brake it, and said. Take, eat ; this is my body, which is 
broken for you : This do in remembrance of me. After 
the same manner, also, he took the cup, when he had 
tupped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my 
blood : this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance 
of me. 2 Cor. iii. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. But if the minis- 
tration of death, written and engraven in stones, was 
glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stead- 
fastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his coun- 
tenance ; which gloiy was to be done away ; how shall 
not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious? 
For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much 
more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in 
glory. For even that which was made glorious had no 
glory in this respect, by reason of the glory that excel- 
leth. For if that which is done away was glorious, much 
more that which remaineth is glorious. 

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52 C0N7S88IW OV VATIH. • [cEA^.Tim 

and administered with moVe simplicity aad less 
outward glory, yet in them it is held forth in 
more fulness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy, * 
to all nations, both Jews and Gentiles ; ^ and 
is called the New Testament. ® There are not, 
therefore, two covenants of grace differing in 
substance, but one and the same under various 
dispensations. ^ 



CHAPTER YIII. 

OF CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. 

It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to 
choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only 

« Heb. xii. 22 to 28. See also Jer. xzzi. 88, 84. 

^ See letter % page 61, and Matt. zxYiii. 19. £ph. iL 
15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Haying abolished in his flesh, th« 
enmity, even the law of commandments contained in 
ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new 
man, so making pea<}e ; and that he might reconcile both 
unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the 
enmity thereby ; and came and preached peace to you 
which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. For 
through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the 
Father. Now, therefore, ye are no more strangers and 
foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the 
household of God. 

c Luke xxii. 20. Likewise also the cup after supper, 
saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood, 
which is shed for you. Heb. viii. 7, 8, 9. 

d Gal. iii. 14, 16. That the blessing of Abraham 
might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ ; that 
we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. 
— Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises 
made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many ; biU 

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WOT. I.] coHnssKor ot faith. 6S 

begotten Son, to be tbe mediator between 
God and man," the prophet,' priest,* and 
king;^ the head and saviour of his chnrch,' 
the heir of all things,^ and judge of the 

^ ■ ■ " ' ' i ' ' .... — ^ 

ft8 of one. And to thy seed, which is Christ. Acts 
XY. 11. But we believe, that through the grace of 
the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they. 
Bom. iii. 80. — Seeing it is one God which shall justify 
the circumcision by faith, and unciroumcision through 
faith. 

• Isa. xlii. 1. Behold my servant, whom I uphold; 
mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth : I have put my 
Spirit upon him ; he shall bring forth judgment to the 
Gentiles. 1 Pet. L 19, 20.— But with the precious blood 
of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without 
spot : who verily was foreordained before the foundation 
of the world, but was manifest in these last times fov 
you. 1 Tim. ii. 5. For there is one God, and one medi- 
ator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. Se« 
also John iii. 16. 

f Acts iii. 22.. For Moses truly said unto the fathers, 
A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you 
of your brethren, like unto me : him Shall ye hear in 
all things, whatsoever he shall say unto you. Deut. 
xviii. 15. 

K Heb. y. 6, 6. ; So also Christ glorified not himself to 
be made a high-priest ; but he that said unto him, Thou 
art my Son, to-day have I begotten thee. As he saith 
also in another place, Thou art a priest for eever, after 
the order of Melchisedec. 

b Psa. ii. 6. Yet have I set my king upon my holy 
hill of Zion. Luke i. 33. And he shall reign over the 
house of Jacob for ever : and of his kingdom there shall 
be no end. 

» Eph. V. 23. For the husband is the head of the wife, 
even as Christ is the head of the church ; and he is the 
saviour of the body. 

J Heb. i. 2. Hath in these last days spoken unto 
US by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all 
things. , 

6» 

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S4 OONVESSim? OF TAITH. [coir, rm: 

world ; * nnto whom he did, from all eternity, 
give a people to be his seed, ^ and to be by 
him in time redeemed, called, justified, sancti* 
fied and glorified. "* 

n. The Son of God, the second person in 
the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of 
one substance, and equal with the Father, did, 
when the fulness of time was come, take 
upon him man's nature, * with all the essen- 

k Acts XTU. 81. Because he hath appointed a day, 
in the which he will judge the world in righteousness, by 
that man whom he hath ordained : whereof he hath given 
assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from 
the dead. 

1 John XYii. 6. I have manifested thy name unto the 
men which thou gavest me out of the world : thine they 
were, and thou gayest them me ; and they have kept thy 
word. Psa. xzii. 80. A seed shall serve him ; it shaU 
be accounted to the Lord for a generation. Isa. liii. 10. 
Tet it pleased the Lord to bruise him ; he hath 'put him 
to grief; when thou shalt make his soul an offering for 
sin, be shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and 
the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. 

B 1 Tim. ii. 6. Who gave himself a ransom for all to 
be testified in due time. Isa. ly. 4, 5. Behold, I have 
given him for a witness to the people, a leader and com- 
mander to the people. Behold, thou shalt call a nation 
that thou knowest not, and nations that knew not thee 
shall run uifto thee, because of the Lord thy God, and 
for the Holy One of Israel ; for he hath glorified thee. 
1 Cor. i. 80. But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of • 
God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and 
sanctificatign, and redemption. 

B Johni. 1, 14. In the beginning was the word, and the 
word was with God, and the word was God. And the word 
was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his 
glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full 
tf grace and truth. 1 John v. 20. And we know that 
the Son of God is come, and hath given us an luider- 

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nocn.] 0OKVSS6ION OF TATTH. 5ft 

tial properties and comtnon infirmities thereof, 
yet without sin : "* being conceived by the power 
of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Vir- 
gin Mary, of her- substance.** So that two 
whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the God- 
bead and the manhood^ were inseparably 
joined together in one person, without conver- 
sion, composition, or confusion.^ Which per* 

standing, that we may know Mm that is true, and we are in 
him that is trae, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is 
the true God, and eternal life. Phil. ii. 6. Who, being 
in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal 
with God. Gal. iv. 4. But when the fulness of the time was 
eome, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made 
under the law. 

" Heb. ii. 17. Wherefore in all things it behoved him 
to be made like unto his brethren ; that he might be % 
merciful and faithful high-priest in things pertaining to 
God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. 
Heb. iv. 15. For we have not an high priest which cannot 
be touched with the feeling of our infirmities ; but w6a 
in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin. 

F Luke i. 27, 81, 86. To a virgin espoused to a man, 
whose name was Joseph, of the house of David ; and the 
virgin's name was Mary. — And, behold, thou shalt con- 
ceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son, and shalt 
call his name Jesus. — ^And the angel answered and said 
unto her. The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and tho 
power of the Highest shall overshadow thee ; therefore 
also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall 
be called the Son of God. Gal. iv. 4. See letter ("), 
page 54. 

<i Luke i. 85. See letter (p) above. Col. ii. 9. For in 
him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. Bom. 
ix. 5. Whose are the fathers, and of whom, as concerning 
the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for 
ever. Amen. 1 Tim. iii. 16. And without controversy, 
great is the mystery of godliness, God was manifest in th« 
fleah* 

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56 OONPESSION OF PAITH. [OHAP. Ytn. 

Bon is very God and very man, yet one 
Christ, the only mediator between God and 
man.' 

III. The Lord Jesns in lis human naturiB 
thus united to the divine, was sanctified and 
anointed with the Holy Spirit above mea- 
sure ; ■ having in him all the treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge,* in whom it pleased 
the Father that all fulness should dwell:'* to 
the end that being holy, harmless, undefiled, 
and full of grace and truth,^ he might be 
thoroughly furnished to execute the office of 
a mediator and surety.^ Which office he took 

■ ■ — ' ■ ■ ■ i« ' 

t Bom. i. 8, 4. Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our ■ 
Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to 
the flesh ; and declared to be the Son of God with power, 
according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection 
from the dead. 1 Tim. ii. 6. For there is one 6od, and 
ene mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. 

• Psa. xlv. 7. — God, thy God, hath anointed thee 
with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. John iii^ 
84. For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words* 
of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure 
unto him. 

t Col. ii. 8. In whom are hid all- the treaffures of wis- 
dom and knowledge. 

« Col. i. 19. For it pleased the- Father, that in him 
should all fulness dwell. 

▼ Heb. vii. 26. For such an high priest became ns, 
who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, 
and made higher than the heavens. John i. 14. And the 
Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld 
his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) 
full of grace and truth. 

^ Acts X. 88. How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth 
with the Holy Ghost, and with power ; who went about 
doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of th* 

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oeT.IT.] ooNrsssiON or paith. 67: 

not unto himself, but was therennto called by 
his Father ; * who put all power and judgment 
into his hand, and gave him commandment to 
execute the same.^* 

IV. This oflSce the Lord Jesus did most 
willingly undertake,' which, that he might 
discharge, he was made under the law,* and 
did perfectly fulfil it ; ^ endured most grier-^ 
ous torments immediately in his soul,^ and 

de^il ; for God was with him. Heb. zii.- 24. — ^And to 
Jesus, the mediator of the new coyenant, and to the blood 
of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of 
Ab«l. Heb. vii. 22. By so much was Jesus made a surety 
of a better testament. 

* Heb. ▼. 5. So also Christ glorified not himself to be 
made an high-priest ; but he that said unto him, Thou art 
my Son, to-day have I begotten thee. 

r John ▼. 22, 27. For the Father judgeth no man; but 
hath committed all judgment unto the Son; and hath 
given him authority to execute judgment alSQ, because he 
is the Son of man. Matt, xxriii. 18. And Jesus came, 
and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me 
in heaven and in earth. 

* Psa. xl. 7, 8. Then said I, Lo, I come : in the vol- 
ume of the book it is written of me. I delight to do thy 
will, O my God ; yea, thy law is within my heart. Phil, 
ii. 8. And became obedient unto death, even the death 
of the cross. 

» Gal. iv. 4. But when the fulness of the time was come, 
God sent forth his Son, made, of a woman, made under 
the law. 

*» Matt. ill. 16. Thus it beoometh us to fulfil all right- 
eousness. Matt. V. 17. — I am not come to destroy, but 
to fulfil. 

« Matt. xxvi. 87, 88. And he took with him Peter and 
the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and 
very heavy. Then saith he unto them, My soul is exceed- 
ing sorrowful, even unto death. Luke xxii. 44. And 

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68 CONFESSION OF I^AITH. [OHAP. Tm. 

fiiost painful sufferings in his body;* was 
crucified and died ; * was buried, and remained 
under the power of death, yet saw no cor- 
ruption/ On the third day he arose from 
the dead,* with the same body in which he 
suffered ; ^ with which also he ascended into 
heaven, and there sitteth at the right hand 
ef his Father,^ making intercession;* and 

being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly : and his 
sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to 
the ground. Matt, xxvii. 46. And about the ninth houTa 
Jesus cried with a loud Yoice, saying, Eli, EIi« lama sar 
bacthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou 
forsaken me ? 

d Matt. xzyi. and zxvii. chapters, 

e' Phil. ii. 8. He humbled himself and became obedimt 
unto death, even the death of the cross. 

f Acts ii. 24, 27. Whom God hath raised up, haying 
loosed the pains of death : because it was not possible 
that he should be holden of it. — Because thou wilt not 
leaye my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy 
One to see corruption. Acts xiii. 87. But he, whom God 
raised again, saw no corruption. 

K 1 Cor. XY. 4. That he was buried, and that he rose 
j^gain the third day, according to the Scriptures. 

^ John XX. 25, 27. But he said unto them, Except I 
shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put 
my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand 
into his side, I will not believe. — Then saith he to Thomas, 
Beach hither thy finger, and behold my hands ; and reach 
hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side : and be not 
faithless, but belicYing. 

* Mark XYi. 19. He was receiYcd up into heaY^n, and 
sat on the right hand of God. 

^ Rom. Yiii. 34. Who is even at the right hand of God, 
who also maketh intercession for us. Heb. vii. 25. Where- 
fore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come 
unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercessiou 
for them. 

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nOT.T.] OONTESaiON OF FAITH. 69 

shall return to judge men and angels, at the 
end of the world. ^ 

V. The Lord Jesus, by his perfect obedience 
and sacrifice of himself, which he through the 
eternal Spirit onqe offered up unto God, hath 
fully satisfied th^ justice of his Father ; ^ and 
purchased not only reconciliation, but an ever- 
lasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, 
for all those whom the Father hath given unto 
him." 

» Rom. xiv. 9, 10. For to this end Christ both died, 
«nd rose, and reviyed, that he might be Lord both of the 
dead and living. — For we shall all stand before the judg^ 
ment-seat of Christ Acts i. 11, and x. 42. Matt. xilL 
40, 41, 42. As, therefore, the tares are gathered and 
burned in the fire ; so shall it be in the end of this world. 
The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall 
gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them 
which do iniquity ; and shall cast them into a furnace of 
fire : there shall be wiling and gnashing of teeth. — Jude 6. 
And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left 
their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting 
chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great 
day. See also 2 Pet. ii. 4. 

1 Rom. y. 19. For as by one man's disobedience many 
were made sinners; s^ by the obedience of one shall 
many be made righteous. Heb. ix. 14. How much more 
shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit 
offered himself without spot to Ood, purge your con- 
science from dead works to serve the living God ? Rom. 
iii. 25, 26. Whom God hath set forth to be a propitia- 
tion through faith in his blood, to declare his righteous- 
ness for the remission of sins that are past, through the 
forbearance of God ; to declare, I say, at this time his 
righteousness : that he mfght be just, and the justifier of 
him which believeth in Jesus. Heb. x. 14. For by one 
offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sancti* 
fied. See also £ph. v. 2. 

ȣph. i. 11, 14. In whom also ire liaTO obtune^ 

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<0 CONFESSION or VAITH. [OHJLP.Ym 

' VI. Although the work of redemption was 
not actually wrought by Christ till after his in- 
carnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits 
thereof, were communicated unto the elect, in 
all ages successively from the beginning of the 
world, in and by those promises, types, and 
sacrifices, wherein he was revealed, and signi- 
fied to be the seed of the woman, which should 
bruise the serpent's head, and the lamb, slain 
from the beginning of the world, being yester- 
day and to-day the same and for ever. * 

VII. Christ, in the work of mediation, act- 
eth according to both natures ; by each nature 
doing that which is proper to itself;** yet by 

an inheritance, being predestinated according to the pur- 
pose of Him who worketh aU things after the counsel of 
his own will. — Which is the earnest of our inheritance, 
until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto 
the praise of his glory. John zyii. 2. As thou hast 
giyen him power over all flesh, that he should gire eter- 
nal life to as many as thou hast given him. See also 
Heb. ix. 12, 16. 

■Gal. iv.' 4, 6. But when the fulness of the time 
was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, 
made under the law, to redeem them that were under the 
law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. Gen. 
iii. 15. And I will put enmity between thee and the 
woman, and between thy seed and her seed: it shall 
bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Rev. 
ziii. 8- And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship 
him, whose names are not written in the book of life of 
the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. Heb. 
xiii. 8. Jesus Christ, the sapae yesterday, to-day, and 
for ever. 

« 1 Pet. iii. 18. For Christ also hath once suffered for 
sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to 
God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened hj 
the Spirit. See also Heb. iz. 14. 

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JMff.Tiix.] .OONFIfiSION OF TAITH. SI 

jreason of the unity of the peraon, that -whioh 
is proper to one nature, is sometimes, in Scrip- 
ture, Attributed to the person denominated by 
:the other nature. ^ 

VIII. To all those for whom Christ hath 
purchased redemption, he doth certainly and 
effectually apply and communicate the same ; ^ 
making intercession for them, ' and revealing 
unto them, in and h^ the word, the mysteries 
of salvation ; • effectually persuading them by 
his Spirit to believe and obey ; and governing 

p Acts XX. 28. Feed the church of God, which he hath^ 
purchHsed with his own blood. John iii. 13. And no man 
hath ascended np to heaven, but he that came down from 
heayen, even the Son of man, which is in heaven. 1 John 
iii. 16. Hereby perceive we the love of God, becauBe he 
laid down his life for us. 

qjohn vi- 87, 39. All that the Father giveth me, 
Bhall come to me ; and him that cometh to me, I will in 
DO wise cast out. — ^And this is the Father's will, which 
hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should 
lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day. 
John X. 16. And other sheep I have, which are not of 
this fold : them also I must bring, and they shall hear my 
voice. 

r 1 John ii. 1. If any man sin, we have an advocate 
with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. Rom. 
viii. 84. It is Christ that died, yea, rather, that is risen 
again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also 
maketh intercession for us. 

.John XT. 15. For all things that I have heard of 
jny Father, I have made known unto you. Eph. i. 9. 
According to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed 
in himself. John xvii. 6. I have manifested thy name 
unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: 
thine they were, and thoa gavest them me ; and they hav« 
kept thy word. 
6 

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113 CM>NraS«ZON OV FAITH. [ORAF. ig^ 

their hearts by his word and Spirit ; * overcom- 
iDg all their enemies by bis almighty power 
and wisdom, in such manner and ways as are 
most consonant to his wonderful and unsearob* 
able dispensation. "^ 



CHAPTER IX. 

OP FREE WILL. 



OoD hath endued the will of man with that 
natural liberliy, that it is neither forced, nor by 
any absolute necessity of nature determined to 
good or evil. ^ 

<2 Cor. iy. IB We liaving the same spirit of faith, 
aooording as it is written, I believed, and therefore haye 
I spoken ; we also believe, and therefore speak. Bom. 
viii. 9, 14. But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, 
if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now, if 
any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. 
— For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are 
the sons of God. See also Rom. xv. 18, 19, and John 
xvii. 17. 

v Psa. ex. 1. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou 
at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. 
1 Cor. XV. 25, 26. For he must reign till he hath put aU 
enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be 
destroyed is death. Mai. It. 2, 8. But unto you that 
fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with 
healing in his wings ; and ye shall go forth, and grow 
up as calves of the stall. And ye shall tread down the 
wicked ; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your 
feet, in the day that I shall do this, saith the Lord of 
hosts. Col. ii. 15. And having spoiled principalities and 
powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over 
them in it. 

V James i. 14. But eyery man is tempted, when 

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0CT.m.] cnmsssioN gw tattb. <B 

II. Man, in liis state of innooency, hftd fre«- 
4om and power to will and to do that which 
is' good and well-pleasing to God ; ^ but yet 
mutably, so that he might £all from it. * 

III. Man, by his fall into a state of 
gin, hath wholly lost all ability of will to 
any spiritual good accompanying salvation ; ' 
so as a natural man fteing altogether 
averse from that good, ' and dead in 
» ' ■ ■ ■ ■■ 

he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Bent, 
xxz. 19. I call heayen and earth to record this day 
against you, that I have set before you life and death, 
blessing and cursing : therefore choose life, that both 
thou aod thy seed may Uto. See John t. 40. 

^ £ccl. Tii. 29. Lo, this only have I found, that God 
hath made man upright ; but they have sought out many 
inyentions. Gen. i. 26. And God said, Let us maka 
oan iiji our image, after our likeness. 

' Gen. it 16, 17. And the Lord God commanded th« 
man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest 
freely eat : but of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, thou shalt not eat of it ; for in. the day that thou 
eatest thereof thou shalt surely, die. Gen. iii. 6. And 
when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, 
and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be de* 
sired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and 
did eat ; and gave also unto her husband with her, and 
he did eat. 

7 Bom. V. 6. For when we were yet without strength, 
in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Rom. viii. 
7. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God ; 
for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed 
ean be. John zv. 5. For without me ye can do no- 
thing. 

* Bom. iii. 10, 12. As it is written. There is none 
righteous, no, not one: they are all gone out of the 
iray, they are together become unprofitable ; there is 
none that doeth good, no, not one. 

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64 .OONFXSSrON of VAITH. limAr.m, 

Bin, ^ ifi not able/ by his own strength, to 
convert himeelf, or to prepare himself there- 
unto. *» • 

IV. When God converts a sinner, and trani»- 
lates him into the state of grace, he freeth him 
from his natural bondage under sin, ^ and by 
his grace alone, enables him freely to will and 
•to do that which- is spiritually good;* yet so 
as that, by reasoa of his remaining corruption, 
he doth not perfectly, nor only, will that which 
■ ■ ■ ...» ■ . ,. — ,. ■ .. 

» Eph. ii. 1, 5. And you hath he quickened, who were 
dead in trespasses and sins ; — ^even when we were dead in 
sins, hath quickened us together with Christ ; (by grace 
ye are saved.) Col. ii. 13. And you, being dead in 
your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he 
quickened together with him, having forgiven you all 
trespasses. 

b John vi. 44, 65. No man can come to me, except 
the Father, which hath sent me, .draw him: — and he 
said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come 
unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father. 
1 Cor. ii. 14. But the natural man receiveth not the 
things of the Spirit of God : for they are foolishness unto 
him ; neither can he know them, because they are spi- 
ritually discerned. See also Eph. ii. 2, 8, 4, 5, and Tit. 
iU. 3, 4, 6. 

« Col. i 18. Who hath delivered us from the power 
of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of 
his dear Son. John viii. 84, 86. Jesus answered them. 
Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin 
is the servant of sin. If the Son therefore shall make 
you free, ye shall be free indeed. 

d Phil. ii. 13. For it is God which worketh in you 
both to will and to do of his good pleasure. Rom. vi. 
18, 22. Being then made free from sin, ye became the 
servants of righteousness. But now being made firee 
ftrom sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit 
unto holiness, and the end everlasting life. 

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tKCT. T.] CONFESSION OF FAITH. ^ 

is good, but doth also will that which is 
evil. • 

V. The will of man is made perfectly and 
immntably free to good alone, in the state of 
glory only. ' 



CHAPTER X., 

OF EFFECTUAL CALLING. 



All those whom God hath predestinated 
onto life, and those only, he is pleased, in his 
appointed and accepted time, effectually to call,* 

e Gal. y. 17. For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, 
and the spirit against the flesh : and these are contrary 
the one to the other ; so that ye cannot do the things 
tiiat ye would. Rom. -vii. 15. For that which I do, 1 
allow not : for what I would, that do I not ; but what I 
hate, that do I. 

' Eph. iv. 13. Till we all come in the unity of the 
faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God unto 
a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ. Jude 24. Now unto him that is 
able to keep you from falling, and to present you fault- 
less before the presence of his glory, with exceeding 
joy. 

K Bom. Tiii. 30. Moreover, whom he did predestinate, 
them he also called; and whom he called, them he 
also justified ; and whom he justified, them he also glo- 
rified. Rom. xi. 7. What then ? Israel hath not 
obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election 
hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded. Eph. i. 
10. That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he 
might gather together in one all things in Christ, both 
which are in heayen, and which are on earth ; even in 
him* 

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66 ooKHEssioN or VAITH. [OBAP.X., 

hj his word and Spirit, ^ out of that state of 
sin and death, in which tt^ey are bj nature, to 
grace and salvation by Jesus Christ;* en- 
lightening their minds, spiritually and savingly, 
to understand the things of God, ^ taking 
away their heart of stone, and giving unto 
them an heart of flesh ; ^ renewing their wills, 

h 2 Thess. ii. 13, 14. God hath from the beginning 
chosen jou to salvation, through sanctifioation of the 
Spirit, and belief of the truth : whereunto he called you 
by our gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 2 Cor. iii. 3, 6. Forasmuch as ye are 
manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered 
by UB, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the- 
living God ; not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of 
the heart. Who also hath made us able ministers of the 
New Testament ; not of the letter, but of the spirit : for 
the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. 

I Rom. viii. 2. For the law of the Spirit of life in 
Christ Jesus, hath made me free from the law of sin and 
death. 2 Tim. i. 9, 10. Who hath saved us, and called 
lis with an holy calling, not according to our works, but 
according to his own purpose and grace, which was given 
us in Christ Jesus, before the world began ; but is now 
made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life 
and immortality to light through the gospel. See also 
Eph. ii. 1, 2, 3, 4,' 6. 

J Acts xxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn them 
from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto 
God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and in- 
heritance Among them which are sanctified by faith that 
is in me. 1 Cor. ii. 10, 12. But God hath revealed them 
unto us by his Spirit : for the Spirit searcheth all things, 
yea, the deep things of God. Now we have received, not 
the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God ; 
that we might know the things that are freely given to ua 
of God. 

^ ]i!zek. xxxvi. 26. A new heart alsa will I give you. 



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ucT.ii.] qoNirsssioiY oi> faith* 67 

and by his almightj power determining them 
to that which is good ; ^ and effectually draw- 
ing them to Jesus Christ ; ^ yet so as they 
come most freely, being made willing by his 
grace. ' 

II. This effectual call is of God's free and 
special grace alone, not from any thing at all 
foreseen in man, *" who is altogether passive I 

and a new spirit will I put within you ; and I will take 
away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give 
you an heart of flesh. 

1 Ezek. xi. 19. And I will give them one heart, and 
I will put a new spirit within you. Deut. xxx. 6. And 
the Lord thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the 
heart of thy seed, to loTe the Lord thy God with all thine 
heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live. See 
also Ezek. xxxvi. 27. 

B John yi« 44, 45. No man can come to me, except the 
Father, which hath sent me, draw him. Every man there- 
fore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, 
oometh unto me. 

■ Cant. i. 4. Draw me, we will run after thee, Psa. 
ex. 3. Thy people shall he willing in the day of thy 
power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the 
morning : thou hast the dew of thy youth. John vi. 87. 

» 2 Tim. i. 9. "Who hath saved us, and called us with 
an holy calling, not. according to our works, but accord- 
ing to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in 
Christ Jesus, before the world began. Tit. iii. 4, 6. 
But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour 
toward man appeared, not by works of righteousness 
which we have done, but according to his mercy he 
saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing 
of the Holy Ghost. Rom. ix. 11. For the children 
being not yet bom, neither having done any good or evil, 
that the purpose of God according to election might stand, 
not of works, but of him that calleth. See also Eph. 11. 
4, 6, 8, 9. 



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68 C0N7£SSI0N 07 FAITH. [cbap. z. 

j therein, until, being quickened and renewed 
f by the Holy Spirit, ^ he is thereby enabled to 
I answer this call, and to embrace the grace of- 
fered and conveyed in it. ^ 

III. Elect infants, dying in infancy, are re- 
generated and saved by Christ through the 
Spirit, ' who worketh when, and where, and 
how he pleaseth. ■ So also are all other 



p1 Cor. ii. 14. But the natural man receiveth not 
the things of the Spirit of God : for they are foolishness 
unto him : neither can he know them, because they ard 
spiritually discerned. Rom. yiii. 7. Because the carnal 
mind is enmity against God ; for it is not subject to the 
law of God,, neither indeed can be. £ph. ii. 5. Even 
when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together 
with Christ; (by grace ye are saved.) 

qJohn yi. 87. All that the Father giveth me, shall 
come to me : and him that cometh to me, I will in no 
wise cast out. Ezek. xxxvi. 27. And I will put my 
Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, 
and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them. John 
V. 25. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is com- 
ing, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the 
Son of God ; and they that hear shall live. 

«'Luke xviii. 15, 16. And they brought unto him also 
infants, that he would touch them : but when his disoi- 
plfs saw it, they rebuked them : but Jesus called them 
unio him, and said. Suffer little children to come unto 
me, and forbid them not : for of such is the kingdom of 
God. Acts ii. 88, 89. Then Peter said unto them. Re- 
pent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of 
Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall re- 
ceive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is unto 
you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, 
even as many as the Lord our God shall call. 

■ John iii. 8. ' The wind bloweth where it listeth, 
and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell 



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fiOT.iTj CONFESSION Of PAITH. 09 

elect persons, who are incapable of being out- 
wardly called by the ministry of the word.* 

IV. Others, not elected, although they may 
be called by the ministry of the word," and 
may have some common operations of the 
Spirit,^ yet they never truly come to Christ, 
and therefore cannot be saved :^ much less 
can men, not professing the Christian religion, 
be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they 
never so diligent to frame their lives according 
to the light of nature, and the law of that 
religion they do profess;* and to assert and 

whence it oometh, and whither it goeth ; so is OYery one 
that is bom of the Spirit. 

t Acts iy. 12. Neither is there salyation in any other : 
for there is none other name under heaven given among 
men, whereby we must be saved. 

« Matt; xziL 14. For many are oaUed, but few are 
chosen. 

^ Matt. ziii. 20, 21. But he that received the seed into 
Btony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and 
anon with joy receiveth it: yet hath he not root in him- 
self, but dureth for a while; for when tribulation or 
persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is 
offended. 

^ John vi. 64, 66, 66. But there are some of you that 
believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who 
they were that believed not, and who should betray 
him. And he said. Therefore said I unto you, that no 
man can come unto me, except it were given unto him 
of my Father. From that time many of his disciples 
went back, and walked no more with him. John viii. 24. 
I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins ; 
for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins. 

« Acts iv. 12. Neither is there salvation in any other ; 
for there is none other name under heaven given among 
men, whereby we must be saved. John ziv. 6. Jesus 



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70 ODnnfflsroN of vaith. [obap. zt 

maintain that they may is very pernicious, and 
to be detested/ 



CHAPTER XL 

OP JUSTIFICATION. 

Those whom God effectually calleth, he also 
freely justifieth;* not by infusing righteous- 
ness into them, but by pardoning their sins, 
and by accounting and accepting their persons 
as righteous: not for any thing wrought iu 
them, or done by them, but for Christ's sako 
alone : not by imputing faith itself, the act of 
believing, or any other evangelical obedience 
to them, as their righteousness ; but by impu- 
ting the obedience and satisfaction of Ghrisl; 
unto them,* they receiving and resting oil 

6aith unto him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life i 
no man cometh unto the Father but by me. John xvii. 
8. And this is life eternal, that they might know thee 
the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast 
eent 

7 2 John 10, 11. If there eome any unto you, and 
bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, 
neither bid him God speed : for he that biddeth him God 
speed, is partaker of his evil deeds. Gal i. 8. But though 
we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel 
unto you, than that which we have preached unto you, let 
him be accursed. 

> Bom. viii. 80. Whom he called, them he also justi- 
fied. Rom. iii. 24. Being justified freely by his grace, 
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. 

« Rom. iv. 5, 6, 7, 8. But to him that worketh not, 
but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith 

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nOT. n.] OONI^BSSION OV VAITH. 71 

him and his righteoasneBS by faith ; whioh 
faith they have not of themselves, it is th9 
gift of God. * 

11. Faith, thus receiving and resting on 
Christ and his righteousness, is the alone in-^ 
stmnient of justification ; ^ yet is it not alone in 
the person justified, but is ever accompanied 

]g eoimted for righteonsness. Even as David also de- 
Boribeth the blessedoASs of the man to whom God im- 
pnteth righteousness without works, saying, Blessed are 
they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are 
covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord wiU not 
impute sin. 2 Cor. v. 19, 21. To wit, that God was in 
Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing 
their trespasses unto them ; and hath committed unto ua 
the word of reconciliation. — For he hath made him to be 
sin for us, who knew no sin ; that we might be made the 
righteousness of God in him. Rom. iii. 22, 24, 25, 27, 
28. Tit. iii. 5, 7. Not by works of righteousness which 
we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us by 
the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost; that, being justified by his grace, we should be 
made heirs, according to the hope of eternal life. £ph. 
i. 7. In whom we have redlmption through his blood, 
the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of hi4 
grace. Jer. xxiii. 6. In his days Judah shall be saved, 
and Israel shall dwell safely ; and this is his name where'* 
by he shall be called, Thjb Lobd our Kiohtbouskxss. 
See also 1 Cor. i. 30, 81, and Bom. v. 17, 18, 19. 

i> Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not having mine 
own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is 
through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of 
God by faith. Acts xiii. 38, 89. Eph. ii. 8. For by 
grace are ye saved through faith ; and that not of your- 
selves : it is the gift of God. 

c John i. 12. But as many as received him, to them 
gave he power to become the sons of God, even to theni 
that believe on his name. Rom. iii. 28. Therefore 
we conclude, that a man is justified by faith withonl 



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72 0ONPB8SION 01 PAITH. [chap. XX. 

vrith. all other saving graces, and is no dead 
faith ,but worketh by love. * 

III. Christ, by his obedience and death, did 
fully discharge the debt of all those that are 
thus justified, and did make a proper, real, and 
full satisfaction to his Father's justice in their 
behalf. • Yet in as much as he was given 
by the Father for them, ' and his obedience 
and satisfaction accepted in their stead, « and 

(he deeds of the law. Rom. t. 1. Therefore, being jus- 
tified by faith, "we have peace with God, through our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

d Jam. ii. 17, 22, 26. Even so faith, if it hath not 
works, is dead, being alone. — Seest thou how faith 
wrought with his works, and bj works was faith made 
perfect ? — For as the body without the spirit is dead, so 
iaith without works is dead also. Gal. v. 6. For in 
Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor 
uncircumcisiou ; but faith which worketh by love. 

• Bom. V. 8, 9, 10, 19. But God commendeth His loye 
towards us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ 
died for us ; much more, then, being now justified by his 
blood, we shall be saved fr^ wrath through him. For 
if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by 
the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we 
shall be saved by his life. — For as by one man's disobe- 
dience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of 
one shall many be made righteous. 1 Tim ii. 6. Who 
gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time. 
Heb. X. 10, 14. By the which will we are sanctified, 
through the oflFering of the body of Jesus Christ once for 
all. — For by one offering he hath pei*fected for ever them 
that are sanctified. See also Dan. ix. 24, 26, and Isa. 
liii. 4, 6, 6, 10, 11, 12. 

t Bom. viii. 82. He that spared not his own Son, but 
delivered him up for as all, how skaU he not with him also 
tteeiy give us all things ? 

I 2 Cor. T. 21. For he hath made him to be sin 

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SBCT. IV.] COl^FB&filON Ol- fAITH. 73 

both freely, not for any thing in them, their 
justification is only of free grace ; ^ that both 
the exact justice, and rich grace of God, might 
be fflorified in the justification of sinners/ 

iV. God did, from all eternity, decree to 
justify all the elect ;J and Christ did in the 
fulness of time, die for their sins, and rise again 
for their justification : ^ nevertheless they are 

for 118, who knew no sin ; that we might be made the 
righteousness of God In him. Matt. iii. 17. And, lo, a 
Toice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in 
whom I am well pleased. Eph. y. 2. And walk in love, 
as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for 
us, an offering and a sacrifice to God, for a sweet smelling 
savour. 

1^ Bom. ill. 24. Being justified freely by his grace, 
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. Eph. i. 
7. In whom we have redemption through his blood, tiie 
forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. 

i Rom. iii. 26. To declare, I say, at this time his 
righteousness; that he might be just, and the justifier 
of him which believeth in Jesiis. Eph. ii. 7. That in 
the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of 
his grace in his kindnesV. towards us through Christ 
Jesus. 

i Gal. iii. 8. And the Scripture foreseeing that God 
would justify the heathen through faith, preached before 
the gospel unto Abraham, saying. In thee shall all nations 
.be blessed. 1 Pet. i. 2, 19, 20. Elect according to the 
foreknowledge of God the Father, ' through sanctifica* 
lion of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the 
blood of Jesus Christ. — But with the precious blood of 
Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: 
who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the 
world, but was manifest in these last times for you. See 
Bom. viii. 80. 

k Gal. iv. 4. But jrhen the fulness of the time was 
come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made 
7 



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74 CONFESSION OF FAITH. [cHAP. Xt 

not justified, until the Holy Spirit doth, in due 
time, actually apply Christ unto them.^ 

V. God doth continue to forgive the sins of 
those that are justified : ™ and although they 
can never fall from the state of justification,* 
yet they may hy their sins fall under God's 
fatherly displeasure, and not have the light of 
his countenance restored unto them, until they 
humble themselves, confess their sins, beg par- 
don, and renew their faith and repentance.® 

under the law. 1 Tim. ii. 6. Who gaye himself a ran- 
som for ally to^ be testified in due time. Bom. iy. 25. 
Who was deliyered for our offences, and was raised again 
fu* our justification. 

1 Col. i. 21, 22. And you, that were sometime alienated, 
and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath 
he reconciled, in the body of his flesh through death, to 
present you holy, and unblamable, and unreproyable 
in his sight See also Gal. ii. 16, and Tit. iii. 4, 
6, 6, 7. 

» Matt. vi. 12. And forgive us our debts, as we for- 
give our debtors. 1 John i. 9. If we confess our sins, 
he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse 
us from all unrighteousness. 1 John ii. 1. If any man 
sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ 
the righteous. 

■ Luke xxii. 82. But I have prayed for tJiee, that thy 
faith fail 'not ; and when thou art converted, strengthen 
thy brethren. John x. 28. And I give unto them eter- 
nal life ; and they shall never perish, neither shall any 
pluck them out of my hand. — Heb. x. 14. For by one 
offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanc- 
tified. 

o Psa. Ixxxix. 31, 32, 83. If they break 'my statutes, 
and keep not my commandments ; then will I visit their 
transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes : 
nevertheless, my loving-kindness will I not utterly 
take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail, Psa* 

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iECT. I.] CONITBSSION OF FAITH. 75 

VI. The justification of believers under tke 
Old Testament was, in all these respects, one 
and the same with the justification of believers 
under the New Testament. ' 



CHAPTER XII. 

OP ADOPTION. 



All those that are justified, God vouch- 
safeth, in and for his only Son Jesus Christ, to 
make partakers of the grace of adoption:^ 

xzxii. 6. I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine 
iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my trano* 
gressions unto the Lord ; and thou forgarest the iniquity 
of my sin. Matt. xxvi. 76. And Peter remembered the 
word of Jesus — and he went out, and wept bitterly. See 
also Psa. li. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 1 Cor. xi. 80, 82. 

P Gal. iii. 9, 18, 14. So then they which be of faith 
are blessed with faithful Abraham. — Christ hath re- 
deemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse 
for us : for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth 
on 'a tree : that the blessing of Abraham might come on 
the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might re- 
ceire the promise of the Spirit through faith. Rom. iv. 
22, 23, 24. And therefore it was imputed to him for 
righteousness. Now, it was not written for his sake 
alone, that it was imputed to him ; but for us also, to 
whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that 
raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead. 

4 £ph. i. 6. Having predestinated us unto the adop- 
tion of chilA-en by Jesus Christ to himself, according to 
the good pleasure of his will. Gal. iv. 4, 6. Qod sent 
forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to 
redeem them that were under the law, that we might re* 
eeive the adoption of sons. 

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76 ' CONFESSION OF FAITn. tC^^AP. xn. 

b; which they are taken into the number, and 
enjoy the liberties and privileges of the child* 
rcn of Ood ; ' have his name put upon 
them;' receive the Spirit of adoption;^ 
have access to the throne of grace with bold- 
ness ; " are enabled to cry, Abba, Father ; ^ 
are pitied, ^ protected, * provided for ^ and 

' Rom. Tiii. 17. And if children, then heirs; heirs 
of God, and joint heirs with Christ. John i. 12. But 
as many as received him, to them gaye he power to be- 
come the sons of God, eyen to them that belieye on his 
name. • 

■ Jer. xiy. 9. 'Tet thon, Lord, art in the midst of 
us, and we are called by thy name ; leaye us not. Rev. 
Hi. 12. Him that overcometh, will I make a pillar in th« 
temple of my God, and he shall go no more out : and I 
will write upon him the name of my God, and the name 
of the city of my God, which is New Jerusalem, whioh 
oometh down out of heayen from my God ; and I will 
write upon him my new name. 

* Rom. yiii. 16. For ye have not received the spirit 
of bondage again to fear ; but ye have received the Spirit 
of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 

• £ph. iii. 12. In whom we have boldness and aooess 
with confidence by the faith of him. Rom. y. 2. 

^ Gal. iv. 6. And because ye are sons, God hath sent 
forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba^ 
Father. 

^ Psa. ciii. 18. Like as a father pitieth his ehildreiiy 
so the Lord pitieth them that fear him. 

X Prov. xiy. 26. In the fear of the Lord is strong 
confidence ; and his children shall have a place of re- 
fuge. 

7 Matt. yi. 80, 82. Wherefore, if God so clothe the 
grass of the field, whioh to-day is, and to-mdrrow is oast 
into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, ya 
of little faith?— For your heavenly Father knoweth that 
ye have need of all these things. 1 Pet. v. 7. Casting 
aU your care upon him ; for he oareth for you. 

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noT. I.] CONirBSSION OT FAITH. 77 

ehastened by him as by a father ; ' yet never 
cast off,* but sealed to the day of redemp- 
tion, ^ and inherit the promises, * as heirs of 
everlasting salvation. ^ 



CHAPTER XIII. 

or SANCTinCATION. 

They who are effectually called and regene- 
rated, having a new heart and a new .spirit 
created in them, are further sanctified, really 
and personally, through the virtue of Christ's 
death and resurrection, * by his word and Spirit 

s Heb. xii. 6. For -whom the Lord loveth. he chasten- 
eth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. 

a Lam. iii.'31. *For the Lord will not cast off for 
•▼er. 

»» Eph. iv. 80. Whereby ye are sealed unto the day of 
redemption. 

«Heb. Ti. 12. That ye be not slothful, but follow- 
ers of them who through faith and patience inherit the 
promises. 

d 1 Pet. i. 4. To an inheritance incorruptible, and un- 
defiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for 
you- Heb. i. 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, 
sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of sal- 
vation ? 

e 1 Cor. vi. 11. And such were some of you ; but ye 
are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified 
in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our 
God. Acts XX. 32. And now, brethren, I commend you 
to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to 
build you up, and to give you an inheritance among 
all them which are sanctified. Phil. iii. 10. That I 
may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and 
7* 



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78 CONFESSION OF FAITH. [CSAP. xm. 

dwelling in them ; ' the dominion of the whole 
body of sin is destroyed, ' and the several lusts 
thereof are more and more weakened and mor- 
tified, ^ and they more and more quickened 
and strengthened, in all saving graces, * to the 
practice of true holiness, without which no man 
shall see the Lord. J 



the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable 
unto his death. Rom. vi. 6, 6. For if ve have been 
planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be 
also in the likeness of his resurrection: knowing this, that 
our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin 
might be destroyed, that hencefprth we should not serve 
sin. 

'Eph. V. 26. That he might sanctify and cleanse it 
with the washing of water by the word. 2 Thess. ii. 13. 
But we are bound to gire thanks alway to God for you, 
brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the 
beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification 
of the Spirit, and belief of the truth. • 

gRom. vi. 6, 14. Knowing this, that our old man is 
crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, 
that henceforth we should not serve sin. — For sin shall 
not have dominion over you : for ye are not under the 
law, but under grace. 

'»Gal. V. 24. And they that are Christ's have cru- 
cified the flesh, with the affections and lusts. Rom. 
viii. 13. For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but 
if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, 
ye shall live. 

iCol. i. 11. Strengthened with all might according to 
his glorious power, unto all patience and long-suffering 
with joyfulness. Eph. iii. 16. That he would grant you» 
according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened 
with might by his Spirit in the inner man. 

i 2 Cor. vii. 1. Having therefore these promises, 
dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthi* 
ness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the 
ftjar of God. Heb. xii. 14. Follow peaoe with all 



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•SOT.m.] CONPESSXON OF FAITH. 79 

I 

IL This sanctification is throughout in the 
whole man, * yet imperfect in this life : there 
abideth still some remnants of corruption in 
every part/ whence ariseth a continual and 
" irreconcilable war, the flesh lusting against the 
Spirit, and the Spirit against t*he flesh. "* 

III. In which war, although the remaining 
corruption for a time may much prevail,' 
yet, through the continual supply of strength 
from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the re- 
generate part doth overcome : • and so the 

men, and holiness, without which no man shaU see the 
Lord. 

k 1 These, v. 23. And the very God of peace sanctify 
you wholly : and I, pray God your whole spirit, and soul, 
and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

1 1 John i. 10. If we say that we have not sinned, W6 
make him a liar, and his word is not in us. Phil. iii. 12. 
Not as though I had already attained, either were 
already perfect ; but I follow after, if that I may appre- 
hend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ 
Jesus. See also Bom. vii. 18, 28. 

■» Gal. T. 17. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, 
and the Spirit against the flesh : and these are contrary 
the one to the other ; so that ye cannot do the things 
that ye would. 

n Rom. Tii. 23. But I see another law in my mem- 
bers warring against the law of my mind, and bringing 
me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my mem- 
bers. 

o Rom. VI. 14. For sin shall not have dominion 
over you : for ye are not under the law, but under grace. 
1 John V. 4. For whatsoever is born of God, overcometh 
the world : and this is the victory that overcometh the 
world, even our faith. Eph. iv. 16. From whom t^t 
whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that 
which every joint suppUeth, aocordiug to the effectual 



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80 CONFESSION OV FAITH. [chap, xm 

saints grow in grace, ' perfecting holiness in 
the fear of God. « 



CHAPTER XIY. 

OP SATING FAITH. 

The grace of faith, whereby the elect are 
enabled to believe to the saving of their 
souls, ' is the work of the Spirit of Christ in 
their hearts ; ' and is ordinarily wrought by 
the ministry of the word:* by which also, 
and by the administration of the sacraments, 

working in the measure of every part, maketh increase 
of tlie body, unto the edifying of itself in love. 

P 2 Pet. iii. 18. But grow in grace, and in the 
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 2 Cor. 
iii. 18. But we all, with open face beholding as in a 
glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same 
image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the 
Lord. 

q 2 Cor. vii. 1. Having therefore these promises, 
dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness 
of the flesh and spirit^ perfecting holiness in the fear of 
God. 

' Heb. X. 89. But we are not of them who draw back 
unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving 
of the soul. 

• 2 Cor. iv. 18. We having the same spirit of faith, 
according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have 
I spoken; we also believe, and therefore speak. £ph. 
li. 8. For by grace are ye saved through faith ; and that 
not of yourselves : it is the gift of God. 

* Rom. X. 14, 17. How shall they believe in him 
oi whom they have not heard ? and how shall they hear 



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gSOT. n.] CONFESSION Ol* FAITH 81 

and prayer, it is increased and strength- 
ened. * 

II. By this faith, a Christian believeth to 
be true, whatsoever is revealed in the word> 
for the authority of God himself speaking 
therein;^ and acteth diiferently, upon that 
which each particular passage thereof con- 
taineth ; yielding obedience to the commands, ^ 
trembling at the threatenings, ' and embrac- 
ing the promises of God for this life, and that 

without 8 preacher ? — So, then, faith cometh by hearing, 
and hearing by the word of Ood. 

• 1 Pet. ii. 2. As new-bom babes, denre the sincert 
ttilk of the word, that ye may grow thereby. Luke 
XTii. 5. And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase 
our faith. Rom. i. 16, 17. For I am not ashamed of the 
gospel of Christ : for it is the power of God unto salva* 
tion to eyery one that believeth : to the Jew first, and 
also to the Greek. For therein is the righteousness of 
God revealed from faith to faith : as it is written, The 
just shall live by faith. See also Acts xz. 82. 

▼ 1 Thess. ii. 18. For this cause also thank we God*'' 
without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of 
God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word 
of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which 
effectually worketh also in you that believe. 1 John y. 
10. He that believeth on the Son of God, hath the wit- 
ness in himself: he that believeth not God, hath made 
him a liar, because he believeth not the record that God 
gave of his Son. Acts xxiv. 14. Believing all things 
which are written in the law and in the prophets. 

^'Rom. xvi. 26. But now is made manifest, and by 
the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the command* 
ment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations 
for the obedience of faith. 

X Isa. Izvi. 2. To this man will I look, even to him 
that IB poor, and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my 
word* 

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82 OONFXBSION OF FAITH. [chap. xrr. 

ivhich 18 to come.^ But the principal acts 
of saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and 
resting upon Christ alone for justification, 
Banctification, and eternal life, bj virtue of 
the covenant of grace. ■ 

III. This faith is different in degrees, weak 
or strong;' may be often and many ways 

7 Heb. xi. 13. These all died in faith, not having re* 
•elTed the promiees, but having seen them afar off, and 
were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and con- 
fessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the 
earth. 1 Tim. iv. 8. But godliness is profitable unto aU 
things, having promise of the life that now is, and of 
that which is to come. 

B John i. 12. But as many as received him, to them gave 
he power to become the sons of God, even to them that 
believe on his name. Acts xvi. 81. And they said, Be- 
lieve on the Lord Jesus Christy and thou shalt be sared, 
and thy house. Gal. ii. 20. I am crucified with Christ; 
nevertheless, I live ; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me : 
and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the 
faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself 
for me. Acts xv. 11. But we believe that through the 
grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, we shaU be saved, even 
as they. 

ft Heb. V. 18, 14. For every one that useth milk is 
unskilful in the word of righteousness ; for he is a babe. 
But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full a^e, 
even those who by reason of use have their senses exeiv 
oised to discern both good and evil. Rom. iv. 19, 20. 
And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own 
body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, 
neiUier yet the deadness of Sarah's womb. He staggered 
not at the promise of God thf ough unbelief ; but was 
strong in faith, giving glory to God. Matt. vi. 30. Shall 
he not much more clothe you, ye of little faith ? Matt, 
viii. 10. When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said 
to them that followed. Verily I say unto you, I have not 
found so great faith, no, not in IsroeL 

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nCT.!.] OONFjyBSION OF FAITH. 8S 

assailed and weakened, but gets the victory ; * 
growing up in many to the attainment of a full 
assurance through Christ, * who is both the 
author and finisher of our faith. ^ 



CHAPTER XY. 

OF RKPENTANCB UNTO UFB, 

Repentance unto life is an evangelical 
grace, * the doctrine whereof is to be preached 

^Luke xzii. 31, 82. And the Lord said, Simon, Si- 
mon, behold, Satan hath desired to ha^e you, that he may 
Bift you as wheat : but I have prayed for thee, that thy 
faith fail not: and when thou- art converted, strengthen 
thy brethren. Eph. vi. 16. Above aU, taking the shield 
of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the 
fiery darts of the wicked. 1 John v. 4, 6. For whatso- 
eyer is bom of God, overcometh the world : and this if 
the Tiotory that overcometh the world, even our faith* 
Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that be- 
lieveth that Jesus is the Son of God ? 

c Heb. vL 11, 12. And we desire that every one of 
yon do show the same diligence, to the full assurance of 
hope unto the end : that ye be not slothful, but follow* 
era of them who through faith and patience inherit the 
promises. Heb. x. 22. Let us draw near with a true 
heart, in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprin- 
kled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with 
pure water. 

< Heb. xii. 2. Looking unto Jesus, the author and fin- 
isher of our faith. 

•Acts xi. 18. When they heard these things, they 
held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath 
God slso to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life. 
See also Zech. xii. 10. 

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84 OONFISSION OV VAITH.^ [cbap. XT 

bj every minister of the gospel, sb well as thai' 
of faith in Christ. ' 

II. By it a sinner, oat of the sight and sense, 
not only of the danger, but also of the filthiness 
and odiousness of his. sins, as contrary to the 
holy nature and righteous law of God^ a^nd 
upon the apprehension of his mercy in Christ 
to such as are penitent, so grieves for, and 
bates his sins, as to turn from them all unto 
God, * purposing and endeavouring to walk 

{ Luke xxiv. 47. And that repentance and remissioa 
of sins should be preached in his name among all na- 
tions, beginning at Jerusalem. Mark i. l5. And saj- 
ing, The time is fulfiUed, and the kingdom of God is at 
hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel. Acts xx. 21. 
Testifying both to the Jews, and also to the Greeks, re* 
pentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

g Ezek. xviii. 80, 81. Repent, and turn yourselres 
from all your transgressions; so iniquity shall not be 
your ruin. Cast away from you all your transgres- 
sions, whereby ye have transgressed; and make you a 
new heart and a new spirit: for why will ye die, O 
house of Israel? Ezek. xxxvi. 81. Then shall ye re- 
member your own evil ways, and your doings that were 
not good, and shall loathe yourselves in your own sight, 
for your iniquities, and for your abominations. Psa. li. 4. 
Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done this evil 
in thy sight ; that thou mightest be justified when thou 
Speakest, and be clear when thou judgest. Jer. xxxi. 
18, 19. I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning him- 
self thus : Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, 
as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke : turn thou me, and 
I shall be turned ; for thou art the Lord my God. Surely 
after that I was turned, I repented ; and after that I was 
instructed, I smote upon my thigh : I was ashamed, yea, 
even confounded, because I did bear the reproach of m^ 
youth. 2 Cor. vii. 11. For behold this self'Same 

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Wcr.m.] CONPESSION Ol- FA/TH. IBS 

with hitn, in all the ways of his command- 
ments.^ 

III. Although repentance be not to be rested 
in as any satisfaction for sin, or any cause of 
the pardon thereof,' which is the act of God's 
free grace in Christ ; J yet is it of such neces- 

tiiing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what careful- 
ness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselyes, 
yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what Yehe- 
nient desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge ! In all 
things ye hare approred yourselves to be clear in this 
matter. See also Joel ii. 12, 13. Amos y. 15, and Psa. 
cxix. 128. 

h Psa. cxix. 6, 69, 106. Then shall I not be ashamed, 
when I have respect unto all thy commandments. — I 
thought on my ways and turned my feet unto thy testi- 
monies. — I have sworn and I will perform it^ that I will 
keep thy righteous judgments. Luke i. 6. And they were 
both righteous before God, walking in all the command- 
ments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. See also 
2 Kings xxiii. 25. 

» Ezek. xxxvi. 31 82. Then shall ye remember your 
own evil ways, and your doings that were not good, 
and shall loathe yourselves in your own sight, for your 
iniquities, and for your abominations. Not for your 
Bakes do I this, saith the Lord God, be it known unto 
yon : be ashamed and confounded for your own ways, 
house of Israel. Ezek. xvi. 63. That thou mayest re- 
member, and be confounded, and never open thy mouth 
any more because of thy shame, when I am pacified to- 
ward thee for all that thou hast done, saith the Lord 
God. 

i Hos. xiv. 2, 4. Take with you words, and turn to 
the Lord: say unto him. Take away all iniquity, and re- 
ceive us graciously : so wiH we render the calves of our 
lips. — I will heal their backsliding, I will loye them freely: 
for mine anger is turned away from him. Rom. iii. 24. 
Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption 
that is in Christ Jesus. £ph. i. 7. 
8 

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86 OONPESSTON OP PATTH. [OEAP. XT. 

Bity to all sinners, that none may expect par* 
don without it.*^ 

lY. As there is no sin so small but it de- 
serves damnation ; ^ so there is no sin so great, 
that it can bring damnation upon those who 
truly repent." 

V. Men ought not to content themselves 
with a general repentance, but it is every 
man's duty to endeavour to repent of his par- 
ticular sins, particularly.* 

k Luke ziii. 8, 6. I teU yon nay; bat, except ye 
repent, ye shaU all likewise perish. See also Acts 
xvli. 80. 

1 Bom. vi. 28. For the wages of sin is death. Matt, 
xii. 86. But I say unto you, that every idle word that 
men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the 
day of judgment. 

■» Isa. Iv. 7. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the 
unrighteous man his thoughts : and let him return unto 
the Lord, and he will have mercy upon him ; and to our 
God, for he will abundantly pardon. Bom. yiii. 1. There 
is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in 
Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the 
Spirit Isa. i. 18. Come now, and let us reason together, 
saith the Lord : though your sins be as scarlet, they shall 
be as white as snow ; though they be red like crimson, 
they shall be as wool. 

■ Psa. xix. 13. Keep bnck thy servant also from 
presumptuous sins ; let them not have dominion over me : 
then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the 
great transgression. Luke xix. 8. And Zaccheus stood, 
and said unto the Lord, Behold, Lord, the half of 
my good^ I give to the poor ; and if I have taken any 
thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him 
fourfold. 1 Tim. i. 18. 15. Who was before a blasphe* 
mer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained 
mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. — This 
is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that 

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.fv»T. Ti.] oaifjES£aoK oj* jaith. 87 

VI. As every man is bound to make private 
confession of his sins to God, praying for the 
pardon thereof, * upon which, and the forsak- 
ing of them, he shall find mercy : ^ so he that 
jcandalizeth his brother, or the church of Christ, 
ought to be willing, by a private or public con- 
fession and sorrow for his sin, to declare his 
repentance to those that are offended ; *> who 
are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in 
love to receive him.' 

Christ Jesus came into the world to save smners; of 
irhom I am chief. 

• Psa. xxxii. 6, 6. I acknowledged m^^ sin unto thee, 
and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will con- 
fess my transgressions unto the Lord ; and thou for> 
gayest the iniquity of my sin. Selah. For this shall 
eyery one that is godly, pray unto thee in a time when 
thou mayest be found : surely in the floods of great wa- 
ters they shall not come nigh unto him. See also Psa. 
U. 4, 6, 7, 9, 14. 

P Proy. xxyiii. 18. He that ooyereth his sins shall not 
prosper : but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall 
haye mercy. 1 John i. 9. If we confess our sins, he is 
faithful and just to forgiye us our sins. 

9 James y. 16. Confess your faults one to another, and 
pray one for another, that ye may be healed. The ef- 
fectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much. 
Luke xvii. 3, 4. Take heed to yourselves : if thy bro- 
ther trespass against thee, rebuke him ; and if he repent, 
forgiye him. And if he trespass against thee seven times 
in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, 
saying, I repent ; thou shalt forgive him. Josh. vii. 19. 
And Joshua said unto Achan, My son, give, I pray thee, 
glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession unto 
him ; and tell me now what thou hast done ; hide it not 
from me. Psa. li. throughout. 

' 2 Cor. ii. 8. Wherefore I beseech you, that ye would 
eanfii-m your loye toward him. See Gal. yi. 1, 2. 



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88 OONFXSSIOM OV JAIXH. [oaAP. zvi. 

CHAPTER XYI. 

OF GOOD WORKS. 

Good works are only such as God hath com- 
manded in his holy word, ■ and not such as, 
without the warrant thereof, are devised by 
men out of blind zeal, or upon any pretence of 
good intention. * 

II. These good works, done in obedience to 
God's commandments, are the fruits and evi- 
dences of a true and lively faith : * and by 
them believers manifest their thankfulness,^ 

• Micah vi. 8. He hath showed thee, man, what is ' 
good ; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do 
justly, and to loye mercy, and to walk humbly with thy 
God ? Bom. xii. 2. And be not conformed to this world ; 
but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, 
that ye may proye what is that good, and acceptable, and 
perfect will of God. Heb. xiii. 21. Make you perfect in 
eyery good work to do his will. 

tMatt. xy. 9. But in yain they do worship me, 
teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. Isa. 
xxiz. 13. Wherefore the Lord said. Forasmuch as this 
people draw near me with their mouth, and with their 
lips do honour me, but haye remoyed their heart far from 
me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precepts 
of men. John xyi. 2. They shall put you out of the 
synagogues : yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth 
you, will think that he doeth God service. See 1 Sam. 
TV, 21, 22, 23. 

a James ii. 18, 22. Yea, a man may sny. Thou hast 
faith, and I have works : show me thy faith without thy 
works, and I will show thee my faith by my works. 
— Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and by 
works was faith made perfect ? 

fPsa. cxvi. 12, 18. What shall I render unto ih% 

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n.] eovnssxoix oi faith. 89 

•Btrengthen their assurance,^ edify their breth- 
ren, * adorn the profession of the gospel,^ 
stop the mouths of the adversaries, ' and glo- 
rify Ood, • whose workmanship they are, ore- 
Lord for all hie benefits toward me? I will take the onp 
of salyation, and call upon the name of the Lord. 1 Pet. 
U. 9. But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priest- 
hood, an holy nation, a peculiar people ; that ye should 
Bhow forth the praises of him who hath called you out 
of darkness into bis marvellous light. 

w 1 John ii. 8, 5. And hereby we do know that we 
know him, if we keep his commandments. — But whoso 
keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God per- 
fected : hereby know we that we are in him. 2 Pet. i. 
6, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. - 

X 2 Cor. ix. 2 . For I know the forwardness of your 
mind, for which I boast of you to them of Macedonia, 
that Achaia was ready a year ago ; and your zeal hath 
provoked very many. Matt. v. 16. Let your light so 
shine before men, that they may see your good works, 
and glorify your Father which is in heaven. 

J ^it. ii. 6. To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, 
good', obedient to their own husbands, that the word of 
God be not blasphemed. 1 Tim. vi. 1. Let as many 
servants as are under the yoke count their own masters 
worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his 
doctrine be not blasphemed. See also Tit. ii. 9, 10, 
11, 12. 

« 1 Pet. ii. 15. For so is the will of God, that with 
well-doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish 
men. 

» 1 Pet. ii. 12. Having your conversation honest 
among the Gentiles ; that, whereas they speak against 
you as evil doers, they may, by your good works which 
they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation. 
Phil. i. 11. Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, 
which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of 
God. John xv. 8. Herein is my Father glorified, that 
ye bear much fruit 
8* 

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90 CONFESSION or VATta. [CHAP.Xtt. 

ated in Christ Jesus thereunto, * that, having 
their fruit unto holiness, they may have the 
end," eternal life. * 

III. Their ability to do good works is not 
at all of themselves, but wholly from the Spirit 
of Christ. * And that they may be enabled 
thereunto, besides the graces they have already 
received, there is required an actual influence 
of the same Holy Spirit to work in them to 
will and to do of his good pleasure ; • yet are 
they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they 
were not bound to perform any duty unless 
upon a special motion of the Spirit; but they 
ought to be diligent in stirring up the grace 
of God that is in them. ' 

b Eph. ii. 10. For we are his workmanship, created 
in Christ Jesus nnto good works, which God hath before 
ordained that we should walk in them. 

e Rom. vi. 22. Bat now, being made free from sin, 
and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto 
holiness, and the end everlasting life. 

* John XV. 6, 6. I am the vine, ye are the branches ; 
he that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth 
forth much fruit : for without me ye can do nothing. If 
a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and 
is withered ; and men gather them, and cast them into 
the fire. See Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27,. 

• Phil. ii. 13. For it is God which worketh in you 
both to will and to do of his good pleasure. Phil. iv. 13. 
I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth 
me. 2 Cor. iii. 6. Not that we are saifficient of our- 
selves to think any thing as of ourselves ; but our suffi- 
ciency is of God. 

t Phil. ii. 12. Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have 
always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now 
much more in my absence, work out your own salvation 
With fear and trembling. Heb. vi.ll. 12. And we de^. 

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aCT;Y.] CONFESSION or TAITH. 91 

rV, They, who in their obedience, attain to 
the greatest height which is possible in this 
life, are so far from being able to supererogate 
and to do mote than God requires, that they 
fall short of much, which in duty they are 
bound to do.* 

V. We cannot, by our best works, merit 
pardon of sin, or eternal life, at the hand of 
God, by reason of the great disproportion that 
is between them and the glory to come, and 
the infinite distance that is between us and 
God, whom by them we can neither profit, 
nor satisfy for the debt of our former sins ; ^ 

sire that eyery one of you do show the same diligence, to 
the fuU assurance of hope unto the end ; that ye be not 
eloihful, but followers of them who through faith and 
patience inherit the promises. Isa. Ixiv. 7. And there 
18 none that calleth upon thy name, that stirreth up him- 
self to take hold of thee : for thou hast hid thy face from 
us, and hast consumed us, because of our iniquities. See 
also 2 Pet. i. 8, 5, 10, 11, and 2 Tim. i. 6, and Acts xxvi. 
6, 7, together with Jude 20 and 21 verses. 

g Luke^xTii. 10. So likewise ye, when ye shall have 
done all those things which are commanded you, say. We 
are unprofitable servants : we have done that which was 
our duty to do. Job ix. 2, 8. But how should man be 
just with God ? If he will contend with him, he cannot 
answer him one of a thousand. Gal. v. 17. For the 
flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the 
flesh ; and these are contrary the one to the other ; so 
that ye cannot do the things that ye would. 

^ Rom. iii. 20. Therefore by the deeds of the law, there 
shaU no flesh be justified in his sight : for by the law is 
the knowledge of sin. Bom. iv. 2, 4, 6. For if Abraham 
were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory, but not 
b^ore God. — ^Now to him that worketh, is the reward not 



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92 COKFESSION or FAITH, [chap. XT» 

bat when we have done all we can, we have 
done but our duty, and are unprofitable ser* 
vants ; * and because, as they are good, they 
proceed from his Spirit ;J and* as they are 
wrought by us, they are defiled and mixed 
with so much weakness and imperfection, that 
they cannot endure the severity of God's 
judgment.^ 

VL Yet notwithstanding, the persons of be- 
lievers being accepted through Christ, their 
good works also are accepted in him,^ not 

reckoned of grace, but of debt. Even 9fi David also 
describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God 
imputeth righteousness without works. Eph. ii. 8, 9. For 
.by grace are ye 8aT«d through faith ; and that not of your- 
selves : it is thd gift of God : not of works, lest any man 
should boast. Psa. xyi. 2. my soul, thou hast sud 
unto the Lord, Thou art my Lord : my goodness eztendeth 
not to thee. See also Tit. iii. 5, 6, 7. Rom. viik 18, 22, 
23, and Job xxxv. 7, 8. 

i Luke XYii. 10. See letter (e), p. 91. 

J Gal. T. 22, 23. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, 
joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 
.meekness, temperance. 

^ Isa. Ixiv. 6. But we are all as an unclean thing, and all 
our righteousnesses are as filthy rags ; and we all do fad« 
as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, haye taken us 
away. Psa. cxliii. 2. And enter not into judgment with 
thy servant ; for in thy sight shall no man liying be justi- 
fied. Psa. cxxx. 3. If thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniqui- 
ties, Lord, who shall stand? See also Gal. y. 17, and 
Kora. yii. 16, 18. 

» Eph. i. 6. To the praise of the glory of his grace, 
wherein he hath made us accepted in the Belored. 
1 Pet. ii. 5. Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a 
spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual 
sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. Gen. !▼. 
4. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of hia 

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nor. Tn.] 0ONTE88ION Of FAITH. OS 

as though they were in this life wholly un- 
blamable and unreprovable in God*8 sight;" 
but that he, looking upon them in his Son, is 
pleased to accept and reward that which is 
sincere, although accompanied with many 
weaknesses and imperfections. '^ 

Vn. Works done by unregenerate men, al- 
though for the matter of them they may be 
things which God commands, and of good use 
both to themselves and others ; ® yet because 

flock, and of the fat thereof. And the Lord had respeot 
onto Abel, and to his offering. With Heb. xi. 4. 

» Job ix. 20. If I justify myself, mine own month 
•hall condemn me: if I say, I am perfeot, it shall also 
proTe me perverse. Psa. oxliii. 2. 

> 2 Cor. Tiii. 12. For if there be first a willing mind, 
it is accepted aeoordiog to that a man hath, and not ao- 
oording to that he hath not. Heb. tI. 10. For God is 
not unrighteous, to forget your work and labour of love, 
which ye haye showed toward his name, in that ye have 
ministered to the saints, and do minister. Matt xxt. 
21, 28. His lord said unto him. Well done, thou good 
and faithful servant ; thou hast been faithful over a few 
things, I will make thee ruler over many things : enter 
thou into the joy of thy lord. 

o 2 Kings z. 80, 81. And the Lord said unto John, 
Because thou hast done well in executing that which is 
right in mine eyes, and hast done unto the house of Ahab 
according to ail that was in mine heart, thy children of 
the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel. 
But Jehu took no heed to walk in the law of the Lord 
Ood of Israel with all his heart ; for he departed not from 
the sins of Jeroboam, which made Israel to sin. Phil. i. 
16, 16, 18. Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and 
strife, and some also of good will : the one preach Christ 
of contention, not sincerely, supposing to add affliction 
to my bonds. — What then ? notwithstanding, every way, 
whether in pretence, or in truth, Christ is preached ; and 
I therein do rejoice. 

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94 0OKTJB98ION Of WAXTR. [chap. Xfl. 

they proceed not from a heart purified by 
faith ; ^ nor are done in a right manner, ac- 
cording to the word;^ nor to a right end, 
the glory of God ; ' they are therefore sinful, 
and cannot please God, or make a man meet 
to receive grace from God. • And yet their 

P Heb. xi. 4, 6. By faith Abel offered unto God a 
more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which* he obtained 
witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his 
gifts ; and by it, he being dead, yet speaketh. — ^But with* 
oat faith it is impossible to please him : for he that 
«ometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a 
rewarder of them that diligently seek him. See Gen. It. 
«, 4, 5. 

4 1 Cor. ziii. 3. And though I bestow all my goods to 
feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, 
And have not oharity, it profiteth me nothing. Isa. i. 12. 
-When ye come to appear before me, who hath required 
this at your hand, to tread my conrts ? 

' Matt. vl. 2, 6, 16. Therefore, when thou doest thine 
alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypo- 
xnites do in the synagogues, and in the streets, that they 
may have glory of men. . Verily I say unto you. They 
have their reward. — And when thou pray est, thou shalt 
not be as the hypocrites are : for they love to pray stand- 
ing in the synagogues, and in the comers of the streets, 
that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, 
They have their reward. — Moreover, when ye fast, be not 
as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance ; for they dis* 
figure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. 
Verily I say unto you. They have their reward. 

■ Hag. ii. 14. So is this people, and so is this na- 
tion before me, saith the Lord ; and so is every work of 
their hands ; and that which they offer there is unclean. 
Tit. L 16. Unto them that are defiled and unbelieving 
is nothing pure ; but even their mind and conscience is 
defiled. Amos v. 21, 22. I hate, I despise your feast- 
days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies. 
Though ye offer me burnt-offerings, and your meat- 
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BiCT.n.] CONPESSIOir OP FAITH. 96 

neglect of tliem is more sinful, and displeasing 
unto God. * 



CHAPTER XYII. 

OF THE FSRSEYERANCE OF THE SAINTS. 

They whom God hath accepted in his Be- 
loved, effectually called and sanctified by his 
Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away 
from the state of grace; but shall certainly 
persevere therein to the end, and be eternally 
saved. "^ 

n. This perseverance of the saints depends, 
not upon their own free-will, but upon the im- 
mutability of the decree of election, flowing 

offerings, I wiU not accept them ; neither wiU I regard 
the^peace- offerings of your fat beasts. See also Hos. i. 4 ; 
Bom. ix. 16, and Tit. iii. 6. 

^ Psa. xiv. 4. Have all the workers of iniquity no know- 
ledge ? who eat up my people as they eat bread, and call 
not upon the Lord. Psa. xxxvi. 3. The words of his 
month are iniquity and deceit : he hath left off to be wise, 
and to do good. Job xxi. 14. Therefore they say unto 
(}od. Depart from us ; for we desire not the knowledge of 
thy ways. See also Matt. xxv. 41, 42, 43, 45, and Matt, 
zxiii. 23. 

» Phil. i. 6. Being confident of this yery thing, that he 
which hath begun a good work in you, will perform it 
until the day of Jesus Christ. John z. 28, 29. And I 
g^ye unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, 
neither shall any pluck them out of my hand. My Father 
which gaye them me, is greater than all : and none is able 
to pluck them out of my Father's hand. See also 1 John 
iu. ^i 1 Pet L 5, 9, and Job xvii. 9. 

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96 coNvsasiON ow faith, [chap. zm. 

from the free and unchangeable love of God 
the Father ; ^ upon the efficacy of the merit 
and intercession of Jesus Christ ; ^ the abiding 
of the Spirit and of the seed of God within 
them;' and the nature of the covenant of 

▼ 2 Tim. ii. 19. NeTertheless the foundation of God 
standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them 
that are his. Jer. xxxi. 3. The Lord hath appeared of 
old unto me, saying, Yea, I have loyed thee with an eyer- 
lasting loYe ; therefore with loying-kindness have I drawn 
thee. 

^ Heb. X. 10, 14. By the which will we are sanctified, 
through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for 
»11. — ^For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them 
that are sanctified. John zvii. 11, 24. And now I am no 
more in the world, but these are in the world, and I come 
to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name 
those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, 
as we are. — Father, I will that they also whom thou hast 
given me be with me where I am : that they may behold 
my glory, which thou hast given me ; for thou lovedst me 
before the foundation of the world. Heb. vii. 26. Where- 
fore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that 
come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make in- 
tercession for them. Heb. ix. 12, 13, 14, 16. Rom. yiil, 
88, to the end. Luke xxii. 32. 

'John xiv. 16, 17. And I will pray the Father, and he 
shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with 
you for ever ; even the Spirit of truth ; whom the world 
cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth 
him ; but ye know hira ; for he dwelleth with you, and 
shall be in you. 1 John ii. 27. But the anointing which 
ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not 
that any man teach you : but as the same anointing teach- 
eth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even 
as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. 1 John 
iii. 9. Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin ; 
for his seed remaineth in him ; and he cannot sin, because 
he is bom of God. 



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'. m.] oomnesBON or vaith. 97 

grace :^ from all which ariseth also the cer* 
tainty and infallibilit j thereof. ' 

III. Nevertheless they may, through the 
temptations of Satan and of the world, the 
prevalency of corruption remaining in them, 
and the neglect of the means of their preser- 
vation, fall into grievous sins;* and for a 
time continue therein : ^ whereby they in- 
cur God's displeasure, * and grieve his Holy 

y Jer. xxxii. 40, And I will make an everlasting 
ooYenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, 
to do them good ; but I will put my fear in their hearts, 
that they shall not depart from me. With Heb. yiii. 10, 
11, 12. 

« 2 These, ill. 3. But the Lord is faithful, who shall 
Btablish you, and keep you from evil. 1 John ii. 19. 
They went out from us, but they were not of us ; for if 
they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued 
with us : but they went out, that they might be mnde 
manifest, that they were not all of us. John x. 28. 
They shall never perish. 1 Thess. v. 23, 24. 

• Matt. xxvi. 70, 72, 74. But he denied before them 
all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. — And again 
he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. — Then 
began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the 
man. 

b 2 Sam. xii. 9, 13. Wherefore hast thou despised 
the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight ? 
Thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and 
hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him 
with the sword of the children of Ammon. — And David 
said unto Nathan, I have sinned against the Lord. And 
Nathan said unto David, The Lord also hath put away 
thy sin ; thou shalt not die. ' 

c Isa. Ixiv. 7, 9. For thou hast hid thy face from us, 
and hast consumed us, because of our iniquities. — Be 
not wroth very sore, Lord, neither remember iniquity 
for ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, we are all thy 
people. 2 Sam. xi. 27. And when the mourning was 
9 

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Spirit ; ^ come to be deprived of some mea* 
sure of their graces and comforts;* have 
their hearts hardened, ' and their consciences 
wounded ; < hurt and scandalize others, ^ 
and bring temporal judgments upon them- 
selves. * 

past, DaTid setit and fetched her to his house, and she 
became his wife, and bare him a son. But the thin^ 
that Dayid had done displeased the Lord. 

* Eph. iv. 80. And grieve not the Holy Spirit of 
God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemp- 
tion. 

* Psa. li. 8, 10, 12. Make me to hear joy and glad- 
ness: that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice. 
— Create in me a clean heart, God ; and renew a right 
spirit within me. — Restore unto me the joy of thy salva- 
tion ; and uphold me with thy free spirit. Eev. ii. 4. 
I^eyertheless, I have somewhat against thee, because ihoa 
hast left thy first love. 

' Mark vi. 62. For they considered not the miraole 
of the loaves : for their heart was hardened. Mark xvi. 
14. Afterward he appeared unto the eleven, as they sat 
at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and 
hardness of heart, because they believed not them which 
had seen him, after he was risen. Psa. xcv. 8. 

s Psa. xxzii. 8, 4. When I kept silence, my bones 
waxed old, through my roaring all the day long : for day 
And night thy hand was heavy upon me : my moisture is 
turned into the drought of summer. Psa. li. 8. Make 
me to hear joy and gladness ; that the bones which thov 
hast broken may rejoice. 

1^ 2 Sam. xli. 14. Howbeit, because by this deed thou 
hast given great occasion to the enemies of the Lord 
to blaspheme, the child also that is bom unto thee, shall 
surely die. 

* Psa. Ixxxix. 81, 32. If they break my statutes, 
and keep not my commandments ; then will I visit their 
transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes. 
1 Cor. zi. 82. But when we are judged we are chastened 

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IM&I.] OMTOBSION Ot tAITH. M 

CHAPTER XYIII. 

OV THE ASSURANCE OP GRACE AND SALTATIOlf. 

Although hypocrites, and other unregene- 
rate men, may vainly deceive themselves with 
false hopes and carnal presumptions of being 
in the favour of God and estate of salvation;^ 
which hope of theirs shall perish : ^ yet such 
as truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love 
him in sincerity, endeavouring to walk in all 
good conscience before him, may in this life be 
certainly assured that they are in a state of 
gracOy^ and may rejoice in the hope of the 

pf the Lord, that we Bhould not be oondemned with the 
world. 

i Job Tiii. 14. WhoBe hope shall be ont ojf, and 
whose trust shaU be a spider's web. Deut xxiz. 19. I 
shall haye peace though I walk in the imagination of mj 
heart, to add drunkenness to thirst. John viii. 41. Ye do 
the deeds of your Father. Then said they to him, 
We be not bom of fornication ; we have one Father, oTen 
God. 

k Matt. Tii. 22, 23. Many will say to me in that day, 
Lord, Lord, hare we not prophesied in thy name ? and in 
thy name have oast out devils ? and in thy name done many 
wonderful works ? And then will I profess unto them, I 
never knew you ; depart from me, ye that work iniquity. 
Job Yiii. 13. 

1 1 John ii. 3. And hereby we do know that we know 
him, if we keep his commandments. 1 John t. 18. These 
things hare I written uuto you that believe on the name 
of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have ecemal 
life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of 
God. 1 JohniiL 14, 18, 19, 21, 24. 

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IQO qpNivsBiair qv vazis^ [oB^pwxnm 

glory of God : wfaich hope shall never make 
them ashamed."* 

II. This certainty is not a bare conjectaral 
and probable persuasion, grounded upon a fal- 
lible hope ; * but an infallible assurance of 
faith, founded upon the divine truth of the 
promises of salvation,** the inward evidence 
of those graces unto which these promises are 
made,P the testimony of the Spirit of adop* 

» Rom. Y. 2, 5. By whom also we haye aocees by faiUt 
into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in the hope 
of the glory of God. — And hope maketh not ashamed ; 
because the love of Ood is shed abroad in our hearts by 
the Holy Ghost which is given unto us. 

" Heb. vi. 11, 19. And we desire that every one of you 
do show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope 
unto the end. — Which hope we have as an anchor of the 
soul, both sure and steadfast, and which entereth inte 
that within the veil. 

• Heb. vi. 17, 18. Wherein God, willing more abun« 
dantly to show unto the heirs of promise the immutability 
of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath : that by two im« 
mutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, 
we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for 
refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us. 

P 2 Pet. i. 4, 6, 10, 11. Whereby are given unto us 
exceeding great and precious promises ; that by these ye 
might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped 
the corruption thai is in the world through lust. And 
besides this, giving all diligence, add to your faith, virtue; 
and to virtue, knowledge. — Wherefore the rather, brethren, 
give diligence to make your calling and election sure ; for 
if ye do these things, ye shall never fall. For so an en- 
trance shall be ministered unto you abundantly, into the 
everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 

1 John iii. 14. We know that we have passed from death 
unto life, because we love the brethren. 1 John ii. 8, and 

2 Cor. i. 12. 



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MOhiA] oovrmsiov ov faith. 101 

tion witnessing with our spirits that we are the 
children of God: ^ which Spirit is the earnest 
of oar inheritance, wherebj we are sealed to 
the day of redemption. ' 

III. This infallible assurance doth not so be- 
long to the essence of faith, but that a true 
believer may wait long, and conflict with many 
difficulties before he be partaker of it : • yet, 
being enabled by the Spirit to know the things 
which are freely given him of God, he may, 
without extraordinary revelation, in the rignt 
use of ordinary means, attain thereunto. * And 

q Rom. viii. 16, 16. For ye have not receiyed the 
spirit of bondage again to fear ; but ye haye received the 
Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. The 
Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are 
the children of God. 

r Eph. 1. 13, 14. In whom ye also trusted, after 
that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salva- 
tion : in whom also, after that ye believed, ye were 
sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, which is the 
earnest of our inheritance, until the redemption of the 
purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory. 2 Cor. 
1. 21, 22. Now he which establisheth us with you in 
Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; who hath also 
sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our 
hearts. 

■ Isa. 1. 10. Who is among you that feareth the Lord, 
that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that walketh in 
darkness, and hath no light ? Let him trust in the name 
of the Lord, and stay upon his God. 1 John v. 13. 
These things have I written unto you that believe on the 
name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have 
eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the 
Son of God. See Psa. Ixxxviii. throughout, and Ixxvii 
to the 12th verse. 

t 1 Cor. ii. 12. Now we have received not the spirit 
of the world, but the Spirit which is of God; that we 
9* 

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102 ooHtssaioN 01" rAxrff. [ohap. zva 

therefore it is the duty of every on« to give all 
diligence to make his calling and election 
sure ; * that thereby his heart may be enlarged 
in peace and joy in the Holy Grhost, in love 
and thankfulness to God, and in strength and 
cheerfulness in the duties of obedience, the 
proper fruits of this assurance : ^ so far is it 
from inclining men to looseness. ^ 

might know the things that are freely given to as of Qod. 
1 John iv. 18. Hereby know we that we dwell in him, 
and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit. 
Heb. vi. 11, 12. And we desire that everyone of you do 
show the same diligence, to the full assurance of hope 
unto the end. That ye be not slothful, but followers of 
them who through faith and patience inherit the promises. 
Eph. iii. 17, 18, 19. 

■ 2 Pet. i. 10. Wherefore the rather, brethren, ^t6 
diligence to make your calling and election sure ; for if 
ye do these things, ye shall never fall. 

▼ Bom. V. 1, 2, 5. Therefore, being justified by faith, 
w^ have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ: 
by whom also we have access by faith into this grace 
wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of 
God. — And hope maketh not ashamed ; because the love 
of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost 
which is given unto us. Rom. xiv. 17. For the king- 
dom of God is not meat and drink ; but righteousness, 
and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. Bom. zv. 13. 
Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace ia 
believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power 
of the Holy Ghost. Pea. cxix. 32. I will run the way 
of thy commandments, when thou shalt enlarge my heart. 
Psa. iv. 6, 7. Eph. i. 3, 4. 

"^ Bom. vi. 1, 2. What shall we say then? shall 
we continue in sin, that grace may abound ? God for- 
bid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer 
therein? Tit. ii. 11, 12, 14. For the grace of God 
that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, teach- 
i&g 116, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we 

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murt. IT.] CONTESBION OV VAITH. 108 

lY. True believers may have the assarance 
of their salvation divers ways shaken, dimin- 
ished, and intermitted ; as, by negligence in 
preserving of it ; by falling into some special 
sin, which woundeth the conscience, and 
grieveth the Spirit ; by some sudden or vehe- 
ment temptation; by God's withdrawing the 
light of his countenance, and suffering even 
such as fear him to walk in darkness and to 
have no light : * yet are they never, utterly 
destitute of that seed of God, and life of faith, 
that love of Christ and the brethren, that sin- 
.... I .... I ..I 4 

should live soberly, righteonsly, and godly, in this present 
world. — Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem 
us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar 
people, zealous of good works. 

' Cant. V. 2, 8, 6. I sleep, but my heart waketh: 
it is the voice of my beloved that knocketh, saying. 
Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my unde- 
filed : for my head is filled with dew, and my locks with 
the drops of the night. I have put off my coat ; how 
shall I put it on ? I have washed my feet ; how 
shall I defile them ? — I opened to my beloved ; but my 
beloved had withdrawn himself, and was gone : my soul 
failed when he spake r I sought him, but I could not find 
him ; I called him, but he gave me no answer. Psa. 
li. 8, 12, 14. Make me to hear joy and gladness ; that 
the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice. — Restore 
unto me the joy of thy salvation ; and uphold me with 
thy free Spirit. — Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O 
God, thou God of my salvation ; and my tongue shall 
sing aloud of thy righteousness. Eph. iv. 30. And 
grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed 
unto the day of redemption. Compare the above with 
Psa. Ixxvii. first ten verses, and Matt. xxvi. 69^ 70, 71, 
72. Psa. xxxi. 82. Psa. Ixxxviii. throughout, and Isa. 
LIO. 

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104 0ONFI8S1ON or TAITH. [c&iP. XCC 

oerity of heart and conscience of dntj, ont of 
which, by the operation of the Spirit, this as* 
sarance may in due time be revived,^ and 
by the which, in the mean time, they are sup* 
ported from utter despair. * 



CHAPTER XIX. 

OF THE LAW OF GOD. 



Gob gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of 
works, by which he bound him and all his pos- 
terity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual 
obedience ; promised life upon the fulfilling, 
ana threatened death upon the breach of it ; 
and endued him with power and ability to 
keep it. • 

7 1 John ill. 9. Whosoever is born of God doth not 
commit sin ; for his seed remaineth in him ; and he can- 
not sin, because he is bom of God. Luke xzii. 82. But 
I haye prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not Job xiii. 
15. Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him : but I 
will maintain mine own ways before him. Fsa. Ixxiii. 
15, and IL 8, 12, with Isa. 1. 10. 

« Micah Tii. 7, 8, 9. Therefore I will look unto the 
liOrd ; I will wait for the God of my saWation ; my God 
will hear me. Rejoice not against me, mine enemy : 
when I fall, I shall arise ; when I sit in darkness, the 
Lord shall be a light unto me. I will bear the indigna- 
tion of the Lord, because I have sinned against him, un- 
til he plead my cause, and execute judgment for me : he 
will bring me forth to the light, and I shall behold his 
righteousness. Isa. liv. 7, 8. 

« Gen. i. 26. And God said. Let us make man ia 
our image, after our Ukenetts. GexL ii. 17. But of 

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mv.n.] OONnSSION OV VAITR. 105 

IL This law, after his fall, continued to b# 
a perfect rule of righteousness ; and as suchy 
was delivered by God upon mount Sinai in 
ten commandments, and written in two ta* 
bles ; ^ the first four commandments contain* 

the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt 
not eat of it : for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou 
Bhalt surely die. Rom. ii. 14, 16. For when the Gentiles, 
which have not the law, do by natnre the things contained 
in the law, these, haying not the law, are a law unto 
themselves ; which show the work of the law written in 
their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and 
their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing 
one another. Rom. z. 6. For Moses describeth the right- 
eousness which is of the law, that the man which doeth 
those things shall live by them. Rom. y. 12, 19. Where- 
fore, as by one man sin entered Into the world, and death 
by sin ; and so death passed upon all men, for that all 
haye sinned. — For as by one man's disobedience many 
were made sinners ; so by the obedience of one shall many 
be made righteous. See also Gal. iii. 10, 12. £ccl. yii. 
29, and Job xxviii. 28. 

k James i. 25. But whoso looketh Into the perfect law 
of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a foTgetfbl 
hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed 
in his deed. James ii. 8, 10. If ye fulfil the royal law 
according to the Scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour 
as thyself, ye do well. — For whosoever shall keep the 
whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. 
Rom. iii. 19. Now we know, that what things soever the 
law saith,it saith to them who are under the law. Deut. 
y. 82. Ye shall observe to do therefore as the Lord your 
God hath commanded you : ye shall not turn aside to the 
right band or to the left. And chap. x. 4. And he wrote 
on the tables, according to the first writing, the ten com- 
mandments, which the Lord spake unto you in the mounti 
out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly : 
and the Lord gave them unto me. £z. xxxiv. 1, and Rom. 
siiL8,9. 



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106 CONFESSION Of FAITH. [ORAJf.XXX, 

ing onr duty towards God, and the other six 
our duty to man.* 

III. Beside this law, commonly called moral, 
God was pleased to give to the people of Israel, 
as a church under age, ceremonial laws, con- 
taining several typical ordinances, partly of 
worship, prefiguring Christ, his graces, actions. 
Sufferings, and benefits;* and partly holding 
forth divers instructions of moral duties.* 
All which ceremonial laws are now abrogated 
under the New Testament.' 

e Matt. xxii. 37, 38, 89, 40. Jesus said unto him. Thou 
»halt loYe the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with 
aU thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and 
great oommandment. And the second is like unto it» 
Thou Shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two 
eommandments hang aU the law and the prophets. £z. 
XX. 8 to 18. 

. * Heb. X. 1. For the law, haying a shadow of good 
things to oome, and not the very image of the things, ean 
never irith those sacrifices, whioh Uiey offered year by 
year continually, make the comers thereunto perfect. GaL 
!▼. 1, 2, 8. Now I say, that the heir, as long as he is a 
ehild, differeth nothing from a seryant, though he be lord 
of all ; but is under tutors and goyemors until the time 
appointed of the father. £yen so we, when we were 
chUdren, were in bondage under the elements of the 
world. Col. ii. 17. W^ich are a shadow of things to 
eome : but the body is of Christ. Heb. ix. chap. 

• 1 Cor. y. 7. Purge out therefore the old leayen, that 
ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleayened. For eyen 
Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. 2 Cor. yi. 17. 
Wherefore, come out from among them, and be ye sepa- 
rate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing ; and 
I will receiye you. 

' Col. ii. 14, 16, 17. Blotting out the hand-writing of 
ordinances that was against us, whioh was contrary to 



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90T.T.] OONFBSaiOlf Of VAITB. 107 

lY. To them also, as a body politic, he gare 
sundry judicial laws, which expired together 
with the state of that people, not obliging any 
other, now, further than the general equity 
thereof may require. * 

y. The moral' law doth for ever bind all, as 
well justified persons as others, to the obedience 
thereof; ^ and that not only in regard of the 
matter contained in it, but also in respect of the 
authority of God the Creator who gave it. * 

QS, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross.-^ 
Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink. — 
Which are a shadow of things to come : but the body is 
of Christ. Eph. ii. 15, 16. Having abolished in his 
flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments con- 
tained in ordinances ; for to make in himself of twain one 
new man, so making peace ; and that he might reconcile 
both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the 
enmity thereby. 

9 See Ex. zxi. chap, and xxii. chap. 1st to the 29th 
Terse. Gen. xlix. 10. The sceptre shall not depart 
from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until 
Shiloh come : and unto him shall the gathering of the 
people be. Matt. v. 88, 89. Te have heard that it hath 
been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth : 
but I say unto you, That ye resist not evil. 1 Cor. ix. 

a. 9, 10. 

k Bom. xiii. 8, 9. See ktter (5), page 105. 1 John ii. 
8, 4, 7. And hereby we do know that we know him, 
if we keep his commandments. He that saith, I know 
him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar, and 
the truth is not in him. — Brethren, I write no new com- 
mandment unto you, but an old commandment which 
ye hi^d from the beginning. Rom. iii. 81, and vi. 15. 
Do we then make void the law through faith ? God for- 
bid: yea, we establish the law. What then? shall we 
tin, beeause we are not under the law, but under graee ? 
6od forbid. 

i Jam. it 10, 11. See letter (b), page 106. 

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108 C0NFES8I0K 07 FAITH. [chap. aax. 

;Keither dotb Christ in the. gospel any way dis- 
tsolve, but much strengthen, this obligation. ^ 

VI. Although true believers be not under 
the law as a covenant of works, to be thereby 
justified or condemned ; ^ yet is it of great 
use to them, as well as to others ; in that, as a 
•rule of life, informing them of the will of God 
■and their duty, it directs and binds them to 
walk accordingly;^ discovering also the sin- 
ful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and 
lives ; "* so as, examining themselves there- 
by, they may come to further conviction of, 

i Matt. V. 18, 19. For verily I say unto you. Till 
heayen and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in np 
wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Whosoever 
therefore shall break one of these leaslb commandments, 
and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the 
kingdom of heaven : but whosoever shall do and teach 
them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of 
heaven. James ii. 8. Rom. iii. 81. 

k Rom. vi. 14. For sin shall not have dominion over 
you; for ye are not under the law, but under grace. 
Rom. viii. 1. There is therefore now no condemnation 
to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after 
the flesh, but after the Spirit. See also Gal. iv. 4, 5, 
and Acts xiii. 89. 

I Rom. vii. 12. Wherefore the law is holy ; and the 
commandment holy, and just, and good. Psa. cxix. 5. 

that my ways were directed to keep thy statutes! 

1 Cor. vii. 19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircum- 
cision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments 
of God. Gal. V. 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. 

■» Rom. vii. 7. What shall we say then ? is the law 
sin ? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin but by the 
law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, 
Thou shalt not covet. . Rom. iii. 20. For by the law ifl 
the knowledge of sin. 



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jiioT. Ti.] coitnsgiON or vAvn. 109 

humiliation for, and hatred againiBt sin ; * to* 
gether with a clearer Bight of the need they 
have of Christ, and the perfection of his obe*- 
dience. ^ It is likewise of use to the regene- 
jrate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it 
forbids sin ; ^ and the threatenings of it serve 
to show what even their sins deserve, and what 
afflictions in this life they may expect for 
them, although freed from the curse thereof 
threatened in the law. ^ The promises of it, 
in like manner, show them God's approbation 

B Bom. yii. 9, 14, 24. For I was aliye -without the 
law once ; but when the commandment came,, sin 
reyired, and I died. — For we know that the law is spi- 
ritual ; but I am carnal, sold under sin. — wretched man 
that I am I who shall deliyer me from the body of this 
death ? 

o Gal. ill. 24. Wherefore the law was our schoolmas- 
ter to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by 
faith. Rom. yiii. 3, 4. For what the law could not do, . 
in that it was weak tiirough the flesh, God sending his own 
Bon in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned 
tin in the flesh ; that the righteousness of the law might 
be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after 
the Spirit Rom. yii. 24, 25. 

p James ii. 11. For he that said. Do not commit adul- 
tery, said also. Do not kill. Now, if thou commit no 
adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor 
of the law. Psa. czix. 128. Therefore I esteem all thy 
precepts concerning all things to be right; and I hate 
eyery false way. 

4 Ezra iz. 13, 14. ^nd after all that is come upon us 
for our eyil deeds, and for our great trespass, seeing that 
thou our God hast panished us less than our iniquities 
deserye, and hast giyen us such deliyerance as this; 
should we again break thy commandments, and join in 
affinity with the people of these abominations, wouldest 
thou not be angry with us till thou hadst consumed us, 
10 

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110 OOKFSSmON or FAITH. [cbap. xix. 

of obedienice, and what blessings they may 
expect upon the performance thereof; ' aL 
though not as due to them by the law as a 
covenant of works : ' so as a man's doing good, 
and refraining from evil, because the law en- 
courageth to the one, and deterreth from the 
other, is no evidence of his being under the 
law, and not under grace. * 

VII. Neither are the forementioned uses of 
the law contrary to the grace of the- gospel, 
but do sweetly comply with it : * the Spirit of 

80 that there should be no remnant nor escaping T PaAi 
Izzxix. 80, 81, 82, 88, 84. 

r Psa. xzxTii. 11. But the meek shall inherit the 
earth ; and shall delight tfaemselyes in the abundance of 
peace. Psa. xix. 11. Moreoyer by them is thy servant 
warned : and in keeping of them there is great reward. 
Ley. xxyi. 1, to the' 14th Terse,, and Eph. yi. 2. Matt. 
V. 6. 

■ Gal. ii. 16. Knowing that a man is not justified by 
the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, 
even we. have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be 
justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of 
the law : for by the works of the law shall no flesh be 
justified. 

* Rom. vi. 12, 14. Let not sin therefore reignin yout 
mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof. 
— For sin shall not have dominion over you : for ye are 
not under the law, but under grace. Heb. xii. 28, 29. 
Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, 
let us have grace whereby we may serve God acceptably, 
with reverence and godly fear. — For our God is a con- 
suming fire. 1 Pet. iii. 8, 9|il0, 11, 12. Psa. xxxiv. 12, 
18, 14, 15, 16. 

" Gal. iii. 21. Is the law then against the pro- 
mises of God? God forbid : for if there had been a law 
given which could have given life, verily righteousness 
should have been by the law. Tit ii. 11, 12, 18, 1^ 

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ttOT.i.] OONIHSSION OF FAITH. Ill 

Christ Bubdmng and enabling the will of man 
to do that freely and cheerfully, which the 
will of God, revealed in the law, requireth to 
be done. ' 



CHAPTER XX. 

OF CHRISTIAN LIBERTY, AND LIBERTY OF 
CONSCIENCE. 

The liberty which Christ hath purchased 
for believers under the gospel consists in their 
freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning 
wrath of God, the curse of the moral law;^ 
and in their being delivered from this present 
evil world, bondage to Satan, and dominion 
of sin, ' from the evil of afflictions, the sting 

▼ Ezek xxxYi. 27. And I will put xny Spirit within 
▼on, and cause you to w^lk in my statutes, and ye shall 
keep my judgments, and do them. Heb. viii. 10. For 
this is the covenant that I will make with the house of 
Israel, after those days, saith the Lord ; I will put my 
laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts ; and 
I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a peo* 
pie. Jer. zxxi. 83. 

^ Tit. ii. 14. Who gave himself for us, that he might 
redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a 
peculiar people, zealous of good works. Gal. iii. 13. 
Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us : for it is written, Cursed, &c. 

s Gal. 1. 4. Who gave himself for our sins, that he 
might deliver us from this present evil world, according 
to the will of God and our Father. Acts xxvi. 18. To 
open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, 
and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may 

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in OONS^glON or VAIT8. LCBAF. Z&r 

(^ death, tii^ viotory of the grave, aiid everlaat^ 
ing damnatipn ; ^ as also in their free access 
to God, ■ find their yielding obedienee unto 
him, not out of slavish fear, but a child-like 
love, and a willing mind. • All which were 
common also to believers under the law ; * 
but under the New Testament, the liberty of 
Christians is further enlarged in their freedom 
from the yoke of the ceremonial law, to which 
the Jewish church was subjected;^ and iu 
greater boldness of access to the throne of 

receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them 
which are sanctified by faith that is in me. Rom. yi. 14. 
For sin shall not have dominion over you : for ye are not 
under the law^ but under grace. 

r Pea. cziz. 71. It is good for me that I have been 
afflicted : that I might learn thy statutes. 1 Cor. xv. 66|^ 
67. The sting of death is siu ; and the strength of sin 
is the law. But thanks be to God, which giyetii us thtf 
Tictory through our Lor4 Jesus Christ. E^. viii. 1. 

« Rom. Y. 2. By whom also we haifie access by faith 
into this grace wherein we stand. 

a Rom. yiii. 14, 15. For as many as are led by the 
Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For ye have 
not receiyed the spirit of bondage again to fear ; but ye 
have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, 
Abba, Father. 1 John iv. 18. — There is no fear in love | 
but perfect love casteth out fear : because fear hath tor- 
ment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love. 

b Gal. iii. 9, 14. So then they which be of faith, are 
blessed with faithful Abraham.-^That the blessing of 
Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus 
Christ ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit 
through faith. 

« Gal. y. 1. Stand fast therefore in the liberty where- 
with Christ hath made us fr^e, and be not entangled 
again with the yoke of bondage. Acts xv. 10. Now 
therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon 

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nor. a] OQHfSSSION Ot VAITH. 118 

grace/ and in fuller communications of the 
free Spirit of God, than believers under the 
law did ordinarily partake of.* 

IL God alone is Lord of the conscience/ 
and hath left it free from the doctrines 
and commandments of men which are in 
any thing contrary to his word, or beside it 
in matters of faith or worship.* So that to 
believe such doctrines, or to obey such com- 
mandments out of conscience, is to betray true 

the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor 
we were able to bear ? Gal. It. 1, 2, 3, 6. 

4 Heb. It. 14, 16. Seeing then that we have a great 
high-priest, that is passed into the heayens, Jesus the Son 
of God, let us hold fast our profession. — Let us therefore 
come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain 
mercy, and find grace to help in time of need. Heb. x. 
19, 20. Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter 
into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a new and liv- 
ing way which he hath consecrated for us, through the 
Teil, that is to say, his flesh. 

" John yii. 88, 89. He that belieyeth on me, as the 
Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow riyers of 
Uying water. (But this spake he of the Spirit, which 
they that believe on him should receive; for the Holy 
Ghost was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet 
glorified.) 2 eor. iii. 13, 17, 18. 

t Rom. xiv. 4. Who art thou that judgest another 
man's servant ? to his own master he standeth or falleth ; 
yea, he shall be holden up ; for God 4s able to make him 
stand. 

s Acts iy. 19. But Peter and John answered and said 
unto them. Whether it be right in the sight of God 
to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye. Acts 
V. 29. Then Peter and the other apostles answered, and 
said, We ought to obey God, rather than men. 1 Cor. 
vii. 23. Matt, xxiii. 8, 9, 10. 2 Cor.i. 24. Matt. xy. 9, 
10* 

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114 oovnaBioK ov wMira. [(aup.xx. 

liberty of consdence ; ^ and the requiring an 
implicit faith, and an absolute and blind obedi- 
ence, is to destroy liberty of conscience, and 
reason also.^ 

III. They who, npon pretence of Christian 
liberty, do practise any sin, or cherish any 
lust, do thereby destroy the end of Christian 
liberty ; which is, that, being delivered out of 
the hands of our enemies, we might serve the 
Lord without fear, in holiness and righteous- 
ness before him, all the days of our life,^ 

»> Col. ii. 20, 22, 23. Wherefore, if ye be dead with 
Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though 
living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances ; — (which 
all are to perish with the using,) after the commandments 
and doctrines of men ? Which things have indeed a show 
of wisdom in will-worship, and humility, and neglecting 
of the body ; but not in any honour to the satisfying of 
the flesh. Gal. 1. 10. For do I now persuade men, or 
God ? or do I seek to please men ? for if I yet pleased 
men, I should not be the servant of Christ. Gal. ii. 4. 
And that because of false brethren unawares brought in, 
who came in privily to spy out our liberty which we have 
in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into bondage* 
See. Gal. v. 1. 

i Isa. viii. 20. To the law and to the testimony : if 
they speak not according to this word, it is because there 
is no light in them. Acts xvii. 11. These were more 
noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received 
the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the 
Scriptures daily, whether those things were so. John iv. 
22. Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we 
worship ; for salvation is of the Jews. See also Hos. y. 
11, with Rev. xiii. 12, 16, 17. 

i Gal. V. 13. For, brethren, ye have been called 
unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to 
the flesh, but by love serve one another. 1 Pet. ii. 16. 



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ncr. IT.] OONVSSSION oi vaith. 115 

lY. And because the powers which God 
bath ordained, and the liberty which Christ 
hath purchased, are not intended by God to 
destroy, but mutually to uphold and preserve 
one another; they who, upon pretence of 
Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful 
power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it 
be civil or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance 
of God. ^ And for their publishing of such 
opinions, or maintaining of such practices, as 
are contrary to the light of nature, or to the 
known principles of Christianity, whether con- 
cerning faith, worship, or conversation ; or to 
the power of godliness ; or such erroneous 
opinions or practices, as, either in their own 
nature, or in the manner of publishing or main- 
taining them, are destructive to the external 
peace and order which Christ hath established 

As free, and not usiog your liberty for a cloak of mali* 
eioasnessy bat as the seryants of God. Luke i. 74» 75. 
That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out 
of the hand of our enemies, might serve him without fear, 
in holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of 
our life. 2 Pet. ii. 19. John yiii. 84. 

k 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14, 16. Submit yourselves to every 
ordinance of man for the Lord's sake : whether it be to 
the king, as supreme ; or unto governors, as unto them 
that are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers, 
and for the praise of them that do well. — As free, and 
not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness, but 
as the servants of God. Heb. ziii. 17. Obey them thai 
have the rule over you, and submit yourselves : for they 
watch for your souls, as they that must give account ; 
that they may do it with joy and not with grief : for that 
IB unprofitable for you. See also Bom. xiii. 1 to the Sth 
Terae. 

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116 CONFESSION Of VAITH. [chap. xze. 

in the church ; * they may lawfully he called 
to account, and proceeded against by the cen- 
sures of the church. ^ 



CHAPTER XXI. 

OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP Al^D THE SABBATH-DA7. 

The light of nature showeth that there is a 
God, who hath lordship and sovereignty over 
all ; is good, and doeth good unto all ; and is 
therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called 
upon, trusted in, and served with all the heart, 
and with all the soul, and with all the might.* 

» Bom. i. 82. Who, knowing the judgment of God, 
that they which commit such things are worthy of death; 
not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do 
them. 1 Cor. y. 1, 5, 11, 13. It is reported commonly 
that there is fornication among you, and such fornication 
as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one 
should have his father's wife. — To deliver such an one 
nnto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit 
may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. -^But now I 
have written unto you not to keep company, if any man 
that is called a brother, be a fornicator, or covetous, or an 
Idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner ; . 
with such a one, no, not to eat. — But them that are with- 
out, God judgeth. iTherefore put away from among your- 
Belves that wicked person. 

«» 2 Thess. iii. 14. And if any man obey not our word 
by this epistle, note that man, and have no company 
with him, that he may be ashamed. Tit. iii. 10. A man 
that is an heretic, after the first and second admonition, 
reject. 

■ Brom. i. 20. For the invisible things of him from the 
creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood 

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nusT.jLl C0NFSS8IDN OJ* JTAITH* 117 

Bat the acceptable way of worshipping the 
true God is instituted by himself, and so limited 
by his own revealed will, that he may not be 
worshipped according to the imaginations and 
devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, 
under any visible representation or any other 
way not prescribed in the Holy Scripture. ® 

IL Religious worship is to be given to God, 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ; and to him 
alone:' not to angels, saints, or any other 

by the tbings that are made, eTen his eternal power and 
godhead ; so that they are without excuse. Psa. cxiz* 
68. Thou art good, and doest good : teach me thy sta- 
tutes. Jer. X. 7. Who would not fear thee, King of 
nations t for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch at 
among all the wise men of the nations, and in all theif 
kingdoms, there is none like unto thee. Psa. xxxi. 23. 
love the Lord, all ye his saints ; for the Lord pre* 
Mryeth the faithltil, and plentifully rewardeth the proud 
doer. Psa. xviii. 8. Rom. x. 12. Psa. Izii. 8. Josh« 
zxiT. 14. Mark xii. 88. 

• Dent. xii. 82. What thing soeyer I command you, 
MMerre to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish 
from it. ^Matt. xt. 9. But in vain they do worship me, 
teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. Matt. 
It. 9, 10. And saith unto /him. All these things will I 
give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then 
•aith Jeeus unto him. Get thee hence, Satan: for it is 
written. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy Qod, and him 
only shalt thou serve. See also Deut. xv. to the 20th 
verse, and £x. xx. 4, 6, 6. 

p John ▼. 28. That all men should honour the Son, 
even as they honour the Father. He that hoooureth not 
the Son, honoureth not the Father which hath sent him. 
2 Cor. xiii. 14. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and ike love of God, and the communion of the Holy 
Ghost, be with you all. Amen. Matt it. 10. Ber. ▼. 
11, 12, 18. 

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118 00K7ESSI0N OF FAITH. [chap, xxi.* 

creature : ' and since the fall, not without a 
Mediator ; nor in the mediation of any other 
but of Christ alone. ' 

III. Prayer with thanksgiving, being one 
special part of religious worship, ■ is by God 
required of all men ; * and that it may be 
accepted, it is to be made in the name of the 
Son, "* by the help of his Spirit, ^ according 
Co his will, ^ with understanding, reverence, 

4 Col. ii. 18. Let no man beguile you of your reward, 
in a Toluntary humility, and worshipping of angels. 
Bey. ziz. 10. And I fell at his feet to worship him. 
And he said unto me, See thou do it not ; I am thy fel- 
Jow-servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony 
of Jesus : worship Qod. Rom. i. 25. Who changed the 
truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served th« 
creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. 
Amen. 

' John ziy. 6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, 
find the truth, and the life : no man cometh unto .the 
Father, but by me. 1 Tim. ii. 6. For there is one God 
and one Mediator between God and men, the man Chrst 
Jesus. £ph. ii. 18. For through him we both have 
access by one Spirit unto the Father. 

• Phil. iv. 6. Be careful for nothing; but in every 
thing by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, lei 
your requests be made known unto God. 

t Psa. Ixv. 2. thou that hearest prayer, unto thee 
shall all flesh come. 

« John xiv. 13, 14. And whatsoever ye shall ask in 
my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified 
in the Son. If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will 
do it. 

▼ Bom. viii. 26. Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our 
infirmities : for we know not what we should pray for as 
we ought ; but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for 
us with groanings which cannot be uttered. 

^ 1 John V. 14. And this is the confidence that we 

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tMCf,TV.] OONnSSION OF FAITH. IW 

humility, fervency, faith, love, and per- 
Beverance ; * and, if vocal, in a known 
tongue/ 

IV. Prayer is to be made for things law- 
ful,' and for all sorts of men living, or that 
Bhall live hereafter ; * but not for the dead,^ 

h&ye in him, that if we ask any thing according to hif 
will he heareth us. 

s Psa. xlyii. 7. For God is the king of all the earth ; 
Bing ye praises with understancling. Heb. xii. 28. Let 
Q8 have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably, 
with reverence and godly fear. Gen xviii. 27. I have 
taken upon me to speak nnto the Lord, which am but dust 
and ashes. Jam. t. 16. The effectual fervent prayer of 
a righteous man availeth much. Eph. vi. 18. Praying 
always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and 
watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplica- 
tion for all saints. See also Jam. i. 6, 7. Mark xi. 24. 
M&t. vi. 12, 14, 16. Col. iv. 2. 

7 1 Cor. xiv. 14. For if I pray in an unknown 
tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is uik- 
fruitful. 

' 1 John V. 14. And this is the confidence that we have 
in him, that if we ask any thing according to his will, he 
beareth us. 

« 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. I exhort, therefore, that, first of all, 
supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, 
be made for all men ; for kings, and for all that are in 
authority ; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in 
all godliness and honesty. 

^ 2 Sam. xii. 21, 22, 23. Then said his servants unto 
Mm, What thing is this that thou hast done ? Thou didst 
fast and weep for the child, while it was alive ; but when 
the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread. And he 
said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept : for 
I said. Who can tell whether God will be gracious to me, 
that the child may live ? But now he is dead, wherefore 
ahould I fast? can I bring him back again t I shall go to 



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120 CK^ncSSIOK Of VAITH. [oap.xzi. 

nor for tbose of whom it maj be known that 

they have sinned the sin unto death/ 

V. The reading of the Scriptures with godly 
fear;* the sound preaching,* and conscion* 
able hearing of the word, in obedience unto 
God with understanding, faith, and reve- 
rence ; ' singing of psalms with graice in the 
heart ; ^ as, also, the due administration and 
worthy receiving of the sacraments instituted 
by Christ ; are all parts of the ordinary reli- 

him, but he shall not return to me, Luke zvi. 25, 26, and 
Bev. xiv. 13. 

e 1 John Y. 16. If any man see his brother sin a Bin 
which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall gire 
him life for them that sin not unto death. There is 
a sin unto death : I do not say that he shaU pray 
for it. 

d Acts XV. 21. For Moses of old time hath in every 
eity them that preach him, being read in the sym^gogues 
•very Sabbath-day. Rev. i. 8. Blessed is he that readeth, 
and they that hear the word^ of this prophecy, and keep 
those things which are written therein ; for the time is at 
hand. 

• 2 Tim. iv. 2 Preach the word ; be instant in season, 
out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all long- 
suffering and doctrine. 

t James i. 22. But be ye doers of the word, and not 
bearers only, deceiving your own selves. Acts x. 8(k 
Immediately therefore I sent to thee ; and thou hast well 
done that thou art come. Now therefore are we all here 
present before God, to hear all things that are commanded 
thee of God. Heb. iv. 2. For unto us was the gospel 
preached, as well as unto them ; but the word preached 
did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them 
that heard it. Matt. xiii. 19. Isa. Ixvi. 2. 

f Col. iii. 16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you 
richly in all wisdom ; teaching and admonishing one 
another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, 



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0a«T.Ti.] CONI'EesION OV VAITH. 121 

gionB worship of God : ^ besides religions 
oaths/ a&d yows,^ solemn fastings,^ and 
tfaanksgiyings upon special occasions ; ^ which 
are, in their several times and seasons, to be 
used in an holy and religious manner."^ 

VI. Neither prayer, nor any other part of 
religious worship, is now, under the gospel, 
either tied into, or made more acceptable by 

singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord. Eph. t. 
19. Jam. T. 13. 

h Matt. xxTiii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Acts ii. 42. And 
they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and 
fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. 
1 Cor. xi. 23, to Terse 29. 

i Deut. Ti. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and 
serre him, and shalt swear by his name. 

i Eccl. ▼. 4, 6. When thou vowest a tow nnto God, 
defer not to pay it ; for he hath no pleasure in fools : pay 
that which thou has vowed. Better is it that thou shouldest 
not TOW, than that thou shouldest tow, and not pay. Acts 
XTui. 18. 

k Joel ii. 12. Therefore also now, saith the Lord, 
Turn ye cTen to me with all your heart, and with fasting, 
and with weeping, and with mourning. Matt. ix. 16. 
Can the children of the bride-chamber mourn, as long as 
the bridegroom is with them ? But the days will come, 
when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then 
shall they fast. 1 Cor. Tii. 5. Defraud ye not one the 
other, except it be with consent for a time, that ye 
may giye yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come 
together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incon- 
tinency. 

1 Psa. CTii. throughout. 

■» Heb. xii. 28. Wherefore we reoeiTing a kingdom 
which cannot be moTed, let us haTO grace, whereby 
we may serve God acceptably, with reverence and godly 
fear. 

11 

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122 GONFSBSION OV PAI17H. roHAP. xxt' 

I 

any place in which it is performed, or towards 
which it is directed :"" but God is to be 
worshipped every where* in spirit and in 
truth ; ^ as in private families * daily, ' and 
in secret each one by himself, ' so more 
solemnly in the public assemblies, which are 

■ John W. 21. JesQB ssuth unto her, Woman, believ* 
me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this moun- 
tain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. 

• Mai. 1. 11. From the rising of the sun, eren unto 
the going down of the same, my name shall be greht 
among the Gentiles : and in every place incense shaU be 
offered unto my name, and a pure offering : for my name 
shall be great among the heathen, saith the Lord of hosts. 
1 Tim. ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray every where^ 
lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting. 

p John iv. 23, 24. But the hour cometh, and now 18, 
when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in 
spirit and in truth : for the Father seeketh such to wor- 
ship him. God is a Spirit : and they that worship him, 
must worship him in spirit and in truth. 

4 Jer. z. 25. Pour out thy fury upon the heathen 
that know thee not, and upon the families that call not 
pn thy name. Job i. 5. And it was so, when the days 
of their feasting were gone about, that Job sent and sanc- 
tified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered 
burnt-offerings according to the number of them all: for 
Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed 
God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually. 2 Sam. 
vi. 18, 20. And as soon as David had made an end of 
offering burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, he blessed 
the people in the name of the Lord of hosts. — Then David 
returned to bless his household. 

' Matt. vi. 11. Give us this day our daily bread. 
Josh. xxiv. 15. 

■ Matt. vi. 6. But thou, when thou prayest, enter 
into thy closet ; and when thou hast shut thy door, pray 
to thy Father, which is in secret ; and thy Father, which 
seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly. £ph. vi. 18, 

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moK. rmj comrassioir w vaxtk. 128 

&ot carelesslj or Tnlfdlly to be neglected or 
forsaken, when Grod, by his word or providence, 
calleth tberennto.* 

VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in 
general, a dne proportion of time be set apart 
for the worship of God ; so, in his word, by a 
positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, 
binding all men in all ages, he hath particu- 
larly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath, 
to be kept holy unto him : ^ which, from the 
beginning of the world to the resurrection of 
Christ, was the last day of the week ; and, from 
the resurrection of Christ, was changed into 
the first day of the week,^ which in Scripture 

t Isa. M. 7. Mine house shall be called an house of 
prayer for all people. Heb. z. 25. Not forsaking the 
assembling of ourselyes together, as the manner of some 
is ; but exhorting one another : and so much the more, as 
ye see the day approaching. ProT. Tiii. 84. Blessed is 
fhe man that heareth me, 'watching daily at my gates, 
waiting at the posts of my doors. Acts iL 42. And they 
continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellow- 
8hip, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. 

« See the 4th commandment in Ex. xx. 8, 9, 10, 11. Isa. 
M. 2, 4. Blessed is the man that doeth this, and the son 
of man that layeth hold on it: that keepeth the Sabbath 
from polluting it, and keepeth his hand from doing any 
eyil. — For thus saith the Lord unto the eunuchs that keep 
my Sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and 
take hold of my covenant. Isa. Ivi. 6. 

▼ Gen. ii. 3. And God blessed the seventh day, and 
ianctified it; because that in it he had rested from all his 
work which God created and made. 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2. 
Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have 
nven order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye. 
upon the first day of the week, let every one of you lay 
by hiu in store, as God hath prospered him, that the- 

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124 coNrKfi8ioa9 ov vaitb. [oEAf. xxb 

is called the Lord's-day,^ and' is to be con* 
tinued to the end of the world, as the Ohristiaa 
Sabbath.' 

VIII. This Sabbath is then kept holy unto 
the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of 
their hearts, and ordering of their common 
affairs beforehand, do not only observe an holy 
rest all the day from their own works, words 
and thoughts, about their worldly employments 
and recreations ; ^ but also are taken up thtf 

be no gatherings when I come. Acts zx. 7. And upon 
the first day of the week, when the disciples came to- 
gether to break bread, Paul preached unto them, (ready 
to depart on the morrow;) and continued his speech untu 
midnight. 

^ Rey. L 10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, 
and heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet 

X Ex. zx. 8, 10. (See letter (u), page 123.) Matt v. 
17, 18. Think not that I am come to destroy the law OB 
the prophets : I am not come to destroy, but to f ulfiL Foi 
Terily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot 
or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be 
fulfilled. 

r Ex. xvi. 23, 25, 26, 29, 80. And he said unto them. 
This is that ^which the Lord hath said, To-morrow is the 
rest of the* holy Sabbath unto the Lord : bake that 
which ye will bake to-day, and 'seethe that ye will 
seethe; and that which remaineth over, lay up for 
you to be kept until the morning. — And Moses said. 
Eat that to-day ; for to-day is the Sabbath unto the 
Lord : to-day ye shall not find it in the field. Six days 
ye shall gather it ; but on the seventh day, which is the 
Sabbath, in it there shall be none. — See, for that the Lord 
hath given you the Sabbath, therefore he giveth you oa 
the sixth day, the bread of two days : abide ye every 
man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the 
seventh day. So the people rested on the seventh day. 
Ex. zxxL 15, 16. Six days may work be done;, but 

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oo&i.] oomssioN ov faith. 12S 

whole time in the pnbGc and private ezercisee 
of his worship, and in the duties of necessity 
and mercy. ' 



CHAPTER XIIL 

07 LAWFUL OATHS AND Y0W8. 

A LAWFUL oath is a part of religious wor- 
ship, • wherein npon jnst occasion, the person 
swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what 
he asserteth or promiseth ; and to judge him 
according to the truth or falsehood of what he 
sweareth. ^ 

in the seyenth is the Sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord : 
whosoever doeth any work in the Sabbath-day, he shaU 
saroly be pat to death. Wherefore the children of Israel 
Bhall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath through- 
ont their generations for a perpetual covenant. Isa. IviiL 
18. Neh. xiii. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22. 

s Isa. Iviii. 13. If thou turn away thy foot from the 
Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day ; and 
caU the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honour- 
able ; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, 
nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own 
words. Matt. zii. 1 to the 13th verse. / 

• Deut. X. 20. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God ; him 
shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear 
by his name. 

t> Ex. XX. 7. Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ; for the Lord will not bold him 
guiltless that taketh bis name in vain. Lev. xix. 12. 
And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt 
thou profane the name of thy God : I am the Lord. 2 Cor. 
i. 23. Moreover, I call God for a record upon my soul, 
that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth. Seo 
•Ifo 2 Chron. vi 22, 23. 
11* 

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126 ooimflsiOK OY jaxxo. [ohap.zza 

IL The name of God only is that by which 
men ought to swear, and therein it is to be 
used with all holy fear and reverence ; • there- 
fore to swear vainly or rashly by that glo- 
rious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by 
any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred. ^ 
Yet ^.s, in matters of weight and moment, 
an oath is warranted by the word of God, 
under the New Testament, as well as under 
the Old, * so a lawful oath, being imposed by 
lawful authority, in such matters ought to be 
taken. 

III. Whosoever taketh an oath ought duly , 
to consider the weightiness of so solemn an 
act, and therein to avouch nothing but what 
he is fully persuaded is the truth. * Neither 

c Deut. Yi. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, ani 
serve him, and shalt swear by his name. 

d Jer. y. 7. How shall I pardon thee for this? thy 
children have forsaken me, and sworn by them that are no 
gods : when I had fed them to the fuU, they then commit- 
ted adultery, and assembled themselves by troops in the 
harlots' houses. James v. 12. But above all things, my 
brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the 
eartl^, neither by any other oath : but let your yea, be 
yea ; and your nay, nay ; lest ye fall into condemnation. 
See the 3d commandment in Ex. xx. 7. 

• Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear by the greater : 
and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. 
Isa. Ixv. 16. 

' 1 Kings, viii. 81. If any man trespass against his 
neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to cause him to 
swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house. 
Ezra X. 5. Then arose £zra, and made the chief priests, 
the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they should do 
according to this word. And they sware. 

$ Jer. It. 2. And thou shalt swear, Tho Lord 

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IVCf . IT.] CDIfFEBSION OF FAITH. 127 

maj any man bind himself by oath to any 
thing but what is good and just, and what he 
believeth so to be, and what he is able and 
resolved to perform.^ Yet it is a sin to 
refuse an oath touching any thing that is 
good and just, being imposed by lawful au- 
thority. * 

rV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and 
common sense of the words, without equivo- 
cation or mental reservation.^ It cannot 
oblige to sin ^ but in any thing not sinful, being 

livetb, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness ; and 
the nations shall bless themseWes in him, and in him 
■hall they glory. See also Ex. xx. 7. 

h Gen. xxiy. 2, 8, 9. And Abraham said unto his 
eldest servant of his house, that ruled over all that he 
had. Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh : and I 
will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven, and 
the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto 
my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom 
I dwell. — And the servant put his hand under the thigh 
of Abraham his master, and sware to him concerning thali 
matter. 

J Num. V. 19, 21. And the priest shall charge her by 
an oath, and say unto the woman, If no man have Iain 
with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness 
with another instead of thy husband, be thou free from 
this bitter water that causeth the curse. — Then the priest 
shall charge the woman with an oath of cursing ; and the 
priest shall say unto the woman, The Lord make thee a 
curse and an oath among thy people, when the Lord doth 
make thy thigh to rot and thy belly to swell. Neh. v. 
12. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, 
that they should do according to this promise. 

i Psa. xxiv. 4. He that hath clean hands, and a 
pure heart ; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, 
nor Bwoni deceitfully Jer. It. 2. See letter g^ pagt 
122. 

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128 coznrsssiON ov tattb. [gbap.zzi£' 

taken, it binds to performance, although to » 
man's own hurt : ^ nor is it to be violated, 
although made to heretics or infidels. ^ 

V. A vow is of the like nature with a prom- 
issory oath, and ought to be made with tho 
like religious care, and to be performed with 
the like faithfulness. "^ 

VI. It is not to be made to any creature, but 
to God alone : ^ and that it may be accepted, 
it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith and 
conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for 
mercy received, or for obtaining of what we 

k Psa. ZY. 4. In whose eyes a vile person is con- 
temned ; but he honoureth them that fear the Lord. He 
that Bweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. 1 Sam. 
XXV. 22, 32, 83, 84. 

1 Ezek. zyii. 16, 18. As I liye, saith the Lord Qod, 
surely iA the place where the king dwelleth that made 
him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he 
brake, even with him in the midst of Babylon, he shaU 
die. — Seeing he despised the oath, by breaking the cove- 
nant, when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done aU 
these things, he shall not escape. Josh. iz. 18, 19. 
2 Sam. xxi. 1. 

■^ Isa. ziz. 21. And the Lord shall be known to 
Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that 
day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation ; yea, they shall 
TOW a vow unto the Lord, and perform it Eccl. v. 4, 6. 
When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it : 
for he hath no pleasure in fools : pay that which thou 
hast vowed. Better is it that thou shouldest not vow, 
than that thou shouldest vow, and not pay. Psa. Izvi. 
18, 14. I will pay thee my vows, which my lips have 
uttered, and my mouth hath spoken, when I was in trou- 
ble. Psa. Izi. 8. 

" Psa. Ixxvi. 11. Vow, and pay unto the Lord youp 
God : let all that be round about him bring presents unto 
*'ixn that ought to be feared. Jer. xliv. 25, 26. 

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nov.TB.] CONIESSION OF FAITH. 129 

want;, whereby we more Btrictly bind ovr^ 
selves to necessary dutiea^ or to other things, 
so far and so long as they may fitly conduce 
thereunto. • 

VII. No man may vow to do any thing for* 
bidden in the word of God, or what would hin- 
der any duty therein commanded, or which is 
not in his own power, and for the performance 
whereof he hath no promise or ability from 
6od, ' In which respects, popish monastical 
vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, 
Mdd regular obedience, are so far from being 
degrees*' of higher perfection, that they are su- 

• Deut. xziii. 21, 23. When thou shalt tow a tow unto 
the Lord thy Qod, thou shalt not slack to pay it : for the 
Lord thy God will surely require it of thee ; and it would 
be sin in thee. — That which is gone out of thy UpS| th<Hi 
shalt keep and perform, eTen a free-will-offering, accord- 
ing as thou hast Towed unto the Lord thy God, which 
thou hast promised with thy mouth. Psa. 1. 14. Offer 
vnto God thanksgiying, and pay thy tows unto the Most 
High. Gen. xxTiii. 20, 21, 22. And Jacob Towed a tow, 
saying. If God wiil be with me, and will keep me in this 
way that I go, and will glTo me bread to eat, and raiment 
to pat on, so that I come again to my father's house in 
peace : then shall the Lord be my God : and this stone, 
which I haTe set for a pillar, shall be God's house : and 
of all that thou shalt give me, I will surely giTe the tenth 
unto thee. Compare with the above 1 Sam. i. 11, and 
Psa. cxxxii. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

P Acts xxiii. 12. And when it was day, certain of the 
Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a 
curse, saying, that they would neither eat nor drink till 
they had killed Paul. Mark vi. 26. And the king was 
exceeding sorry, yet for his oath's sake, and for their 
sakes which sat with him, he would not rc|ject her. See 
also l^um. XXX. 5, 8, 12, 13. 

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180 0ONFE8SION OF FAITH. [CBAP. Txut 

perstitiotis and einfal snares, in which no Chris* 
tian may entangle himself. ^ 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

OF THE CIYIL MAGISTRATE. 



God, the Supreme Lord and King of all the 
world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be 
imder him over the people, for his own glory 
and the pnblic good, and to this end, hath 
armed them with the power of the sword, for 
the defence and encouragement of them that 
are good, and for the punishment of evil 
doers. ' 



4 1 Cor. Tu. 2, 9. NeyertheleBS, to avoid fomioation, 
let eyery man haye his own wife, and let eyery woman 
haye her own husband. — But if thej cannot contain, let 
them marry: for it is better to marry than to bum. 
1 Cor. vii. 23. 

' Bom. xiii. 1, 8, 4. Let eyery soul be subject unto 
the higher powers. For there is no power but of God : 
the powers that be are ordained of God. — For rulers 
are not a terror to good works, but to the eyil. Wilt 
thou then not be afraid of the power ? Do that which 
is good, and thou shalt haye praise of the same. For 
he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou 
do that which is eyil, be afraid; for he beareth not the 
sword in vain : for he is the minister of God, a revenger 
to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 1 Pet. ii. 18, 
14. Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for 
the Lord's sake : whether it be to the king, as supreme ; 
or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by. him for 
the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them 
tiiat do well. 



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aOB^uLi CONFESSION OF FAITH. 131 

n. It is lawful for Christians to accept and 
ezecate the ofSoe of a magistrate, when called 
thereunto;' in the managing whereof, as 
they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, 
and peace, according to the wholesome laws 
of each commonwealth,* so, for that end, they 
may lawfully, now under the New Testa- 
ment, wage war upon just and necessary occa- 
sions.* 

HL Civil magistrates may not assume to -^^^^^^^ 
themselves the administration of the word and 
sacraments ; ^ or the power of the keys of the 

■ ProT. Tiii. 16, 16. By me kings reign and prin- 
ces decree justice. By me princes rule, and nobles, 
eren all the judges of the earth. See letter (r), 
page 180. 

t Psa. Izzzii. 8, 4. Defend the poor and fatherless : do 
jostice to the afflicted and needy : deliver the poor and 
needy : rid them out of the hand of the wicked. 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 8. The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel 
spake to me. He that ruleth over men must be just, 
ruling in the fear of God. See 1 Pet. ii. 13, letter (r), 
page 180. 

m Luke liL 14. And the soldiers likewise demanded of 
him, saying, And what shall we do ? And he said unto 
them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely ; 
and be content with your wages. Matt. viii. 9. — 
For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under 
me : and I say to this man. Go, and he goeth ; and to 
another. Come and he cometh : and to my servant, Do 
this, and he doetii it. Acts x. 1, 2. Rom. xiii. 4. 

V 2 Chron. xxvi. 18. And they withstood Uzziah the 
Ung, and said unto him, It appertaineth not unto thee, 
Uzziah, to burn incense unto the Lord, but. to the priests, 
the sons of Aaron, that are consecrated to bum incense ; 
go ont of the sanctuary ; for thou hast trespassed ; neither 
•hall it be for thine honour firom the Lord God. 



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132 OONTBSglON OF FAITH. [ohap. xzm; 

kingdom of heaven ; ^ or, in the least, inter 
fere in matters of faith.* Yet as nursing 

fathers, it is the duty of civil magistrates to 
protect the church of our common Lord, witfar 
out giving the preference to any denomination 
of Christians above the rest, in such a manner, 
that all ecclesiastical persons whatever shall 
enjoy the full, free, and unquestioned liberty 
of discharging every part of their sacred funo- 
tions, without violence or danger/ And, as 
Jesus Christ hath appointed a regular govern- 
ment and discipline in his church, jqo law of 
any commonwealth should interfere with, let, 
or hinder, the due exercise thereof, among the 
voluntary members of any denomination of 
Christians, according to their own profession 
and belief/ It is the duty of civil magis- 
trates to protect the person and good name of 

w Matt. xvi. 19. And I wlU give unto thee the keys 
of the kingdom of heayen: and whatsoeyer thou shalt 
bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever 
thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. 1 Cor. 
iv. 1, 2. Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers 
of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God. More- 
over, it is required in stewards, that a man be found 
faithful. 

z John xviii. 86. Jesus answered. My kingdom is not 
of this world. Mai. ii. 7. For the priest's lips should 
keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his 
mouth : for he is the messenger of the Lord of hosts. 
Acts V. 29. Then Peter and the other apostles answered 
and said. We ought to obey God rather than men. 

y Isa. zlix. 23. And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, 
and their queens thy nursing mothers. 

• Psa. GT. 15. Touch not mine anointed, and do my 
prophets no harm. Acts z^i. 14, 15, 16. 

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Bwmr^J OONF3BS8ION OF VAIffl. 183 

all their people, in such an effectual manner as 
that no person be suffered, either upon pretence 
of religion or infidelity, to offer any indignity, 
violence, abuse, or injury to any other person 
i/rbatsoever : and to take order, that all reli- 
gious and ecclesiastical assemblies be held 
without molestation or disturbance.* 

IV. It is the duty of the people to pray for 
magistrates,*^ to honour their persons," to pay 
^hem tribute and other dues,* to obey their 
\awful commands, and to be subject to their 
authority, for conscience' sake.* Infidelity 
or difference in religion, doth not make void 
the magistrate's just and legal authority, nor 
free the people from their due obedience 
to him : ' from which ecclesiastical persons 

» 2 Sam. xxiii. 3. 1 Tim. ii. 1. Bom. xiii 4. 

b 1 Tim, ii. 1, 2. I exhort therefore, that, first of all, 
supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, 
be made for all men ; for kings, and for all that are in autho- 
rity ; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, in all 
godliness and honesty. 

e 1 Pet ii. 17. Fear God. Honour the king. 

' Bom. xiii. 6, 7. For, for this cause pay ye tribute 
also : for they are God's ministers, attending continually 
upon this Tery thing. Bender therefore to all their dues : 
tribute to whom tribute is due ; custom to whom custom; 
fear to whom fear ; honour to whom honour. 

• Bom. xiii. 5. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, 
not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake. Tit. 
iii. 1. Put them in mind to be subject to principalities 
and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good 
work. 

t 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14, 16. Submit yourselves to every 

ordinance of man for the Lord's sake : whether it be to 

the king, as supreme : or unto governors, as unto them 

that are sent by him for the punishment of evU doers, 

12 

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184 OOMFS88ION OF FATTH. [chap, amr.' 

are not exempted ; * much less hath the Pope 
any power or jurisdiction over them in their 
dominions, or over any of their people ; and 
least 'of all to deprive them of their dominions 
or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, 
or upon any other pretence whatsoever.^ 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

OF MARRIAGE AND DIYORCX. 

Mabriagb is to be between one man and 
one woman : neither is it lawful for any man 
to have more than one wife, nor for any wo- 
man to have more than one husband at the 
same time.^ 

II. Marriage was ordained for the mutual 

and for the praise of them that do well. — As tree, and not 
using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness, but as the 
servants of God. 

s Bom. xiii. 1. Let every soul be subject unto th9 
higher powers. Acts xxv. 10, 11. Then said Paul, I 
stand at Csesar's judgment- seat, where I ought to be 
judged ; to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very 
well knowest. For if I be an offender, or have committed 
any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die : but 
if there be none of these things whereof these accuse 
me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto 
Cffisar. 

^ 2 Thess. ii. 4. Who opposeth and exalteth himself 
above all that is called God, or that is worshipped ; so 
that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God, showing 
himself that he is God. Rev. xiii. 15, 16, 17, 18. And 
he had power to give life unto the image, &o. 

i 1 Cor. viL 2. Mark x. 6, 7, 8, 9. 

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MCT.m.] eOHnSSXON OV FAITH. 135 

help of hnsband aod wife;^ for the increase 
of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the 
church with an holy seed ; ^ and for prevent- 
ing of uncleanness. ^ 

III. It is lawful for all sorts of people to 
marry who are able with judgment to give 
their consent, " yet it is the duty of Christians 
to marry only in the Lord. * And, therefore, 
such as profess the true reformed religion 
should not marry with infidels, Papists, or 
other idolaters: neither should such as are 
godly be unequally yoked, by marrying with 
such as are notoriously wicked in their life, or 
maintain damnable heresies. ^ 

J Gen. ii. 18. And the Lord God said. It is not good 
thftt man should be alone : I will make him an help meet 
for him. 

k Mai. ii. 15. And did not he make one? Tet had 
he the residae of the Spirit. And wherefo^ one ? That 
he might seek a godly seed. Therefore take heed to 
yoor spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the 
wife of his youth. 

1 1 Cor. TiL 2, 9. Neyertheless, to ayoid fornica- 
tion, let eyery man haye his own wife, and let every 
woman have her own husband. — But if they cannot con- 
tain, let them marry : for it is better to marry than to 
bum. 

■> 1 Tim. iv. 8. Forbidding to marry. Gen. xxiv. 
67, 58. And they said, We will call the damsel, and in- 
quire at her mouth. And they called Bebekah, and said 
unto her. Wilt thou go with this man ? And she said, I 
will go. , 

n 1 Cor. yii. 89. The wife is bound by the law as long 
as her husband liveth ; but if her husband be dead, she 
is at Uberty to be married to whom she will ; only in the 
Lord. • 

• 2 Cor. Yu 14.. Be ye not unequally yoked together 

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136 cohhssion or iaith. [cbap.xzxt. 

TV. Marriage ought not to be within the 
degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden 
in the word ; ^ nor can such incestuous mar- 
riages ever be made lawful by any law of man, 
or consent of parties, so as those persons may 
live together, as man and wife. ^ The man 
j may not marry any of his wife's kindred 
I nearer in blood than he may of his own, nor 
I the woman of her husband's kindred nearer in 
I blood than of her own. ' 

V. Adultery or fornication, committed after 
a contract, being detected before marriage, 

S'veth just occasion to the innocent party to 
ssolve that contract. ' I9 the case of adul- 

vith unbelievers ; for what feUowship hath righteousness 
with unrighteousness? and what oommunion hath light 
with darkness ? Gen. xxxiy. 14. Ex. xxxiv. 16. Com- 
pare 1 Kings xi. 4. Neh. xiii. 26, 26, 27. 

P Ley. xYiii.' chap. 1 Cor. y. 1. It is reported com- 
monly that there is fornication among you, and such 
fornication as is not so much as named among the Gen- 
tiles, that one should haye his father's wife. 

q Mark yi. 18. For John had said unto Herod, It is 
not lawful for thee to haye thy brother's wife. Ley. 
xyiu. 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 

' Ley. XX. 19, 20, 21. And thou shalt not uncoyer 
the nakedness of thy mother's sister; nor of thy father's 
sister ; for he uncovereth his near kin : they shall bear 
their iniquity. And if a man shall lie with his uncle's 
wife, he hath uncoyered his uncle's nakedness: they 
shaU bear their sin : they shall die childless. And if a 
man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing : 
he hath uncoyered his brother's nakedness : they shall 
be childless. 

* Matt i. 18, 19, 20. Now the birth of Jesus Christ 
was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was 
espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she wae 



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noT.Tx.] coifvsasxoir ow VATjm. 1^7 

terj after marriage, it is lawful for tke inno- 
cent party to Bue out a divorce, ^ and after the 
divorce to marry another, as if the offending 
party were dead. ^ 

VI. Although the corruption of man be such 
as is apt to study arguments, unduly to put 
asunder those whom God hath joined together 
in marriage ; yet nothing but adultery, or such 
wilful desertion as can no way be remedied by 
the church or civil magistrate, is cause suffi- 
cient of dissolving the bond of marriage : ^ 
wherein a public and orderly course of proceed- 

foand with child of the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph her 
husband, being a just man, and not willing to ipake her 
a public example, was minded to put her away privily. 
But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel 
of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, Joseph, 
thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy 
wife ; for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy 
Ghost. 

t Matt V. 81, 32. It hath been said. Whosoever shall 
put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce* 
ment : but I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away 
his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth hef 
to commit adultery : and whosoever shall marry her that 
is divorced, committeth adultery. 

• Matt. xix. 9. And I say unto yon, Whosoever shall 
put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall 
marry another, committeth adultery; and whoso mar- 
rieth her which is put away, doth commit adultery. Bom. 
vii. 2, 8. 

▼ Matt. xix. 8. He saith unto them, Moses, be- 
cause of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to 
put away your wives : but from the beginning it was not 
BO. 1 Cor. vii. 16. But if the unbelieviDg depart, let 
him depart. A brother or a sister is not under bondage 
in such cases : but God hath called us to peace. Matt. 
six. 6. Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. 
12* 

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188 OONFESSIOlf OT VAITH. [CAKP.XXt. 

ing is to be observed ; and the persons con- 
cerned in it, not left to their own wills and dis 
cretion in their own case. ^ 



CHAPTER XXV. 

OF THE CHVfiCH. 

The catholic or universal church, which is 
invisible, consists of the whole number of the 
elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered 
into one, under Christ the head thereof; and 
is the spouse, the body, the fulness of him that 
filleth all in all. * 

II, The visible church, which is also catholic 
or universal under the gospel, (not confined to 
one nation as before under the law) consists 
of all those throughout the world, that profess 
the true religion, ^ together with their child- 

What therefore God hath joined together, let not man pnt 
Munder. 

^ Ezra X. 8. Now therefore let ns make a covenant 
with oar God, to put away all the wives, and such as are 
bom of them, according to the counsel of my lord, and of 
those that tremble at the commandment of oar God ; and 
let it be done according to the law. 

s £ph. i. 10, 22, 23. That in the dispensation of the 
fulness of times, he might gather together in one all things 
in Christ, both which, are in heaven, and which are on 
earth ; even in him. — And hath pat all things under his 
feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the 
ehurch, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth 
all in all. Col. i. 18. And he is the head of the body, 
the ohuroh. Eph. v. 23, 27, 82. 

y 1 Cor. L 2. Unto the church of God which is at 
Corinth, to them that are sanotified in Christ Jesuiy 

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n«r. in.] OONFXSBION (HT FAITH. 189 

ten ; ' and is the kingdom of the Lord Jesns 
Christ,* the honse and family of God,^ out 
of which there is no ordinary possibility of 
salvation. " 

III. Unto this catholic visible church, Christ 

ealled to be saints, with all that in eyery plaoe eall npoa 
the name of Jesas Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours. 
1 Cor. xii. 12, 13. For as the body is one, and hath 
many members, and all the membersT of that one body, 
being many, are one body; so also is Christ For by 
one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we 
be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free ; and - 
hare been all made to drink into one Spirit Psa. ii. 8. 
Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine in- 
heritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy 
possession. Rom. zv. 9, 10, 11, 12. 

> 1 Cor. vii. 14. For the unbelie^ng husband is sanc- 
tified by the wife, and the unbelieying wife is sanctified 
by the husband : else were your children unclean ; but 
now are they holy. Acts ii. 39. For the promise is unto 
yon and to your children, and to all that are afar off, 
eyen as many as the Lord our God shall call Gen. xyii. 
7. And I will establish my coyenaitt between me and 
thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations, for an 
eyerlasting coyenant ; to be a God unto thee, and to thy 
seed after thee. Rom. xi. 16. For if the first fruit be 
holy, the lump is also holy ; and if the root be holy, bo 
are the branches. Gal. iii. 7, 9, 14. Rom. iy. throughout. 

* Matt xiii. 47. Again, the kingdom of heayen is like 
unto a net that was cast into the sea, and gathered of 
every kind. Isa. ix. 7. 

i> £ph. ii. 19. Now therefore ye are no more strangers 
and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the saints, and 
of the household of God. £ph. iii. 15. Of whom the 
whole family in heayen and earth is named. Proy. xxix. 
18. Where there is no yision, the people perish ; but h« 
that keepeth the law, happy is he. 

« Acts ii. 47. And the Lord added to the church daily 
such as should be saved. 



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140 ooKrasBX^N or VAirfi. [chap, zxr 

hath given the ministry, oraeles, and ordii> 
nances of God, for the gathering and perfect- 
ing of the saints, in this life, to the end of the 
"world: and doth by his own presence and 
Spirit, according to his promise, make them 
effectnal thereunto. ^ 

IV. This catholic church hath been some- 
times more, sometimes less, visible. • And 
particular churehes, which are members there- 
of, are more or less pure, according as the doc- 
trine of the gospel is taught and embraced, or- 

d Eph. iv. 11, 12, 18. And he gaye some, apostles; 
and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, 
pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints^ 
tor the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the 
body of Christ : till we all come in the unity of the faith, 
and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect 
^an, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of 
Christ. Isa. lix. 21. As for me, this is my oovenant 
with them, saith the Lord: My Spirit that is upon 
thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shaU 
not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy 
eeed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith th« 
Jiord, from hejiceforth and for ever. Matt. xxTiii, 
J9, 20. 

e Rom. xi. 3, 4. Lord, they have killed thy prophetic 
and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone, 
and they seek my life. But what saith the answer of 
God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thou- 
sand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of 
Baal. Rev. xii. 6, 14. And the woman fled into thQ 
wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that 
they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and 
three score days. — And to the woman were given two 
wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilder- 
ness, into her place ; where she is nourished for a time, 
and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpeni. 
Aots ix. 81. 

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•aor. Ti.] OQimSBION 09 9A3TB. 141 

dinances administered, and public worship per* 
formed more or less purely in them.' 

y. The purest churches under heaven are 
subject both to mixture and error : ' and some 
have 80 degenerated, as to become no churchy 
of Christ, but synagogues of Satan.^ Never- 
theless, there shall be always a church on earth, 
to worship God according to his will.* 

VI. There is no other head of the church 

f 1 Cor. V. 6, 7. Yoar glorying is not good. Enow ye 
not, that a little leaven leayeneth the whole lump? 
Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a 
new lump, as ye are unleayened. For even Christ our 
passoTer is sacrificed for us. Eev. ii. and iii. chapters 
throughout. 

ff 1 Cor. xiii. 12. For now we see through a glass darkly ; 
but then face to face : now I know in part ; but then shall 
I know even as also I am known. Matt. xiii. 24, 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, 80, 47. Another parable put he forth untp 
them, saying. The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a 
man which sowed good seed in his field ; but while men 
slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, 
and went his way. But when the blade was sprung up, 
and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also, &o.— 
Again the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net that was 
cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind. Rev. ii. 
and iii. chapters. 

b Rev. xviii. 2. And he cried mightily with a strong 
voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is 
become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul 
spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. 
Bom. xi. 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. 

i Matt xvi. 18. And I say also unto thee, that thou 
art Peter ; and upon this rock I will build my church, and 
the gates of hell shall not prevail against ilk Psa. cii. 28. 
The children of thy servants shall continue, and their 
seed shall be established fr.7'>re thee. Matt, xxviii. 
19, 20. 

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Itt OOmWBtaOK OV faith. [coap. zzvl 

but the Lord Jesus Christ.^ Nor can the Pope 
of Koine, in any sense be head thereof ; but is 
that antichrist, that man of sin, and son of 
perdition, that exalteth himself, in the cfanroh, 
ftgainst Christ, and all that is called God.^ 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

or THE COMMUNION OV SAINTS. 

All saints that are united to Jesus Christ 
their head, by his Spirit and by faith, have fel- 
lowship with him in his graces, sufferings, death, 
resurrection, and glory : ^ and, being united 

i Col. i 18. And he is the head of the body, the churoh : 
who is the beginning, the first-bom from the dead ; thai 
in all things he might have the pre-eminence. Eph. i. 22. 
And hath put all things under his feet, and gaye him to 
be the head over all things to the church. 

k Matt, zziii. 8, 9, 10. But be not ye called Rabbi : 
for one is your master, eyen Christ ; and all ye are breth- 
ren. And call no man your father upon the earth ; for 
one is your Father, which is in heayen. Neither be ye 
called masters; for one is your Master, eyen Christ. 
2 Thess. ii. 8, 4, &o. Let no man deceiye you by any 
means : for that day shall not come, except there come a 
falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son 
of perdition ; who opposeth and exnlteth himself aboye 
all that is called God, or that is worshipped ; so that he 
as God, sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that 
|ie is God. 

1 1 John i. %, That which we haye seen and heard 
declare we unto you, that ye also may haye fellowship 
"With us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father, 
and with his Son Jesus Christ. Eph. iii. 16, 17. That 
he would grant you according to the riches of his 

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sser.n.] CONFSBfllOK 09 lAITR. Itf*^ 

to one another in love, they hare comtnnnion 
in each other's gifts and graces, '^ and are 
obliged to the performance of such duties, pub- 
lic and private, as do conduce to their mutual 
good, both in the inward and outward man. " 

II. Saints, by profession, are bound to main- 
tain an holy fellowship and communion in the 
worship of God, and in performing such other 
spiritual services as tend to their mutual edifi* 
cation ; * as also in relieving each other in out- 

glorj, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in th« 
inner man ; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith. 
John i. 16. And of his fulness have all we received, and 
grace for grace. Phil. iii. 10. That I may know him, 
and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of 
his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death. 

■ Eph. iv. is, 16. But speaking the truth in love, may 
grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even 
Christ : from whom the whole body fitly joined together 
and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, ac- 
cording to the effectual working in the measure of every 
part, maketh increase of the body, imto the edifying of 
itself in love. 

■ 1 Thess. V. 11, 14. Wherefore comfort yourselves 
together, and edify one another, even as also ye do. — 
Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, 
comfort the feeble -minded, support the wenk, be patient 
toward all men. Gal. vi- 10. As we have therefore 
opportanity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto 
them who are of tbe household of faith. 1 John iii. 16, 
17, 18. 

« Heb. X. 24, 25. And let us consider one another, 
to provoke unto love, and to good works : not forsaking 
the assembling of ourselves together as the manner 
of some is ; but exhorting one another ; and so much the 
more, as ye see the day approaching. Acts ii. 42, 46. 
And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine 
uid fellowship, and in breaikingof bread, and in prayers.-^ 

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144 CONTSfiSION OF VAITH. [oBAP. xzn. 

ward things, according to their several abilities 
and necessities. Which communion, as God 
offereth opportunity, is to be extended unto all 
those who, in every place, call upon the name 
of the Lord Jesus. ^ 

- III. This communion which the saints have 
-with Christ, doth, not make them in any wise 
partakers of the substance of his Godhead, or 
to be equal with Christ in any respect : either 
of which to affirm, is impious and blasphemous.* 
Nor doth their communion one with another, 
as saints, take away, or infringe the title or 
property which each man hath, in his goods 
and possessions. ' 

And they, continuing with one accord in the temple, ancl 
breaking bread from house to hoase, did eat their meat 
with gladness and singleness of heart Isa. ii. 3. 1 Cor. 
xi. 20. 

p 1 John iii. 17. But whoso hath this world's good, 
and eeeth his brother haye need, and shutteth up his bow- 
els of compassion from him, how dwelleth the Iotc of God 
in him ? Acts xi. 29, 80. Then the disciples, every man 
according to his ability, determined to send relief unto 
the brethren which dwelt in Judea : which also they did, 
and sent it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and 
Saul. 2 Cor. viii. and ix. chapters. 

4 Col. i. 18. And he is the head of the body, the church : 
who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead ; that 
in all things he might have the pre-eminence. 1 Gor. 
Viii. 6. But to us there is but one God, the Father, of 
whom are all things, and we in him ; and one Lord Je^sus 
Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. Tsa. 
xlT. 7. 1 Tim. Ti. 16. 

' Acts ▼. 4. Whiles it remained, was it not thine own? 
and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power T 
Why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart ? Thou 
hast not lied unto men, but untO'God. 

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8BCT. I.] OONITKSBXON OV FAITH. 145 

CHAPTER IXVII. 

OF THX 8ACRAVINTS. 

Sacraments are holy signs and se^ls of the 
covenant of grace, ' immediately instituted 
by God,* to represent Christ and his bene- 
fits^ and to confirm our interest in him : "^ as 
also to put a visible difference between those 
that belong unto the church, and the rest of 
the world ; ^ and solemnly to engage them 

■ Rom. iv. 11. And he receiyed the sign of circum- 
eiBion, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he 
had, yet being nncircumcised ; that he might be the 
father of all them that believe, thoagh they be not cir- 
enmeised; that righteonsness might be imputed unto 
them also. Gen. xvii. 7. And I will establish my cove* 
nant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in 
their generations, for an everlasting covenant ; to be a 
Qod unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. 

t Matt, xxviii. 10. Go ye, therefore, and teach all na-t 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I 
have received of the Lord, that which also I delivered 
vnto yon, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which 
he was betrayed, took bread. 

• 1 Cor. X. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, 
is it not the communion of the blood of Christ ? The 
bread which we break, is it not the communion of the 
body of Christ? 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26. After the same man- 
ner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, 
This enp is the new testament in my blood : this do ye, 
as 'oft as ye • drink it, in remembrance of me. For as 
Often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show 
the Lord's death till be come. Gal. iii. 27. For as many 
of yon as have been baptized into Christ, have put on 
Christ. 

V £x. xii. 48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with 
18 

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140 OONFESSION 07 YAITS. [ohap. xxm. 

to the service of God in Christ, according to 
his word. ^ 

II. There is in every saera\nent a spiritual 
relation or sacramental union, between the 
sign and the thing signified ; whencp it comes 
to pass, that the names and effects of the one 
are attributed to the other. * 

III. The grace which is exhibited in or by 
the sacraments, rightly used, is not conferred 
by any power in them ; neither doth the effi- 
cacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or 

thee, and will keep the passover to the Lord, let all his 
males be circumcised, and then let him come near and 
keep it ; and he shall be as one that is born in the land : 
for no nnclrcumcised person shall eat thereof. 1 Cor. 
X. 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the 
cup of devils : ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's .table, 
and, of the table of devils. 

w Rom. yi. 8, 4. Enow ye not, that so many of aa 
as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his 
death? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism 
into death ; that like as Christ was raised up from the 
dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should 
walk in newness of life. 1 Cor. x. 2, 16. And were aU 
baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea. — The 
cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion 
of the blood of Christ ? The bread which we break, ie 
it not the communion of the body of Christ ? ^ 

« Gen. xvii. 10. This is my covenant which ye shall 
keep, between me and you, and thy seed after thee : 
every man-child among you shall be circumcised. Matt. 
xxTi. 27, 28. And he took the cup, and gave thanks» 
and gave it to them, saying. Drink ye all of it : for this 
is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for 
many for the remission of sins. Tit. iii. 6. Not by 
works of righteousness which we have done, but aooorcU 
ing to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regene- 
ration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost 



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WCT.IV.] GONTBBSiail Ol" FAITH. 147 

intention of him that doth administer it, ^ bat 
upon the work of the Spirit, " and the word 
of institution, which contains, together with a 
precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise 
of benefit to worthy receivers. • 

IV. There be only two sacraments ordained 
by Christ our Lord in the Gospel, that is to 
Bay, baptism and the supper of the Lord: 
neither of which may be dispensed by any, 
but by a minister of the word, lawfully or- 
dained. ^ 

7 Bom. ii. 28, 29. For he is not a Jew, which is one 
outwardly: neither is that circumcision which is out- 
ward in the flesh: but he is a Jew which is one in- 
wardly ; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the 
spirit, and not in the letter ; whose praise is not of men, 
but of God. 1 Pet. iii. 21. The like figure whereunto, 
eyen baptism doth also now save us, (not the putUng 
away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good 
eonscience toward God) by the resurrection of Jesus 
Christ. 

s Matt. iii. 11^ I indeed baptize you with water 
tmto repentance : but he that oometh after me is mightier 
than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear : he shall 
baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire. 1 Cor. 
zii. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one 
body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be 
bond or free ; and have been all made to drink into one 
Spirit. 

* Matt. xxvL 27, 28. See letter a;, page 146. Matt. 
zxYiii. 19. See letter tf page 145, verse 20. ' Teaching 
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded 
you : and, lo, I am with you always, even to the end of 
the world. Amen. 

b Matt, xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all 
nations, baptizing them ia the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. xi. 20, 23. 
When ye come together therefore into one place, this is 

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148 OONFSfiSION OF VAITH. [CSAP. ZXTIII; 

y. The sacraments of the Old Testament, 
in regard of the spiritual things thereby signi- 
fied and exhibited, were, for substance, the 
same with those of the New. ^ 



CHAPTER XXVIIL 

OF BAPTISM. 



Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testa- 
ment, ordained by Jesus Christ, * not only 
for the solemn admission of the party baptized 
into the visible church, • but also to be unto 

not to eat the Lord's snpper. — For I have received of tho 
Lord, that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord 
Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took 
br^d. 1 Oor. iv. 1. Let a man so account of us, as of 
the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of 
God. Heb. v. 4. And no man taketh this honour onto 
himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron. 

« 1 Cor. X. 1, 2, 3, 4. Moreover, brethren, I would 
not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers 
were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea ; 
and were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the 
sea ; and did all eat the same spiritual meat ; and did all 
drink the same spiritual drink : (for they drank of that 
spiritual rock which followed them ; and that rock was 
Christ.) 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. Purge out therefore the old 
leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. 
For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us : there- 
fore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither 
widk the leaven of malice and wickedness ; but with the 
unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 

«* Matt, xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son. and of the Holy Ghost. Mark xvi. 16. 

• 1 Cor. zii. 18. For by one Spiiit are we all bap- 

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8SCT.L] 0ONFB8SI0N OF FAITH. 149 

him a sign and seal of the covenant of grace, ' 
of his ingrafting into Christ,* of regenera- 
tion, ^ of remission of sins, * and of his 
giving up unto God, through Jesus Christ, to 
walk in newness of life:^ which sacrament 
is, by Christ's own appointment, to be con- 
tinued in his church until the end of the 
world. ^ 

tized. into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, 
whether we be bond or free ; and have been aU made to 
drink into one Spirit. Gal. iii. 27, 28. 

f Rom. iv. 11. And he received the sign of circum- 
cision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he 
had, yet being uncircumcised ; that he might be the 
father of all them that believe, though they be not cir- 
cumcised ; that righteousness might be imputed unto 
them also. Compared with Col. ii. 11, 12. In whom also 
je are circumcised with the circumcision made without 
hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by 
the ciccumcision of Christ ; buried with him in baptism, 
wherein also ye are risen with him, through the faith of 
the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead. 

s Gal. iii. 27. For as many of you as have been 
baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. Rom. vi. 6. 
For if we have been planted together in the likeness of 
his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resur- 
rection. 

h Tit. iii. 5. He saved us, by the washing of regene- 
ration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. 

> Acts ii. 88. Peter said unto Ihem, Repent, and be 
baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, 
for the remission of sins. Mark i. 4. Acts xxii. 16. 

J Rom. vi. 3, 4. Know ye not, that so many of ua 
as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into 
his death ? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism 
into death ; that like as Christ was raised up from the 
dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should 
walk in newness of life. 

k Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. Go ye, therefore, and teaeh 
13* 

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160 CONFESSION OT TAITH. [chap. xXYm. 

n. The outward element to be used in this 
sacrament is water, wherewith the party is to 
be baptized in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, by a 
minister of the gospel, lawfully called there- 
unto. ^ 

III. Dipping of the person into the water is 
not necessary ; but baptism is rightly admin- 
istered by pouring, or sprinkling water upon 
the person. ™ 

IV. Not only those that do actually profess 

all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them 
to observe all things whatsoeyer I have commanded you : 
and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the 
world. 

1 Acts X. 47. Can any man forbid water, that these 
should not be baptized, which have received the Holy 
Ghost ? Acts viii. 36, 38. And as they went on their 
way, they came unto a certain water: and the eunuch 
said, See, here is wat^r : what doth hinder me to be bap- 
tized ? — And he commanded the chariot to stand still : 
and they went down both into the water, both Philip and 
the eunuch; and he baptized him. Matt, xxviii. 19. 
Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing theqii 
in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost. 

"B Acts ii. 41. Then they that gladly received his 
word, were baptized: and the same day there were added 
unto them about three thousand souls. Acts xvi. 38. 
And he took them the same hour of the night, and 
washed their stripes ; and was baptized, he and ail his, 
straightway. Mark vii. 4. And when they come from 
the market, except they wash, (Greek, be baptized,) they 
eat not. And many other things there be, which they 
have received to hold, as the washing (Greek, baptizing) 
of cups, and pots, and brazen vessels, and tables. Heb« 
sX. 10, 19, 20, 21. 

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IBCT. T.] CONFESSION 07 FAITH. 161 

faith in, and obedience unto Christ, ^ hut also 
the infants of one or both believing parents 
are to be baptized. • 

V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or 



B Mark zvi. 15, 16. And he said unto them, Go ye 
into all the world, and preach the gospel to eyerj crea- 
ture. He that believeth, and is baptized, shall be 
saved. Acts viii. 37. And Philip said, If thou be- 
lievest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he 
answered and said, I believe th'at Jesus Christ is the Son 
of God. 

o Gen. xvii. 7, 9, with Gal. iii. 9, 14. And I will 
establish my covenant between me and thee, and thy 
seed after thee, in their generations, for an everlasting 
covenant ; to be a Go|d onto thee, and to thy seed after 
thee. — And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my 
covenant therefore, thou and thy seed after thee, in their 
generations. — So then they which be of faith are blessed 
with faithful Abraham. — That the blessing of Abraham 
might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ ; that 
we might receive the promise, of the Spirit through faith. 
Rom. iv. 11, 12. An4 he received the sign of circum- 
cision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he 
had, yet beiog uncircumcised ; that he might be the father 
of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised ; 
that righteousness might be imputed unto them also : and 
the father of circumcision to them who are not of the cir- 
cumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of that 
faith of our father Abraham, which he had, being yet un- 
circumcised. Acts ii. 88, 89. Repent, and be baptized 
every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the re- 
mission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy 
Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and to your child- 
ren, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord 
our God shall call. Acts xvi. 14, 16, 83. Lydia, whose 
heart the Lord opened — was baptized, and her household 
— ^wae baptized, he (viz. the jailor) and all his. Col. ii. 
11, 12. 1 Cor. vii. 14. Matt, xxviii. 19. Mark x. 18, 
14, 15, 16. Luke xvlii. 16. 



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152 CONFESSION OF FAITH, [chap. xxvnr. 

neglect this ordinance, ^ yet grace and salva- 
tion are not so inseparably annexed unto it, as 
that no person can be regenerated or saved 
without it, ^ or that all that are baptized, are 
undoubtedly regenerated. ' 

VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to 
that moment of time wherein it is adminis- 
tered ; ■ yet, notwithstanding, by the right 
use of this ordinance the grace promised is not 
only offered, but really exhibited and conferred 
by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or 



p Luke vii. 30. But the Pharisees and lawyers re- 
jected the counsel of God against themselves, being not 
baptized of him. Ex. iv. 24, 25, 26. And it came to 
pass by the way in the inn, that the Lord met him, and 
Bought to kill him. Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, 
and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, 
end said. Surely a bloody husband art thou t6 me. So 
he let him go : then she said, A bloody husband thou art, 
because of the circumcision. 

^ Bom. iv. 11. And he receiyed the sign of circum- 
cision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he 
had, yet being uncircumcised ; that he might be the father 
of all them that belieye, tjiough they be not circumcised; 
that righteousness might be imputed unto them also. 
Acts X. 2, 4, 22, 31, 45, 47. 

' Acts Tiii. 13, 23. Then Simon himself believed also: 
and when he was baptized he continued with Philip, and 
wondered, beholding the miracles and signs which were 
done. — For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitter- 
ness, and in the bond of iniquity. 

• John iii. 6, 8. Verily, verily, I say unto thee. Ex- 
cept a man be born of water, and of the Spirit, he can- 
not enter into the kingdom of God. — The wind bloweth 
where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but 
canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth, 80 
is every one that is bom of the Spirit. 



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ncT.l.] CONFESSION OT FAITH. ISS 

infants) as that grace belongeth unto, accord- 
ing to the counsel of God's own will, in hia 
appointed time. ^ 

YII. The sacrament of baptism is but once 
to be administered to any person. " 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

OF THI lord's SUPFIB. 



Our Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he 
was betrayed, instituted the sacrament*of his 
body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to 
be observed in his church, unto the end of the 
world; for the perpetual remembrance of the 
sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all 
benefits thereof unto true believers, their 
spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their 
further engagement in, and to all duties which 
they owe unto him ; and to be a bond and 
pledge of their communion with him, an4 with 
each other, as members of his mystical body. ^ 

t Gal. ui. 27. For as many of yoa as have been bap« 
tized into Christ, haye put on Christ. £ph. ▼. 25, 26. 
Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it ; 
that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of 
water by the word. Acts ii. 88, 41. 

« Tit. iii. 5. Not by works of righteousness which we 
have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by 
the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost. 

N. B. There is no command, and no adequate example, 
for the repetition of baptism. 

' 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24, 26, 26. For I have received of the 
Lord that which also I deUvered unto you, That the Lord 

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154 OONrESdiON OF FAITH. [CHAP. 

II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up 
to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all 
for remission of sins of the quick or dead, * 
but only a commemoration of thai one offer- 
ing up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, 
once for all, and a spiritual oblation of all pos- 
sible praise unto God for the game ; * so that 

Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took 
bread : and when he had given thanks he brake it, and said. 
Take, eat ; this is my body, which is broken for you : this 
do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also 
he took^tbe cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is 
the new testament in my blood : this do ye, as oft as ye 
drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat 
this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's 
death till he come. 1 Cor. x. 16, 17, 21. The cup of 
blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the 
blood of Christ ? The bread which we break, is it not tht 
communion of the body of Christ ? For we, being many, 
are one bread, and one body : for we are all partakers of 
that one bread. — Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and 
the cup of devils : ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's 
. table, and of the table of devils. 1 Cor. xii. 13. For by 
one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we 
be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free ; and 
have been all made to drink into one Spirit. 

w Heb. ix. 22, 25, 26, 28. And almost all things are 
by the law purged with blood ; and without shedding of 
blood is no remission. — Nor yet that he should offer him- 
self often, as the high-priest entereth into the holy place 
every year with blood of others; for then must he often 
have suffered since the foundation of the world ': but now 
once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put 
away sin by the sacrifice of himself — So Christ was once 
offered to bear the sins of many : and unto them that look 
for him, shall he appear the second time, without sin 
unto salvation. 

« Matt. xxvi. 26, 27. And as they were eating, Je- 
Bus took bread, and blessed it. and brake it, and gav« 



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m.] CONFESSION OF FAITH. 165 

the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, 
is most abominably injurious to Christ's one 
only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the 
gins of the elect. ^ 

III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, 
appointed his ministers to declare his word of 
institution to the people, to pray, and bless the 
elements of bread and wine, and thereby to 
set them apart from a common to an holy use ; 
and to take and break the bread, to take the 
cup, and (they communicating also them- 
selves) to give both to the communicants ; ■ 

it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat ; this is my body. 
And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to 
them, Bftying, Drink ye all of it. Luke xxii. 19, 20. 
And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and 
gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given 
for you : this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also 
the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testa- 
ment in my blood which is shed for you. 

7 Heb. vii. 23, 24, 27. And they truly were many 
priests, because they were not suffered to continue by 
r^son of death : but this man, because he dontinneth 
ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. — Who needeth 
not daily, as those high-priests, to offer up sacrifice, first 
for his own sins, and then for the people's : for this he 
did once, when he offered up himself. Heb. x. 11, 12, 
14, 18. And e^erj priest standeth daily ministering and 
offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never 
take away sins : but this man, after he had offered one 
sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right-hand of 
Qod. — For by one offering he hath perfected for ever 
them that are sanctified. — Now, where remission of these 
is, there is no more offering for sin. 

• See the institution. Matt xxvi. 26, 27, 28. Mark 
xiv. 22, 28, 24. Luke zxii 19, 20, and 1 Cor. zi. 23 
to 27. 



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156 OONFESSION OT TAITH. [<nUF. XXDL 

bat to none who are not then present in the 
congregation. • 

IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacra- 
ment by a priest, or any other, alone;*" as 
likewise the denial of the cup to the people ; • 
worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, 
or carrying them about for adoration, and the 
reserving them for any pretended religious use, 
are all contrary to the nature of this sacra- 
ment, and to the institution of Christ. ^ 

y. The outward elements in this sacrament, 
duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, 
have such relation to him crucified, as that 
truly, yet sacramentally only, they are some- 
times called by the name of the things they 
represent, to wit, the body and blood of 
Christ ; * albeit, in substance and nature, 

• Acts XX. 7. And upon the first day of the week, 
when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul 
preached unto them, (ready to depart on the morrow) 
and continued his speech until midnight. 1 Cor. xi. 20. 
When ye come together therefore into one place, this is 
not to eat the Lord's supper. 

b,e Because there is not the least appearance of a war^ 
rant for any of these things, either in precept or exam- 
ple, in any part of the word of God. See all the places 
in which the ordinance is mentioned ; the most important 
of which are cited abore. 

• Matt. XT. 9. But in rain they do worship me, teach- 
ing for doctrines the commandments of men. . 

• Matt. xxTi. 26, 27, 28. And as they were eating, 
Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave 
it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat ; this is my body. 
And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to 
ihem, saying, Drink ye all of it : for this is my blood of 
the new testament which is shed for many for the re* 
mission of sins. 

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tmvr.Ta.] OONFKBSION OF FAITH. 157 

they still remain truly, and only, bread and 
wine, as they were before. ' 

YI. That doctrine which maintains a change 
of the substance of bread and wine, into the 
substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly 
ealled transubstantiation) by consecration of a 
priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to 
Scripture alone, but even to common sense and 
reason ; overthroweth the nature of the sacra- 
ment ; and hath been, and is the cause of mani 
fold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatriegT. « 

VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking 
of the visible elements in this sacrament, ^ do 
then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, 
yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, 
receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all 
benefits of 'his death: the body and blood of 
Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, 

' ' 1 Cor. xi. 26, 27. For as often as ye eat this bread, 
and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he 
come. Wherefore, whosoeyer shall eat this bread, and 
drink this oup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty 
of the body and blood of the Lord. 

f Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven must receive until 
the times of restitution of all things, which God hath 
spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets, since the 
world began. 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. This do in remem- 
brance Qf me. — This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in re- 
membrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, 
and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he 
eome. Luke xxiv. 6, 89. He is not here, but is risen. 
Remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in 
Galilee. — Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: 
handle me, and see ; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, 
as ye see me have. 

' ^ 1 Cor. xi. 2S. But let a man examine himself^ and 
io let Mm eat of that bread, and drink of that oup. 1 Cor. 
▼•7,8. n ^ 

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158 CONFESSION 0» PAITH. [CHAP. TtJX. 

with, or under the bread and wine; yet as 
really, but spiritually, present to the faith of 
believers in that ordinance, as the elements 
themselves are, to their outward senses. * 

VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men 
receive the outward elements in this sacra- 
ment, yet they receive not the thing signified 
thereby ; but by their unworthy coming there- 
unto are guilty of the body and blood of the 
Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all 
ignorant and ungodly persons, asthey are unfit 
to enj oy communion with him, so are they un- 
worthy of the Lord's table, And cannot, with- 
out great sin against Christ, while they remain 
such, partake of these holy mysteries, ^ or be 
admitted thereunto. ^ 

i 1 Cor. X. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is 
it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread 
which we break, is it not the communion of the body of 
Christ? 1 Cor. X. 8, 4. 

J 1 Cor. xi. 27, 29. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat 
this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily* 
shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. — For 
he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drink- 
eth damnation ( judgment) to himself, not discerning the 
Lord's body. 2 Cor. vi. 14, 16, 16. Be ye not unequally 
yoked together with unbelievers; for what fellowship 
hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what com- 
munion hath light with darkness? And what concord 
hath Christ with Belial ? or what part hath he that be- 
lieveth with an infidel ? And what agreement hath the 
temple of God with idols ? For ye are the temple of the 
living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and 
walk in them ; and I will be their God, and they shall be 
my people. 1 Cor. x. 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of 
the Lord, and the cup of devils ; ye cannot be partakers 
of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils. 

k 1 Cor. T. 6, 7, 18. Tour glorying is not good^ 

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MOCJ.] CONFESSION 01* FAITH. Ifi9 

CHAPTER XXX. 

OF CHURCH CENSURES. 

Thb Lord Jesus, as king and head of his 
church, hath therein appointed a government 
in, the hand of churcfi-oflScers, distinct from 
the civil magistrate. ^ 

Enow ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole 
Inmp ? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may 
1)6 a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ 
Dur passoveris sacrificed for us. — But them that are with- 
out, God judge th. Therefore put away from among your- 
selves that wicked person. 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14, 16. Now 
we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother 
that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which 
lie received of us. — And if any man obey not our word 
by this epistle, note that man, and have no company 
with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet count him not 
as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. Matt. 
Til. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither 
east ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them 
under their feet, and turn again and rend you. 

1 Isa. ix. 6, 7. For unto us a child is born, unto us 
a Son is given ; and the government shall be upon his 
shoulder ; and his name shall be called Wonderful, Coun* 
sellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The 
Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and 
peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of Darid, and 
upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with 
judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. 
The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this. 1 Tim. 
V. 17. Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy 
of double honour, especially they who labour in the word 
and doctrine. 1 Thess. v 12. And we beseech you, 
brethren, to know them which labour among you, and 
are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. 1 Cor. xii. 
28. And God hath set some in the church : first, apos- 

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160 CONIXSSION OV rATFH. [OHAP. 

II. To these officers the keys of the kingdom 
of heaven are comtnitted, by virtue whereof 
they have power respectively to retain and 
remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the 
impenitent, both by the word and censures; 
and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the 
ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from 
censures, as occasion shall require. ^ 

III. Church censures are necessary for the 
reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren ; 
for deterring of others from like offences ; for 
purging out of that leaven which might infect 
the whole lump ; for vindicating the honour 

ties ; secondarily, prophets ; thirdly, teachers ; after that, 
miracles; then gifts of healings, helps, goyernments, 
diversities of tongues. Psa. ii. 6, 7, 8^ 9. John zyiii. 86. 
n Matt. xTi. 19. And I will give unto thee the keya 
of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt 
bind on earth, shall be baund in heaven ; and whatsoever 
thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. 
Matt, xviii. 17, 18. And if he shall neglect to hear them, 
tell it unto the church ; but if he neglect to hear the 
church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a 
publican. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall 
bind on earth shall be bound in heaven ; and whatsoever 
ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. John 
XX. 21, 22, 23. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace 
be unto you : as my Father hath sent me, even so send I 
you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, 
and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose 
soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them ; and 
whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained. 2 Cor. 
ii. 6, 7, 8. Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, 
which was inflicted of many. So that contrariwise, ye 
ought rather to forgiye him, and comfort him, lest per- 
haps such an one should be swallowed up with overmuch 
sorrow. Wherefore I beseech you, that ye would confirm 
your love toward him. 

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HOT. IT.] (XmTESSIQN OF FAITH. 161 

of Christ, and the holy profession of the gos- 
pel ; and for preventing the wrath of God, 
which might justly fall upoa the church, if 
they should suffer his covenant, and the seals 
thereof, to be profaned by notorious and ob- 
stinate offenders. ^ 

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, 
the officers of the church are to proceed by 
admonition, suspension from the sacrament of 
the Lord's supper for a season, and by ex- 
communication from the church, according to 
the nature of the crime, and demerit of tho 
person. * 

n 1 Cor. 5th chapter throughout. 1 Tim. v. 20. Them 
that siu, rebuke before all, that others also may fear. 
Matt. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, 
neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they tram- 
ple them under their feet, and turn again and rend 
you. 1 Tim. i. 20. Of whom is Hymeneus and Alex- 
ander ; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they 
may learn not to blaspheme. Jude, ver. 23. And others 
save with fear, pulling them out of the fire ; hating even 
the garment spotted by the flesh. 1 Cor. zi. 27, to tht 
end. 

o 1 Thess, v. 12. And we beseech you, brethren 
to know them which labour among you, and are over 
you in the Lord, and admonish you. 2 Thess. iii. 6, 14. 
Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from 
every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the 
tradition which he received of us. — And if any man obey 
not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have 
no company with him, that he may be ashamed. 1 Cor. 
v. 4, 5, 13. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when 
ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, to deliver such an one unto 
6atan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit 
14* 

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162 0ONTES8ION OV FAITH. [OHAP. ZXZi; 

CHAPTER XXXI 

OP SYNODS AND COUNCILS. 

Fob the better government and farther edi- 
fication of the church, there ought to be suck 
assemblies as are commonly called synods or 
councils : ^ and it belongeth to the overseers 
and other rulers of the particular churches, by 
virtue of their oflBce, and the power which 
Christ hath given them for edification, and 
not for destruction, to appoint such assem* 
blies ; ** and to convene together in them, as 
often as they shall judge it expedient for the 
good of the church. ' 

may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. — Therefore 
pnt away from among yourselves that wicked person. 
Matt, xviii. 17. Tit. iii. 10. 

p Acts XV. 2, 4, 6. When therefore Paul and Barna- 
bas had no small dissension and disputation with them, 
they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain 
other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apos* 
ties and elders about this question. — And when they 
were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church; 
and of the apostles and elders ; and they declared all 
things that God had done with them. — And the apostles 
and elders came together for to consider of this matter. 

<i Acts chap. XV. 

r Acts. XV. 22, 23, 25. Then pleased it the apostles 
and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men 
of their own company to Antioch, with Paul and Barna- 
bas ; namely, Judas, sumamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief 
men among the brethren : and they wrote letters by them 
after this manner : The apostles, and elders, and breth- 
ren, send greeting unto the brethren which are of the 
Gentiles in Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia : — It seemed 
good unto us, being assembled with one aooord, to send 

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SICT. IT.] OONRSSION OF FAITH. 168 

,11. It belohgeth ' to synods and cottocils; 
ministeriallj, to determine controversies of 
faith, and cases of conscience; to set down 
rules and directions for the better ordering of 
the public worship of God, aijd government of 
bis church ; to receive complaints in cases of 
mal-administration, and authoritatively to de- 
termine the same: which decrees and deter* 
minations, if consonant to the word of God, 
are to be received with reverence and submis- 
sion, not only for their agreement with the 
word, but also for the power whereby they 
are made, as being an ordinance of God, ap- 
pointed thereunto in his word. ' 

III. All synods or councils since the apos- 
tles' times, whether general or particular, may 
err, and many have erred ; therefore they are 
not to be made the rule of faith or practice, 
but to be used as a help in both. * 

IV. Synods and councils are to handle or 
conclude nothing, but that which is ecclesiasti- 

chosen men unto you, with our beloyed Barnabas and 
Paul. 

■ Acts xyi. 4. And as they went through the cities, 
they deliyered them the decrees for to keep, that were 
ordained of the apostles and e|ders which were at Jeru- 
salem. Acts XV. 16, 19, U, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. Matt, 
xviii. 17, 18, 19, 29. 

t Acts xyii. 11. These were more noble than those in 
Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all 
readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures daily, 
whether those things were so. 1 Cor. ii. 6. That your 
faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the 
power of God. 2 Cor. i. 24. Not for that we have do- 
^ minion over yoar faith, but are helpers of your joy : for 
by faith ye stand. £ph. ii. 20. 

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164 CONFESSION OF FAITH, [chap, xxxit 

cal: and are not to intermeddle with civil 
affairs which concern the commonwealth, un- 
less by Way of humble petition in cases extra- 
ordinary ; or by way of advice for satisfaction 
of conscience, if they be thereunto required by 
the civil magistrate. * 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

OP THE STATE OF MAN AFTER DEATH, AND OF THB 
RESURRECTION OP THB DEAD. 

The bodies of men, after death, return to 
dust, and see corruption ; ^ but their souls, 
(which neither die nor sleep) having an im- 
mortal subsistence, immediately return to God 
who gave them. ^ The souls of the righteous, 

« Luke xii. 13, 14. And one of the company said 
unto him, Master, speak to my brother, that he divide 
the inheritance with me. And he said unto him, Man, 
who made me a judge, or a divider over you ? John 
xviii. 36. Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this 
world. If my kingdom were of this world, then would 
my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the 
Jews : but now is my kingdom not from hence. 

* Gen. iii. 19. In the sweat of thy face, shalt thou 
eat bread, till thou return unto the ground : for out of 
it wast thou taken : for dust thou art, and unto dust 
shalt thou return. Acts xiii. 36. For David, after he 
had served his own generation by the will of God, fell 
on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw cor- 
ruption. 

y Luke xxiii. 43. And Jesus said unto him, Verily, 
I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in Para- 
dise. £ccl. xii. 7. Then shall the dust return to the 



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tBCT. n.] 0ONFE8SZON OH FAITH. 165 

being. then made perfect in holiness, are re- 
ceived into the highest heavens, where they 
behold the face of God in light and glory, 
waiting for the full redemption of their bodies : * 
and the souls of the wicked are cast into 
hell, where they remain in torments and utter 
darkness, reserved to the judgment of the 
great day. ^ Besides these two places for 
souls separated from their bodies, the Scrip- 
ture acknowledgeth none. 

II. At the last day, such as are found alive 
shall not die, but be changed : ' and all the 

earth as it was : and the spirit shall r^um unto God who 
gave it. 

x Heb. xii. 23. To the general assembly and church 
of the first-bom, which are written in heaTen, and to God 
the judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made per- 
fect. Phil. i. 28. For I am in a strait betwixt two, 
haying a desire to depart, and to be with Christ ; which 
is far better. ' 1 John iii. 2. Beloyed, now are we the 
eons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall 
be ; but we know, that when he shall appear, we shall 
be like him ; for we shall see him as he is. 2 Cor. v. 

1, e; 8. 

J Luke xvi. 23, 24. And in hell he lifted up his 
eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and 
Lasarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father 
Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he 
may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my 
tongue ; for I am tormented in this flame. Jude, yerses 
6,7. 

« 1 Thess. iv. 17. Then we which are alive and 
remain shall be caught up together with them in the 
clouds, to meet the Lord rn the air ; and so shall we ever 
be with the Lord. 1 Cor. xv. 61, 62. Behold, I show 
you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all 
be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at 
the last trump ; for the trumpet shall sound ; and the 

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166 OONTSSSION OV VAITH. [chap, xzxib. 

dead shall be raised up with the self-same 
bodies, and none other, although with differ 
ent qualities, which shall be united again to 
their souls for ever. * 

III. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the 
power of Christ, be raised to dishonour ; the 
bodies of the just, by his Spirit, unto honour, 
and be made conformable to his own glorious 
body. * 



CHAPTER XXIIII. 

or THE LAST JUDGMENT. 



God hath appointed a day, wherein he will 
judge the world in righteousness by Jesof 



dead Bball be raised incorruptible, and we shall be 
ohanged. 

« Job xix. 26, 27. And thoogh after my skin, worms 
destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God : whom 
I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not 
Another ; though my reins be consumed within me. 
] CoF. XV. 42, 43, 44. So also is the resurrection of the 
dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorrup- 
tion : it is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory : it is 
sown in weakness, it is raised in power : it is sown s 
natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is * 
natural body, and there is a spiritual body. 

*» Acts xxiv. 15. And have hope toward God, which 
they themselves also allow, that there shall be s re- 
surrection of the dead, both of the just and uigusi. 
John V. 28, 29. Marvel not at this : for the hour ii 
ooming, ip the which all that are in the graves shall hear 
his voice, and shall tome forth ; they that have doM 
good, unto the resurrection of life ; and they that h»T« 



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WCt.t] CONrESSION OP PAITH. 167 

Christ, • to whom all power and judgment ia 
given of the Father.* In which day, not 
only the apostate angels shall he judged ; • 
but likewise all persons, that haVe lived upon 
earth, shall appear before the tribunal of 
Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, 
words, and deeds ; and to receive according to 
what they have done in the body, whether 
good or evil. ' 

done evil, unto the resnrrection of damnation. Phil. iii. 
21. Who shall change our vile body, that it may be 
fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the 
working whereby he is able even to subdue all things 
unto himself. 

e Acts xvii. 81. Because he hath appointed a day, in 
the which he will judge the world in righteousness, by 
that man whom he hath ordained ; whereof he hath given 
assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from 
the dead. 

4 John V. 22, 27. For the Father judgeth no man ; 
but hath committed all judgment unto the Son : and 
hatii given him authority to execute judgment also, be- 
ean^ he is the Son of man. 

• 1 Cor. vi. 3. Know ye not that we shall judge an- 
gels ? How much more, things that pertain to this life ? 
Jade, verse 6. And the angels which kept not their first 
estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in 
everlasting chains under darkness, unto the judgment of 
the great day. 2 Pet. ii. 4. For if God spared not 
the angels that sinned, but cast them down to bell, and 
delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved 
onto judgment. 

' 2 Cor. V. 10. For we must all appear before the 
judgment-seat of Christ; that every one may receive the 
things done in bis body, according to that he hath done, 
whether it be good or bad., Eccl. xii. 14. For God shall 
bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, 
whether it be good, or whether it be evil. Roto. ii. 16. 



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168 00KVSB6ION or rATTH. [OSAF. 

t n. The end of God's appointing this day, is 
for the manifestation of the glorj of his mercy 
in the eternal salvation of the elect ;< and 
of his justice^ in the damnation of the reprobate, 
"who are wicked and disobedient ^ For. then 
shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and 
receive that fulness of joy and refreshing which 
shall come. from the presence of the Lord:^ 

In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by 
Jesas Christ, according to my gospel. Rom. ziy. 10, 12. 
But why dost thou judge thy brother ? or why dost thou 
set at naught thy brother ? for we shall all stand before 
the judgment-seat of Christ. — So then every one of us 
shall give account of himself to God. Matt. xii. 36, 87. 
But I say unto^you, That every idle word that men shall 
speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judg- 
ment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by 
thy words thou shalt be condemned. 

f Rom. ix. 23. And that he might make known the 
riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had 
afore prepared unto glory. Matt. xxv. 21. His lord 
said unto him, Well, done, thou good and faithful servant; 
thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make 
thee ruler over many things : enter thou into the joy of 
thy lord. 

k Rom. ii. 6, 6. But after thy hardnesv and impeni- 
tent heart, treasurest up to thyself wrath against the 
day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment 
of God ; who will render to every man according to his 
deeds. 2 Thess. i. 7, 8. The Lord Jesus shall be re- 
vealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming 
fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God. and 
that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. Rom. 
ix. 22. 

i Matt XXV. 81, 32, 83, 34. When the Son of man 
shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, 
then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory : and before 
him shall be gathered all nations; and he shall separata 



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BC&in.] OONfEBSION Or FAITH. 169 

but the wicked^ who know not God, and obey 
not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be east 
into eternal torments, and bo punished with 
everlasting destruction from the presence of the 
liOrd, and from the glory of his power. J 

III. As Christ would have us to be certainly 
persaaded that there shall be a day of judg- 
ment, both to deter all men from sin, and for 
the greater consolation of the godly in their 
adversity : ^ so will he have that day un- 

them one Trom another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep 
from the goats : and he shall set the sheep oi^ his right 
hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King 
say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of 
tny Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 
the foundation of the world. Acts iii. 19. Times of 
refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord. — 
2 Thess. i. 7. And to you who are troubled, rest with us, 
Vhen the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with 
his mighty angels. 

i Matt. XXV. 41, 46. Then shall he say also unto them 
tm the left hand. Depart from me, ye curse^, into ever- 
lasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels : and 
these shall go away into everlasting punishment. 2 Thess. 
i. 9. Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction 
from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his 
power. Isa. Ixvi. 24. For their worm shall not die, 
neither shall their fire be quenched. 

^ 2 Pet. iii. 11, 14. Seeing then that all these things 
shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought ye to be 
in all holy conversation and godliness ? — Wherefore, be- 
loved, seeing that ye look for such things, be diligent that 
ye may be found of him in peace, without spot and blame- 
less. 2 Cor. Y. 11. Knowing therefore the terror of the 
Lord; we persuade men : but we are made manifest unto 
God ; and I trust also are made manifest in your con- 
sciences. 2 Thess. i. 6, 6, 7. Which is a manifest token 
of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted 
15 

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170 CONFESSION OF FAITH. [oHAP. xxxnz. 

known to men, that tbey may shake off all 
carnal security, and be always watchful, be- 
cause they know not at what hour the Lord 
will come ; and may be ever prepared to say, 
Gome, Lord Jesus, come quickly. ^ Amen. 

worthy of the kingdom of God, for which je also stiffer : 
seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense 
tribulation to them that trouble you ; and to yon who are 
troubled, rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be re- 
vealed from heayen with his mighty angels. Luke xxi. 
27, 28. And then shall they see the Son of man coming 
In a oloud, with power and great glory. And when these 
things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up 
your heads ; for your redemption draweth nigh. 

1 Mark xiii. 85, 86, 87. Watch ye, therefore : for ye 
know not when the master of the house cometh, at eyeoy 
or at midnight, or at the cock-crowing, or in the morn- 
ing : lest, coming suddenly, he find you sleeping. And 
what I say unto you, I say unto all, Watch. Luke ziL 
86, 86. Let your loins be girded about, and your lights 
burning ; and ye yourselves like unto men that wait for 
their Lord, when he will return from the wedding ; Uiai, 
when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him 
Immediately. Bey. xzii. 20. He which testifieth these 
things saith. Surely I come quickly; Amen. Even ms 
some, Lord Jesus, See Matt. xxiy. 86, 42, 48, 44. 



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THE 

LARGER CATECHISM, 

RATinSD AND ADOPTED BY TBI 

SYNOD OF NEW YORK AND PHILADELPfflA, 

Held at Philadelphia, May the 16th, 1788, and oontiniMd by 
a^jounuDentOy until the 28th of the i 



Q. 1. What is the chief and highest end of 
man? 

A. Man's chief and highest end is to glorify 
God,* and fully to enjoy him for ever.* 

Q. 2. Sow doth it appear that there is a 
God? 

A, The very light of nature in man, and the 
lirorks of God, declare plainly that there is a 
God ; * but his word and Spirit only, do suffi- 

» Bom. zi. 86. For of him, and through him, and to 
him are all things : to whom be glory for ever. Amen. 
1 Cor. X. 81. Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or what* 
Boeyer ye do, do all to the glory of God. 

b Pa. Ixxiii. 24, 26, 26. Thou shalt guide me with thy 
counsel, and afterward receive me to glory. Whom have 
I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth that 
I desire besides thee. My flesh and my heart faileth : but 
God is the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever. 
John xvii. 22 and 24. The glory which thou gavest me 
I have given them. — Father, I will that they also whom 
thou hast given me be with me whore I am ; that they 
may behold my glory, which thou hast given me. 

c Rom. i. 19, 20. Because that which may be know|i 
of God, is manifest in them ; for God hath showed it unto 
them. For the inyisible things of him from the creation 

(171) 

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172 THJB LAB^SR CATJSCHI8M. 

ciently and effectuallj reveal him onto men for 

their salvation. ^ 

Q. 3. What %8 the word of Godf 

A. The holy Scriptures of the Old and New 

Testament are the word of God, • the only rule 

of faith and obedience. ' 

of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the 
things that are made, even his eternal power and God- 
head ; so that they are without excuse. See also Psa. 
six. 1, 2, 8. 

d 2 Tim. iii. 16, 16, 17. And that from a child thou 
hast known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make 
thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ 
Jesus. All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and 
is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, fo? 
instruction in righteousness ; that the man of God maj 
be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. 

1 Cor. ii. 10. 

« 2 Tim. iii. 16. All scripture is given by inspiration 
of God. 2 Pet. i. 19, 20, 21. We havQ also a more sure 
word of prophecy ; whereunto ye do well that ye take 
heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until 
the day dawn, and the day-star arise in your hearts; 
knowing this first, that no prophecy of the Scripture is of 
any private interpretation. For tiie prophecy came nol 
in old time by the will of man ; but holy men of God 
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost 

t Isa. viii. 20. To the law and to the testimony: if 
they speak not according to this word, it is because there 
is no light in them. Luke xvi. 29, 31. They have Mosee 
and the prophets; let them hear them. — If they hear not 
Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded 
though one rose from the dead. Gal. i. 8, 9. But though 
we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel 
onto you than that which we have preached unto yon, 
let him be accursed. As we said before, so say I now 
again. If any man preach any other gospel unto you than 
that ye have received, let him be accursed. See also 

2 Tim. iU. 15, 16, 17. 



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THE LARGER OATEOHISM. 178 

Q. 4. Sow doth it appear that the Scrip- 
tures are the word of Ood f 

A. The Scriptures manifest themselves to 
be the word of God, by their majesty* and 
purity;^ by the consent of all the parts,* 
and the scope of the whole, which is to give 
all glory to God ; ^ by their light and power 
to convince and convert sinners, to comfort and 
build up believers unto salvation.^ But the 

r Isa. IxTi. 1. Thus saith the Lord, The heayen is my 
throne, and the earth is my footstool : where is the house 
that ye build unto me ? and where is the place of my 
rest ? See also Amos ix. 2, 3, 4. Psa. Ixzyii. 

b Psa. xii. 6. The words of the Lord are pure words : 
as silyer tried in a furnace of earth, purified seyen times. 
Psa. cxix. 140. Thy word is very pure. 

I Acts X. 48. To him give all the prophets witness, 
that through his name, whosoeyer belieyeth in him shall 
receive remission of sins. Acts xxvi. 22. Haying there- 
fore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, wit- 
nessing both to small and great, saying none other things 
than those which the prophets and Moses did say should 
come. 

i Rom. iii. 19, 27. Now we know, that what things 
soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the 
law ; that j^very mouth may be stopped, and all the world 
may become guilty before God. — Where is boasting then ? 
It is excluded. By what law ? of works ? Nay ; but by 
the law of faith. 

* Acts xviii. 28. For he mightily convinced the Jews, 
and that publicly, showing by the Scriptures, that Jesus 
was Christ. Heb. iv. 12. For the word of God is quick, 
and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, 
piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, 
and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the 
thoughts and intents of the heart. James i. 18. Of 
his own will begat he us with the word of truth. Psa* 
six. 7, 8, 9. The law of the Lord is perfect, converting 
15 ♦ 

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174 THB LASGISEl OATXOHI&M. 

Spirit of God bearing witness by and with the 
Scriptures in the heart of man, is alone able 
fully to persuade it that they are the very word 
of God. ' 

Q. 6. What do the Scriptures principaily 
teach? 

A. The Scriptures principally teach, what 
man is to believe concerning God, and what 
duty God requires of man. " 

WHAT MAN OUGHT TO BELIEVE CONOBBNINa 
GOD. 

Q. 6. What do the Scriptures make known 
of God? 

A, The Scriptures make known what God 
is, "^ the persons in the Godhead,* his de- 
crees, P and the execution of his decrees. ^ 

the soul : the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise 
the simple, &c. 

1 John xTi. 18, 14. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of 
truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth : and he 
Will show you things to come. He shall glorify me ; for 
he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. 

1 John ii. 20, 27. 

» John XX. 81. But these are written, thart ye might 
believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and 
that believing ye might have life through his name* 

2 Tim. i. 18. Hold fast the form of sound words, which 
thou hast heard of me, in faith and love. Psa. cxix. 105. 

B John iv. 24. God is a Spirit. Ex. iii. 14, and 
xxxiv. 6, 7. 

o 1 John Y. 7. For there are three that bear record in 
heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost : and 
these three are one. 

P Acts XV. 14, 16, 18. 

4 Acts iv. 27, 28. For of a truth, against thy holy 
child Jesus— both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the 

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1!BE I<AEG£R CATKCHI&Sf: 175 

Q. T. What is Godf 

A. God is a Spirit, ' in {ind of himself infi- 
nite in being, ■ glory, * blessedness, 'and per- 
fection ; ^ all-suflScient, ^ eternal, * unchange- 
able, ^ incomprehensible, ■ every where pres- 

Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered to« 
gether, for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy oounsel 
determined before to be done. 
' John iv. 24. Go^ is a Spirit. 

* Ex. iii. 14. And God said unto Moses, I am that 
I AM : and he said. Thus shalt thou say unto the child- 
ren of Israel, I am hath sent me unto you. Job xi. 7, 
8, 9. Canst thou by searching find out God ? canst thou 
find out the Almighty unto perfection ? It is as high as 
heaven ; what canst thou do ? deeper than hell ; what 
canst thon know ? the measure thereof is longer than the 
earth, and broader than the sea. 

* Acts vii. 2. The God of glory appeared unto our 
father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he 
dwelt in Charran. 

» 1 Tim. vi. 16. Which in his times he shall show, 
who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, 
and Lord of lords. 

▼ Matt. T. 48. Be ye therefore perfect, even as your 
Father which is in heaven is perfect. 

" Gen. xvii. 1. And when Abram was ninety years old 
and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto 
him, I am the Almighty God : walk before me, and be 
thou perfect. 

« Psa. xc. 2. Before the mountains were brought forth, 
or eyer thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even 
from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. 

f Mai. iii. 6. For I am the Lord, I change not: 
therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed. James 
i 17. 

' 1 Sings viii. 27. But will God indeed dwell on the 
earth T Behold, the heaven, and heaven of heavens, can* 
not contain thee ; how much less this house that I have 
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176 THE LABQEB CATECHISM. 

ent, • almighty,'' knowing all things, • most 
wise, * most holy, • most just, ' most merciful 
and gracious, long-sufifering, and abundacft in 
goodness and truth. « 

Q. 8. Are there more Gods than one f 
A, There is but one only, the living and 
true God. ^ 

• Psa. cxxxix. 1, 2, 7. Lord, thou hast searched 
me, and known me. Thou knowest my down-sitting and 
mine up-rising ; thou understandest my thought afar off. 
— Whither shall I go from thy Spirit ? or whither shall J 
flee from thy presence ? 

b Bey. iv. 8. And the four beasts had each of them 
six wings about him ; and they were full of eyes within ; 
and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, 
Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to oome. 

« Heb. lY. 13. Neither is there any creature that ia 
not manifest in his sight: but all things are naked and 
opened unto the eyes of Him with whom we haYe to do. 
And Psa. cxlvii. 5. 

d Bom. xYi. 27. To God only wise, be glory through 
Jesus Christ, for oyer. Amen. 

• Isa. yi. 8. And one cried unto another, and said. 
Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts ; the whole earth 
is full of his glory. Bey. xy. 4. Who shall not fear 
thee, Lord, and glorify thy name ? for thou only art 
holy. 

i Deut. xxxii. 4. He is the rock, his work is perfect ; 
for all his ways are judgment : a God of truth, and with- 
out iniquity ; just and right is he. 

c £x. xxxiy. 6. And the Lord passed by before him, 
and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and 
gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and 
truth. 

i^ Deut. yi. 4. Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God 
is one Lord. 1 Cor. Yiii.'4. There is none other God 
but one. And yerse 6. Jer. x. 10. But the Lord is 
the true God, he is the liying God, and an eyerlasting 
King. 

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THE LABGXB 0ATB0HI8M. 17T 

Q. 9. How many persom are there in the 
Godhead? 

A. There be three persons in the Godhead, 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; and 
these three are one true, eternal God, the same 
in substance, equal in power and glory: al- 
though distinguished by their personal proper- 
ties.' 

Q. 10. What are the personal properties of 
the three persons in the Godhead f 

A. It is proper to the Father to beget the 
Son,^ and to the Son to be begotten of the 
Father, ^ and to the Holy Ghost to proceed 
ixom the Father and the Son, from all eter- 
nity.* 

Q. 11, How doth it appear that the Son 
and the Holy Ghost are God equal with the 
Father f 

i 1 Jolm ▼. 7. For there are three that bear record in 
heaven, the Father the Word, and the Holy Ghost : and 
these three are one. Matt. iii. 16, 17, and xxTiii. 1^. 
2 Cor. xiiL 14. John x. 30. 

i Heb. i. 5, 6. For unto which of the angels said h« 
at any time. Thou art my Son, this day have I begottea 
thee ? And again, I will be to him a Father, aiui he shaU 
be to me a Son. John i. 14. 

k John i. 14. And the Word was made flesh, and 
dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as 
of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and 
truth. 

1 John XT. 26. But when the Comforter is come, whom 
I shall send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of 
truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify 
of me. Gal. iv. 6. And because ye are sons, God hath 
sent forth the Spirit of his Son unto your hearts, orying^ 
Abba, Father. 

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178 THX LABGBB OATEOHISM. 

A. The Scriptures manifest that the Son and 
the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father, 
ascribing unto them such names,"^ attributes,^ 
works,* and worship,' as are proper to God 
only, 

n Jer. xxiii. 6. And this is his name whereby he shall 
be called, THE LORD (our Jehovah) OUR RIGHT- 
EOUSNESS. 1 John T. 20. And we are in him that is 
true, even in his Son Jesns Christ. This is the true Go±, 
and eternal life. Psa. xIt. 6. Thy throne, Qod, is for 
ever and ever. Acts y. 8, 4. But Peter said, Ananias, 
why hath Satan filled thy heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ? — 
Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God. 

> John i. 1. In the beginning was the Word, and the 
Word was with God, and the Word was God. Isa. iz. 6. 
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and 
the government shall be upon his shoulder; and his name 
shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty Qod, 
The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. John iL 
24, 25. But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, 
because he knew all men, and needed not that any should 
testify of man : for he knew what was in man. 1 Cor. ii« 
10, 11. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit : 
for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea the deep things of 
God. For what man knoweth the tlungs of a man, save 
the spirit of man which is in him ? Even so the things 
of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Heb. iz. 
14. How much more shall the blood of Christ, who 
through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to 
God, purge your conscience from dead works, to serve the 
living God ? 

o Col. i. 16. For by him were all things created, that 
are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, 
whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or 
powers; all things were created by him, and for him. 
Gen. i. 2. And the earth was without form, and Toid ; 
and darkness was upon the face of the deep : and the 
Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Job 
zzvi. 18. Psa. civ. 80, and John i. 8. 

9 Matt zzviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teaoh all 

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THS LAROIB OATBOHISM. 179 

Q. 12. What are the decrees of &od f 

A. God's decrees are the wise, free, and holy 
acts of the counsel of his will, "^ whereby, from 
all eternity, he hath, for his own glory, nn- 
changeably fore-ordained whatsoever comes to 
pass m time, ' especially concerning angels and 
men. 

Q. 13. What hath God especially decreed 
concerning angels and men f 

A. God, by an eternal and immutable de- 
cree, out of his mere love, for the praise of his 
glorious grace, to be manifested in due time, 
hath elected some angels to glory ; ' and, in 

Bfttions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Sod, and of the Holy Ghost. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. The 
jpmce of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and 
the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all.-^ 
Amen. 

4 Eph. i. 11. In whom also we have obtained an in- 
heritance, being predestinated according to the purpose 
of him who worketh all things, after the counsel of his 
own will. Bom. ix. 15, 18. For he saith to Moses, I 
wiU have mercy on whom I ivill have mercy, and I will 
haTe compassion on whom 1 will hare compassion. There* 
fore bath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and 
whom he will he hardeneth. Rom. xi. 83. 

r Eph. i. 4, 11. According as he hath chosen us in 
him, before the foundation of the world, that we should 
be holy and without blame before him in love. Rom. is. 
22, 23. YfhAt if God, willing to show his wrath, and to 
make his power known, endured with much long-suffering 
the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction ; and that he 
might make known the riches of bis glory on the vessels 
of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory ? Psa. 
zxxiii. 11. The counsel of the Lord standeth forever, 
the thoughts of his heart to all generations. 

• 1 Tim. V. 21. I charge thee before God, and the Lord 
Jmris Christ, and the elect angels. 

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ISO 7HS LABfiBB CATEXmSEOi. 

Christ, hath chosen some men to etemal life, 
and the means thereof, * and also, according to 
his sovereign power, and the unsearchable 
x^onnsel of his own will (whereby he extendeth 
or withholdeth favour as he pleaseth) hath 
passed by, and fore-ordained the rest to dis- 
honour and wrath, to be for their sin inflicted, 
to the praise of the glory of his justice. * 
Q. 14. ITow doth Gf-od execute his decrees f 
A, Crod executeth his decrees in the works 
of creation and providence ; according to his 
infallible fore-knowledge, and the free and im- 
mutable counsel of his own will. ^ 

* Eph. i. 4, 5, 6. According as he hath chosen us in 
him, (viz. Christ) before the fouDdation of the world, that 
we should be holy, and without blame before him in love : 
having predestinated us, unto the adoption of children bj 
Jesus Christ, to himself — To the praise of the glory of 
his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the Be- 
loved. 2 Thes«. ii. 13, 14. But we are bound to gire 
thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the 
Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen yon 
to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit, and be* 
lief of the truth. 1 Pet. i. 2. 

■ Rom. ix. 17, 18, 21, 22. For the Scripture saith 
unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised 
thee up, that I might show my power in thee, and that 
tny name might be declared throughout all the earth. — 
Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, 
and whom he will he hardeneth. — Hath not the potter 
power over the clay, of the same lump to make one ves- 
sel unto honour, and another unto dishonour ? Jude 4. 
For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were 
before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, 
turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and de* 
nying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Matt. xi. 26, 26. 2 Tim. ii. 20. 

V Eph. i. 11. Li whom also we have obtained aa 

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SEX LAKOSR OATBGHIStf. 181 

Q. 15. What 18 the work of creation t 
A. The work of creation is that wherein 
God did in the beginning, by the word of his 
power, make of nothing, the world and all 
things therein for himself, within the space of 
six days, and all very good. ^ 

Q. 16. How did God create angels f 
A. God created all the angels,* spirits,^ 
immortal, ' holy, * excelling in knowledge, ^ 
mighty in power ; ^ to execute his command- 

inheritaiiQe, being predestiiiatecl according to the purpose 
of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his 
own will. 

^ Gen. Ist chap. Heb. xi. 3. Through faith we un- 
'derstand that the worlds were framed by the word of 
God ; so that things which are seen were not made of 
things which do appear. ProT. zri. 4. The Lord hath 
made all things for himself : ytk, eyen the wicked for the 
daj of eyil. Rev. iv. 11 

X Col. i. 16. For by him were all things created, that 
are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, 
whether they be thrones or dominions, or principali- 
ties, or powers ; aU things were created by him, and for 
him. 

7 Psa. civ. 4. Who maketh his angels spirits ; his min- 
isters a flaming fire. 

s Matt. zxii. 80. For in the resurrection they neither 
mnrry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels 
of God in heaven. 

« Matt. XXV. 81. When the Son of man shall come la 
his glory, and all his holy angels with him, then shall he 
sit upon the throne of his glory. 

b 2 Sam: xiv. 17. As an angel of God, so is my lord 
the king, to discern good and bad. Matt. xxiv. 86. 

« 2 Thess. i. 7. And to you who are troubled, rest with 
us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven, 
with his mighty angels. 
16 

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182 THS LABGSB QATECHIgH. 

ments, and to praise his name, ^ yet Bubjeet 
to change. * 

Q. 17. How did Q-od create man f 
A. After God had made all other erea- 
taresy he created man, male and female;' 
formed the body of the man of the dust of the 
ground, ' and the woman of the rib of the 
man;^ endued them with living, reasonable, 
and immortal souls ; ^ made them after his 
own image, ^ in knowledge, ^ righteousness 
and holiness, ^ having the law of God writ- 
ten in their hearts, '^ and power to folfii 

d Psa. ciii. 20, 21. Bless the Lord, ye his angels, thai 
excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening 
unto the Toice of his word. Bless ye the Lord all ye his 
hosts ; ye ministers of his, that do his pleasure. 

e 2 Pet. ii. 4. For if Qod spared not the angels that 
sinned, but oast them down to hell, and delirered then 
into chains of darkness, to be reseryed unto judgment. 

' Gen. i. 27. So Gk>d created man in his own image; 
in the image of Qod created he him ; male and female 
created he them. 

< Gen. ii. 7. And the Lord God formed man of the 
dust of the ground. 

b Gen. ii. 22. And the rib, which the Lord God had 
taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto 
tiie man. 

i Gen. ii. 7. And the Lord God formed man of the 
dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the 
breath of life ; and man became a living soul. See Job 
XXXV. 11. Eccl. xii. 7. Matt. x. 28. Luke xxiii. 48. 

J Gen. i. 27. So God created man in his own image: 
in the image of God created he him. 

k Col. iii. 10. 

1 £ph. iv. 24. 

a> Rom. ii. 14, 16. For when the Gentiles, which hATe 
not the law, do by nature the things contained in the 
law, these, having not the law, are a law unto theai- 

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it,* ynih domfeion over the creatures;' yet 

subject to fall. » 

Q. 18. What are GocCs works ofprovidenee f 
A. God's works of providence are his 

ttiost holy, ^ wise, ' and powerful preserving, ■ 

and governing all his creatures ; * ordering 

them, and all their actions,'' to his own 

glory. " 

Q. 19. What 18 Q-od's providence toward 

ike angels I 

MiTes ; which show the work of the law written in their 
hearts, their conscience also beiCring witness, and their 
thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one 
mother. 

* EoeL viL 29. God hath made man upright 
o Gen. L 28. 

P Gen. iii. 6. Eccl. vil 29. 

4 Psa. cxlv. 17. The Lord is righteous in all his ways, 
and holy in all his works. 

' Psa. ciY. 24. Lord, how manifold are thy works I 
in wisdom hast thou made them all. Isa. xxviii. 29. 
This also cometh forth from the Lord of hosts, which is 
wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working. 

• Heb. i. 3. Who, being the brightness of his glory, 
and the express image of his person, and upholding all 
things by the word of his power. 

t Psa. ciii. 19. The Lord hath prepared his throne in 
the heavens ; and his kingdom ruleth over all. 

« Matt. X. 29, 30. Are not two sparrows sold for a 
farthing ? and one of them shall not fall on the ground 
without your Father. But the very hairs of your head 
are all numbered. Gen. xlv. 7. And God sent me be- 
fore you, to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to 
save your lives by a great deliverance. 

▼ Rom. xi. 86. For of him, and through him, and to 
him, are all things ; to whom be glory for ever. Amen. 
Isa. IxiiL 14. So didst thou lead thy people, to make 
thyself a glorious name. ^ 

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184 ras IiABGEB <UXB0HI8K. 

A. Ood by his providence permitted, some 
of the angels, wilfully and irrecoverably, to 
fall into sin and damnation, ^ limiting and or* 
dering that, and all their sins, to his owq 
glory ; ' and established the rest in holinesi 
and happiness;^ employing them all,' at hiA 
pleasure, in the administrations of his power, 
mercy, and justice. • 

Q. 20. What was the providence of Cf-od 
toward man in the estate in which he wa$ 
created f 

A. The providence of God toward man in 
the estate in which he was created, was, the 
placing him in paradise, appointing him to dress 
it, giving him liberty to eat of the fruit of the 
earth, ^ putting the creatures under his domi* 
nion, • and ordaining marriage for his help ; * 

w jude 6. And the angels which kept not their first 
estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in 
everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of 
the great day.. 2 Pet. ii. 4. John viii. 44. 

' Job i. 12. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, all 
that he haUi is in thy power ; only upon himself put not 
forth thy hand. Luke x. 17. Matt. viii. 81. 

7 1 Tim. T. 21. I charge thee before God, and the 
Lord Jesus Chtist, and the elect angels. Mark viii. 38. 
Heb. xii. 22. 

■ Psa. civ. 4. Who maketh his angels spirits; his 
ministers a flaming fire. 

* Heb. i. 14. Are they not all ministering spirits, 
sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of sal- 
vation ? 2 Kings xix. 85. 

k Gen. ii. 8, 16, 16. 

• Gen. i. 28. 

' Gen. ii. 18. And the Lord God said. It is not good 
that man should be alone ; I will make him an help meet 
for him. 

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laiB LABOXa CATXOHIBV. 185 

ftffordiDg faim coramanion with himself,' in- 
stituting the Sabbath/ entering into a cove- 
nant of life with him, upon condition of per- 
sonal, perfect, and perpetual obedience,* of 
which the tree of life was a pledge ; ^ and for- 
bidding to eat of the tree of the knowledge of 
good and evil, upon the pain of death.^ 

Q. 21. Did man continue in that estate 
wherein God at first created him ? 
' A. Oar first parents, being left to the free- 
dom of their own will, through the temptation 
of Satan, transgressed the commandment of 
<xod, in eating the forbidden fruit, and thereby 
fell from the estate of innocency wherein they 
were created. J 

e Gen. i. 27, 28. 

r Gen. ii. 8. And God blessed the seyenth day, and 
sanctified it ; because that in it he had rested from all his 
vork which God created and made. 

( Rom. V. 14. Adam — who is the figure of him that 
Was to come. Gal. iii. 12. And the law is not of faith: 
but the man that doeth them shall live in them. Bom. x 
5. Gal. iii. 10. 1 Cor. xv. 22, 47. Hos. vi. 7. 

h Gen. ii. 9. And out of the ground made the Lord 
God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and 
good for food : the tree of life also in the midst of the 
garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 

» Gen. ii. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of good 
and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou 
^atest thereof thou shalt surely die. 

J Gen. iii. 6, 7, 8, 13. And when the woman saw that 
the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant 
to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, 
she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat ; and gave also 
nnto her husband with her, and he did eat. — And they 
knew that they were naked. — And Adam and his wife 
hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God 
16* 

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186 TSE LABOKB CATXOHIM. 

Q. 22. Bid aU mankind fall in that firH 
transgression f 

A. The covenant being made with Adam, 
as a public person, not for himself only, but for 
his posterity ; all mankind descending from 
him by ordinary generation,^ sinned in him and 
fell with him in that first transgression.^ 

Q. 23. Into what estate did the faU bring 
mankind ? 

A. The fall brought mankind into an estate 
of sin and misery." 

Q. 24. What is sin f 

A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or 
transgression of any law of God, given as a 
rule to the reasonable creature."* 

Q. 25. Wherein consists the sinfulness of 
that estate whereinto man fell? 

amongst the trees of the garden. — And the Lord God said 
anto the woman, What is this that thou hast done ? And 
the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. 
2 Cor. xi. 3. Eccl. vii. 29. 

^ Acts xvii. 26. And hath made of one blood all nations 
of men. 

I Gen. ii. 17. But of the tree of the knowledge of 
good and evi^ thou shalt not eat of it ; for in the day that 
thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Compared with 
Rom. V. 12 to 20 verse, and with 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22. 

«n Rom. V. 12. Wherefore as by one man sin entered 
into the world, and death by sin ; and so death passed 
upon all men, for that all have sinned. Gal. iii. 10. For 
as many as are of the works of the law, are under the 
curse : for it is written. Cursed is every one that contin- 
ueth not in all things which are written in the book of the 
law to do them. 

B Rom. iii. 23. All have sinned and come short of the 
glory of God. 1 John iii. 4. Bin is the transgrestton 
Of the Uw. GaL iu. 10—12. 

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SHX LASOZB OATIOHISlf . 187 

A* The sinfulness of that estate whereinto 
man fell, consisteth in the guilt of Adam's 
first sin,^ the want of that righteousness wherein 
he was created, and the corruption of his na- 
ture, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, 
and made opposite unto all that is spiritually 
good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that 
continually ; ^ which is commonly called origi* 
nal sin, and from which do proceed all actual 
transgressions.^ 

Q. 26. How is original sin conveyed from 
our first parents unto their posterity ? 

• Rom. ▼. 12, 19. Wherefore, as by one man sin 
entered into the world, and death by sin ; and so death 
passed upon all men, for that all have sinned. — By one 
man's disobedience many were made sinners. 1 Cor. 
XT. 22 

P Rom. T. 6. For when we were yet without strength, 
in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Rom. iii. 10 to 
20. As it is written, there is none righteous, no, not one: 
there is none that understandeth, there is none that seek- 
eth after Qod. They are all gone out of the way, they 
are together become unprofitable ; there is none that doeth 
good, no, not one, &c. Eph. ii. 1, 2, 8. And you hath 
he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins, &c. 
Rom. Tiii. 7, 8. Because the carnal mind is enmity 
against God; for it is not. subject to the law of God, 
neither indeed can be. So then they that are in the flesh, 
eannot please God. Gen. vi. 5. And God saw that the 
wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every 
imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil 
continually. 

4 James i. 14, 15. But every man is tempted, if hen 
he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed. Then, 
when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin ; and sin 
when it is finished, bringeth forth death. Matt. xv. 19 
For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adul* 
teries, fornication, thefts, false witness, blasphemies. 

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188 THE LAIKJSa CA1S0HISIC. 

A. Original Bin is conveyed from our first 
parents unto their posterity by natural generSF* 
tion, so as all that proceed from them in that 
way, are conceived and born in sin/ 

Q. 27. What misery did the fall bring up<m 
mankind f 

A. The fall brought upon mankind the los8 
of communion with God," his displeasure and 
curse; so as we are by nature children of 
wrath,* bond-slaves to Satan,"* and justly liable 
to all punishments in this world and that 
which is to come/ 

r Psa. U. 6. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity ; and in 
Bin did my mother conceive me. Job xiT. 4. Who can 
bring a clean thing out of an unclean ? not one. Job zv. 
14. What is man, that he should be clean? and he which 
is born of a woman, that he should be righteous ? John iii 
6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. 

• Gen. iii. 8, 24. And they heard the voice of the Lord 
God walking in the garden in the cool of the day : and 
Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the 
Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. — So he drove 
out the man ; and he placed at the east of the garden of 
Eden, cherubims, and a flaming sword, which turned every 
way, to keep the way of the tree of life. 

* Eph. ii. 2, 3. Wherein in time past ye walked ac- 
cording to the course of this world, according to the prince 
of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in 
the children of disobedience : among whom also we all had 
our conversation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, 
fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind ; and 
were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. 

» 2 Tim. ii. 26. And that they may recover them- 
selves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken 
captive by him at his will. Luke xi. 21, 22. Heb. 
ii. 14. 

^ Rom. vi. 23. The wages of sin is death. Rom. t 
14. Gen. ii. 17. 

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THE IiABOBE CATX0HI81C. 180 

Q. 28. What are the punUhments of $in in 
this world f 

A. The punishments of sin in this world, 
are either inward, as blindness of mind, ^ a 
reprobate sense, ^ strong delusions, ^ hard- 
ness of heart," horror of conscience, • and vile 
affections : ^ or outward, as the curse of God 
upon the creatures for our sake, ^ and all other 
evils that befall us in our bodies, names, 
estates, relations, and employments ; ^ together 
with death itself. * 

V Eph. iv. 18. Having the understanding darkened, 
being alienated from the life of God, through the ignorance 
that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart. 

• Rom. i. 28. Even as they did not like to retain God 
in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate 
mind, to do those things which are not conTenient. 

7 2 Thess. ii. 11. And for this cause God shall send 
them strong delusion, that they should belieye a lie. 

• Bom. ii. 6. But after thy hardness and impenitent 
heart, treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of 
^rath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God. 

a Isa. xxziii. 14. The sinners in Zion are afraid ; fear- 
fiilness hath surprised the hypocrites. Who among us 
shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who amongst us 
shall dwell with everlasting burniogs? Gen. iv. 18, 14. 
Matt, zxvii. 4. Heb. z. 27. 

b Bom. i. 26. For this cause God gave them up unto 
vile afifections. 

e Gen. iii. 17. Because thou hast hearkened unto the 
voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I 
commanded thee, saying. Thou shalt not eat of it, cursed 
is the ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou eat of 
it all the days of thy life. 

d Deut. zzviii. 15, to the end. If thou wilt not 
hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God — all these 
corses shall come upon thee : — Cursed shalt thou be in 
the city, &c. 

• Bom. vL 21, 28. What froit had ye then in those 

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190 THE LABGSB OATBOEISM. 

Q. 29. What are the punishments of sin in^ 
the world to come f 

A, The punishments of sin in the world to 
come are, everlasting separation from the com 
fbrtable presence of God, and most grievous 
torments in soul and body, without intermis- 
sion, in hell-fire for ever. ' 

Q, 30. Both Q-od leave all mankind to per^ 
ish in the estate of sin and misery f 

A. God doth not leave all men to perish in 
the estate of sin and misery, < into which they 
fell by the breach of the first covenant, com* 
monly called the covenant of works ; ^ but of 
his mere love and mercy delivereth his elect 
out of it, and bringeth them into an estate df 
salvation by the second covenant, commonly 
called the covenant of grace. ^ 

things whereof ye are now ashamed ? for the end of thoee 
things is death. — The wages of sin is death. 

' 2 Thess. i. 9. Who shall be punished with everlasi" 
ing destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from 
the^lory of his power. Mark ix. 48, 44. To go into 
hell — where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not 
quenched. Luke xvi. 24, 26. Send Lazarus, that he 
nay dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue ; 
for I am tormented in this flame. — Between us and yoa 
there is a great gulf fixed: ho that they which would 
pass from hence to you cannot ; neither can they pass to 
us, that would come from thence. Matt. xxt. 41, 46. 
Bey. xiv. 11. John iii. 86. 

s 1 Thess. V. 9. For God hatii not appointed us to 
wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ 

^ Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the works of the 
law, are under the curse : for it is written, Cursed U 
every one ' that continueth not in all things which are 
written in the book of the law to do them. 

i lit. iii 4, 6, 6, 7. But after that the 

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WX JJ^MQJS&.OATEGBmSg. 191 

Q. 31. With whom wom the covenant of 
grace made ? 

A. The covenant of grace was made with 
Christ as the second Adam, and in him with 
all the elect as his seed. ^ 

Q. 32. How is the grace of Crod manifested 
in the second covenant f 

A. The grace of God is manifested in the 

second covenant, in that he freely provideth 

^ and offereth to sinners a mediator, ^ and life 

and ItDTe of God our Saviour toward man appeared, nQ(t 
by works of righteousness which we have done, but ao- 
Qordlng to bis mercy he saved us, by the washing of 
regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost ; which be 
shed on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour : 
that being justified by his grace, we should be made 
heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Tit. i. 2. In 
hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, prom- 
ised before the world began. Gal. iiL 21. Kom. ill. 20, 
21, 22. 

J Gal. ill. 16. Now to Abraham and his seed were the 
promiBes made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many : 
but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. Isa. 
lix. 21. As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith 
the Lord ; my Spirit that is upon thee, and my words 
which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out pf 
thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the 
mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from henceforth 
and for ever. Zech. vL 18. Luke xzii. 29. 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 5. Kom. v. 15, to the end. 

k Gen. iii. 15. And I will put enmity between thee 
and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed : U 
ah all bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. 
Isa. zlii. 6. I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, 
and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, Ad give 
thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gen- 
tiles. John vi. 27. Labour not for the meat which 
perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto ever- 
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102 THB LABQER 0ATX0HI8U. 

and saWation by him;^ and requiring faith 
as the condition to interest them in him, * 
promiseth and giveth his Holy Spirit to all his 
elect, ^ to work in them that faith, ® with all 
other saving graces ; ^ and to enable them nnto 
all holy obedience, * as the evidence of the 
truth of their faith, ' and thankfulness to God, ' 

lasting life, which the Son of man shall give onto 
you: for him hath God the Father sealed. 1 Tim. 
ii. 5. 

1 1 John T. 11, 12. And this is the record, That God 
hath given to us eternal life ; and this life is in his Son. 
He that hath the Son, hath life. 

' * "> John iii. 16. For God so lored the world, that he 
gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever belie veth in 
him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. John 
i. 12. But as many as received him, to them gave he 
power to become the sons of God, even to them that be- 
lieve on his name. Chap. iii. 86. 

» Prov. i. 23. Behold, I will pour out my Spirit nnto 
you, I will make kriown my words unto you. Isa. lix. 
21. Zech. xii. 10. 

• 2 Cor. iv. 13. We having the same spirit of faith, 
according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have 
I spoken ; we also believe, and therefore speak. 

P Gal. V. 22, 23. But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy> 
peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meek- 
ness, temperance : against such there is no law. 

<i Ezek. xxxvi. 27. And I will put my Spirit within 
you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall 
keep my judgments, and do them. 

' James ii. 18, 22. Tea, a man may say. Thou bast 
faith, and I have works : show me thv faith without thy 
works, and I will show thee my faith by my works — 
Seest ^ou how faith wrought with his works, and by 
works was faith made perfect ? 

• 2 Cor. T. 14, 15. For the love of Christ constraineth 
us, ftc. 



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THE LABQEB OATXGfilSH. 193 

and as the way which he hath appointed them 
to salvation. * 

. Q. 33. Wa9 the covenant of grace alwat/9 
administered after one and the same manner f 

A. The covenant of grace was not alwaya 
iidministered after the same manner, but the 
administrations of it under the Old Testament 
were diflFerent from those under the New. ' 

Q. 34. ITqw was the covenant of grace ad- 
ministeted under the Old Testament f 

A. The covenant of grace was administered 
under the Old Testament, by promises, ^ pro- 
phecies, ^ sacrifices, * circumcision, ^ the pass- 
over, ■ and other types and ordinances ; which 
did all fore-signify Christ then to come, and 
were*for that time suflScient to build up the elect 
in faith in the promised Messiah, * by whom 

t £ph. ii. 10. For we are his workmanship, created 
in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before 
ordained that we should walk in them. Tit. ii. 14, and 

m. 8. 

" 2 Cor. iii. 6. Who also hath made ns able ministera 
of the new testament : not of the letter, bat of the spirit, 
fieb. i. 1, 2, chap yiii. 7, 8, &c. 

▼ Rom. XV. 8. Now I say, that Jesna Christ was a 
minister of the circumcvsion for the truth of God, to con- 
firm the promises made unto the fathers. Acts iii. 20. 

w Acts iii. 20, 24. 

« Heb. X. 1. 

^ Rom. iv. 11. 

• 1 Cor. T. T. Ex. xii. 14, 17, 24. 

* Heb. xi. 13. These all died in faith, not baring re- 
eeived the promises, but having seen them afar off, and 
were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and coni- 
fessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. 
Heb. riii. iz. and x. chapters. 

17 

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194 TSB LARGER OATBOHIBIC. 

they then had full remiesion of sin and eternal 
salvation. ^ 

Q. 35. Mow 18 the covenant of grace admif^ 
i&tered under the New Teetamentf 

A. Under the New Testament, when Christ 
the substance was exhibited, the same covenant 
of grace was, and still is to be, administered ia 
the preaching of the word, • and the adminis* 
tration of the sacraments of baptism, ^ and the 
Lord's supper ; * in which grace and salvation 
are held forth in more fulness, evidence and 
efficacy to all nations.' 

Q. 86. Who is the Mediator of the covenant 
cf grace f 

A. The only Mediator of the covenant of 
grace is the Lord Jesus Christ, * who being the 
eternal Son of God, of one substance and equal 
with the Father, ^ in the fulness of time be- 

b Gal. iii. 7, 8, 9, 14. 

* Mark xyi. 15. And he said unto them, Go ye 
into aU the world, and preach the gospel to e-veiy oreft* 
tnre. 

« Matt. zzTiii. 19, 20. Go ye, therefore, and teach aU 
nationer, baptizing them in the name of the Father, i^d 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

• 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24, 25, 26. For I have receiyed of the 
Lord, that which also I deliyered unto yon, &c. This do 
ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For 
as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do 
show the Lord's death tiU he come. [Till he come to 
judgment : for he had come in the Spirit long before this 
time.] See also the gospels. 

' 2 Cor. iii. 6. 

s 1 Tim. ii. 5. For there is one God, and one Media* 
tor between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. 
^ John i. 1. Li the beginning Was the Word, aaA 

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TUB LARQBE OATBOinSH. . 196 

(Aime man, Vand so was, and continues to be, 
God and man, in two entire distinct natures, 
ftnd one person for ever. ^ 

Q. 87. How did Christy being the Son of 
€hd^ become man ? 

A. Christ, the Son of God, became man by 
taking to himself a true body, and a reasona- 
ble soul, ^ being conceived by the power of the 
Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Jlfary, 
of her substance, and born of her, ^ yet with- 
out sin. ^ 

the Word was with God, and the Word was God. John 
z. 80. I and my Father are one. Phil. ii. 6. Who, be- 
ing in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be eqnal 
irith God. 

< Gal. iv. 4. But when the fulness of the time wad 
oome, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman. 

i Luke i. 35. That holy thing which shall be bom of 
fhee, shall be called the Son of God. Rom. iz. 6. Whose 
sre the fathers, and of whom, as concerning the flesh, 
Christ came ; who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen. 
Gol. ii. 9. For in him dwelleth all the fulness of th^ 
Godhead bodily. 

k John i. 14. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us. Matt. xxyi. 88. My soul is exceeding sor- 
fowfni, even unto death. 

> Luke i. 81, 85, 42. And, behold, thou shalt con<' 
eeiTe in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call 
his name JESUS. — The Holy Ghost shall come upon 
thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow 
thee ; therefore also that holy thing which shall be bom 
of thee, shall be called the Son of God. — Blessed art 
thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy 
womb. Gal. ir. 4. God sent forth his Son, made of a 
woman. 

■» Heb. IT. 16. For we have not an high priest which 
tfannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; bnto 
WM in all points tempted like as ire are, yet without un. 

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196 THE LABQEB 0ATS0HI8X. 

Q. 38. Why was it requisite that the Medith 
tor should be Crod f 

A. It was requisite that the Mediator 
should be God, that he might sustain and 
keep the human nature from sinking un- 
der the infinite wrath of God, and the power 
of death ; ^ give worth and efficacy to his 
sufferings, obedience, and intercession ; * and 
to satisfy God's justice, ^ procure his fa- 
vour, "^ purchase a peculiar people, ' give 
his Spirit to them, ' conquer all their ene- 

Heb. Tu. 26. For such an high priest became ns; who i| 
holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate from sinners. 

" Acts ii. 24. Whom God hath raised np, haying 
loosed the pains of death : because it was not possible 
that he should be holden of it. Rom. i. 4. Declared to 
be the Son of Qod with power, according to the Spirit of 
holiness, by the resurrection from the dead. 

• Acts XX. 28. To feed the church of Ood, which ko 
hath purchased with his own bleed. Heb. ix. 14.— 
How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through 
the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to G<^ 
purge your conscience from dead works to serre the Ut* 
ing Qod ? Heb. Tii. 25, 26, 27, 28. Wherefore he is able 
also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God 
by him, seeing he oyer liTOth to make intercession for 
them, &o. 

p Rom. iii. 24, 25, 26. Being jusUfied freely bj hie 
grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: 
whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through 
faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness, for the 
remission of sins.— That he might be just, and the justi- 
fier of him which believeth in Jesus. 

4 £ph. i. 6. To the praise of the glory of his grace^ 
wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved. 

' Tit. ii. 14. Who gave himself for us, that he might 
redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a 
peculiar people, sealous of good works. 

• John XT. 26. Bui when the Comforter is coma^ 

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XJPI LABOSR <U.TE0HJ81«. 197 

jnles, * and bring them to eyerlasting salvft- 
tion. ^ 

Q. 39. Why was it requisite that the Medi- 
ator should he man f 

A. It was requisite that the Mediator should 
be man, that he might advance our nature, ^ 
j)erform obedience to the law, ^ suffer and 
znake intercession for us in our nature, * have 
a fellow-feeling of our infirmities ;y that we 
might receive the adoption of sons,' and 

whom I will send unto you from the Father. John xyL 
7; xiv. 26. 

* Luke i. 69, 71, 74. And hath raised up an horn of 
BaWation for us — that we should be saved from our ene- 
mies, &c. 

« Heb. T. 9. He became the author of eternal salvap 
tion unto all them that obey him. Chap. ix. 11, 12, 13, 
14, 15. 

▼ Heb. ii. 16. For verily he- took not on him the 
nature of angels ; but he took on him the seed of Abra- 
ham. 

^ Gal. iv. 4. God sent forth his Son, made of a wo- 
man, made under the law. Rom. v. 19. By the obedi- 
ence of one sball many be made righteous. 

* Heb. ii. 14. Forasmuch then as the children are 
partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise 
took part of the same ; that through death he might de- 
stroy him that had the power of death. Heb. vii. 24, 
25. But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an 
unchangeable priesthood. Wherefore he is able also to 
save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, 
seeing he ever liveth to make interceision for them. 

y Heb. iv. 15. For we have not an high priest which 
cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities ; 
but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet with- 
out sin. 

* Gal. iv. 5. To redeem them that were under the 
1ft w, that we might receive the adoption of sons. 

17* 

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198 TH8 LABOXE CATECHISM. 

have comfort and access with boldness unto 
the throne of grace. * 

Q. 40. Why was it requisite that the Med^ 
ator should be God and man in one person f 

A. It was requisite that fhe Mediator who 
was to reconcile God and man, should himself 
be both God and man, and this in one person ; 
that the proper works of each nature might be 
accepted of God for us, ^ and relied on by us, 
as the works of the whole person. ® • 

Q. 41. Why was our Mediator called Jesus t 
A. Our Mediator was called Jesus, because 
he saveth his people from their sins. * 

Q. 42. Why was our Mediator called Christ f 
A. Our Mediator was called Christ, because 
he was anointed with the Holy Ghost above 
measure ; * and so set apart, and fully fur- 
nished with all authority and ability, ^ to 

a Heb. iy. 16. Let us therefore come- boldly unto the 
throne of . grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find 
grace to help in time of need. 

b Matt. i. 23. Behold, a virgin shall bring forth i 
son, and they shall' call his name Emmanuel, which, be- 
ing interpreted, is, God with us. Matt. iii. 17. This is 
my beloved Sou, in whom I am well pleased* 

c 1 Pet. ii. 6. Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner- 
stone, elect, precious : and he that believe th on him shall 
not be confounded. 

•1 Matt. i. 21. And she shall bring forth a son, and 
thou shalt call his name JESUS ; for he shall save his 
people from their sins. 

• John iii. 84. God giveth not the Spirit by measure 
unto him. Psa. xlv. 7. God, thy God, hath anointed 
thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. 

f John vi. 27. Labour not for the meat which per- 
ifihetn, but for that meat which endureth unto erer^ 

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zaaB LABosE OAixcaisK. IW 

•jceeute the offioe of prophet,^ priest,^ and king 
of his church, in the estate both of his humili* 
ation and exaltation.^ 

Q. 43. Sow doth Christ execute the office of 
a prophet f 

A. Christ execnteth the office of a prophet, 
in his revealing to the church in all ages,^ by 
his Spirit and word,^ in divers ways of ad- 
ministration,^ the whole will of Ood,"^ in all 

m _^-_^_ 

lasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you, 
for him hath God the Father sealed. Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. 

s Acts iii. 22. For Moses truly said unto the fathers, 
A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up onto you, of 
jour brethren, like unto me ; him shall ye hear in all 
things, whatsoeyer he shall say unto you. Luke iv. 
18, 21. 

Ji Heb. ▼. 6, 6. So also Christ glorified not himself to 
be made an high priest ; but he that said unto him. Thou 
art my Son, to-day have I begotten thee. As he saith 
also in another place. Thou art a priest for ever, after the 
order of Melchisedeo. Heb. iy. 14, 15. 

i Isa. ix. 6, 7. The goTernment shall be upon his 
shoulder. — Of the increase of his government and peace 
there shall be no end. Psa. ii. 6. 

i John i. 18. No man hath seen God at any time ; the 
only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, 
he hath declared him. 

k 1 Pet. i. 10, 12. Of which salvation the prophets 
have inquired, and searched diligently, who prophesied of 
the grace that shall come unto you. — Unto whom it was 
revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us, they did 
minister the things which are now reported unto you by 
them that have preached the gospel unto you, with the 
Holy Ghost sent down from heaven. 

1 Heb. i. 1, 2. God, who at sundry times, and in 
diTors manners, spake in time past unto the fathers, by 
the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by 
his Son. 

» John XT. 16. But I hare called you finends ; for aC 

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SOO trSB LAfiOEB OAr£€m«]lo 

things concerning their edification snd salya^ 
tion.*" 

Q. 44. How doth Christ execute the office of 
a priest ? 

A. Christ executeth the oflSce of a priest, in 
his once offering himself a sacrifice without spot 
to God,^ to be a reconciliation for the sins of «. 
his people;^ and in making. continual inter* 
cession for them.* 

Q. 45. How doth Christ execute the office of 
a king ? 

A. Christ executeth the office of a king, in 
calling out of the world a people to himself; * 

things that I have heard of my Father, I haye made 
known unto you. 

n Eph. iv. 11, 12, 13. And he gave some, aposUefl; 
ftnd some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and somet 
pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints, foi 
the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of 
Christ : till we all com'e in the unity of the faith, and of 
the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect maOi 
unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ 
John XX. 81. 

« Heb. ix. 14, 28. How much more shall the blood of 
Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself 
without spot to God, purge your conscience — So Christ 
was once offered to bear the sins of many. 

P Heb. ii. 17. That he might be a merciful and faithful 
high-priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconcili- 
ation for the sins of the people. 

4 Heb. yii. 25. Wherefore he is able also to saye them 
to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing ho 
eyer liyeth to make intercession for them. 

' Isa. ly. 5. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou 
knowest not ; and nations that knew not thee, shall run 
unto thee, because of the Lord thy God, and for the Holy 
One of Israel; for he hath glorified thee. Gen. zUx. 10. 

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THE LAEGEE CATECHISM. 20| 

and giving them officers, ' laws, * and cen* 
Bures, by which he visibly governs them ; ■ 
in bestowing saving grace upon his elect, ^ 
rewarding their obedience,^ and correcting 
them for their sins, * preserving and support- 
ing them under all their temptations and suf- 
ferings, ^ restraining and overcoming all their 
enemies,' and powerfully ordering all things 

• 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set some in the 
chnroh; first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly 
teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, 
helps, governments, diversities of tongues. Eph. It. 
11, 12. 

t Isa. xxxiii. 22. For the Lord is our judge, the Lord 
is our lawgiver, the Lord is our king ; and he will save 
vs. 

■ Matt, xviii. 17, 18. And if he shall neglect to hear 
ffiem, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear 
the church, let him be untd thee as an heathen man and 
a publican. Verily I say unto you. Whatsoever ye shaU 
bind on earth shall be bound in heaven : and whatsoever 
ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 1 Cor. 
▼. 4, 6. 1 Tim. V. 20. Tit. iii. 10. 

▼ Acts V. 81. Him hath God exalted with his right 
hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance 
to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. Psa. Ixvin. 18. 

^ Rev. xxii. 12. And behold, I come quickly; and 
my reward is with me, to give every man according as 
his work shall be. Matt. xxv. 84, 85, 86. Rom. ii. 7. 

* Rev. iii. 19. As many as I love, I rebuke and 
chasten. Heb. xii. 6, 7. 

f Isa. Ixiii. 9. In all their affliction he was afflicted, 
and the angel of his presence saved them : in his love. 
and in his pity he redeemed them ; and he bare them, 
and carried them all the days of old. 

« 1 Cor. XV. 26. For he must reign till he hath put all 
enemies under his feet. Psa. ex. throughout 



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iOi THE LARGER OATEGHISM. 

for his own glory, * and their good ; * and also 
in taking vengeance on the rest, who know not 
God, and obey not the gospel. • 

Q. 46. What was the estate of Christ's hu- 
miliation f 

A, The estate of Christ's humiliation was 
that low condition, wherein he, for our sakes, 
emptying himself of his glory, took upon him 
the form of a servant, in his conception and 
birth, life, death, and after his death until his 
resurrection. * 

Q. 47. Mow did Christ humble himself in 
his conception and birth f 

A. Christ humbled himself in his conception 

' • Rom. xir. 11. As I live, saith the Lord, eyeiy 
kfiM shall bow to me, and every tongue shaU confess to 
God. Phil. ii. 11. And that every tongue should con* 
fess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the 
Father. 

b Rom. viii. 28. And we know that all things work 
together for good to them that love God, to them who are 
the called according to his purpose. 

• 2 Thess. i. 8. In flaming fire taking vengeance on 
them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Psa. ii. 9. Thou shalt break 
them with a rod of iron ; thou shalt dash them in pieces 
Uke a potter's vessel. 

d Phil. ii. 6, 7, 8. Who, being in the form of Gt)d, 
thought it not robbery to be equal with God ; but made 
himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of 
.a servant, and was made in the likeness of men ; and 
being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself 
and became obedient unto death, even the death of the 
cross. 2 Cor. viii. 9. For ye know the grace of our' 
Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your 
Bakes he became poor, that ye through his poverty might 
be rich. Luke i. 81. Acts. ii. 24. 

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TSE LABOia OATSGHISM. 208^ 

tnd birth, in that, beisg from all eternity the 
Son of God in the boso'm of the Father, he 
was pleased in the fulness of time to become 
the son of man, made of a woman of loW/ 
estate, and to be born of her, with divers 
circumstances of more than ordinary abase- 
ment. ^ 

Q. 48. Sow did Christ humble himself m 
Ms life? 

A. Christ humbled himself in his life, by 
subjecting himself to the law, ' which he per- 
fectly fulfilled,* and by conflicting with the 
indignities of the world, ^ temptations of Sa- 
tan, ^ and infirmities in his flesh ; whether 
common to tlie nature of man, or particularly 
aiicompanying that his low condition. ^ 

• John L 14, 18. The Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us. — The only begotten Son, which is in the bo- 
som of the Father. Luke ii. 7. And she brought forth 
her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, 
and laid him in a manger. 

' Gal. iv. 4. God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, 
awde under the law. 

g Matt. ▼. 17. Think not that I am come to destroy 
the law, or the prophets : I am not come to destroy, but 
to fulfil. Rom. y. 19. 

^ Psa. zxii. 6. But I am a worm, and no man ; a re- 
proach of men, and despised of the people. Isa. liii. 2, 8, 
Heb. xii. 2, 3. 

i Matt. iv. 1 to 12. Then was Jesus led up of the 
Spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted of the devil, &o. 
Luke iy. 1 to 14. 

i Heb. ii. 17, 18. Wherefore in all things it be* 
boTed him to be made like unto his brethren. — For in 
that he himself hath suffered, being tempted, he is able 
to succour them that are tempted. Heb. It. 16. Isft. 
liu. 18, 14. 

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204 SHX LAEGXB 0ATI0HI8U. 

Q. 49. Haw did Chritt humble MmHjf t» 
hU death f 

A, Christ humbled himself in his deaih^ in 
that having been betrayed bj Judas,^ for- 
saken by his disciples, ^ scorned and rejected 
by the world,"" condemned by Pilate, and 
tormented by his persecators ; ^ having also 
conflicted with the terrors of death and the 
powers of darkness, felt and borne the weight 
of Qod's wrath, "* he laid down his life an offer- 
ing for sin, ' enduring the painful, shamefulf 
and cursed death of the cross. ^ 

Q. 50. Wherein consisted Christ* s humiUik' 
tion after his death f 

A. Christ's humiliation after his death con- 



k Matt, xxrii. 4. , 

I Matt. zxTi. 66. Then all the disciples forsook him, 

and fled. ^ 

» Isa. Uii. 8. He is despised and rejected of men; a ] 

man of sorrows and acquainted with grief ; and we hid \ 

as it were onr faces from him : he was despised, and we .v 

esteemed him not. < I 

■ Matt, xxvii. 26. And when he had scourged Jesus, ^^ 

be deliyered him to be crucified. John xix. 84. Loke 4. 

xxii. 68, 64. :i 

o Luke xxii. 44. And being in an agony, he prayed ^ 

more earnestly : and his sweat was as it were great drops % 

of blood falling down to the ground. Matt, xxvii. 41 %(} 

And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried with a loud voice, l. 

—Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani ? — My God, my Qod, why '4, 

hast thou forsaken me ? Rom. viii. 82. x'^ 

P Isa. liii. 10. Thou shalt make his soul an offeriog \^ 

for sin. ^^ 

4 Phil. ii. 8. And being found in fashion as a man, i;^ 

he humbled himself, and became obedient unto deaths ^\ 
even the death of the cross. Heb. xii. 2. Gal iii. 18. 



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1 



¥HB LAX0BE OATBOmaiC S05 

ftkted in his being buried/ and continning in 
the state of the dead, and under the power of 
death till the third day/ which hath been other- 
wise expressed in these words, He descended 
into hell. 

Q. 51. What was the estate of Christ's exah 
iation f 

A. The estate of Christ's exaltation compre- 
hendeth his resurrection/ ascension/ sitting at 
the right hand of the Father/ and his coming 
again to judge the world.^ 

Q. 52. How was Christ exalted in his resur* 
section f 

A. Christ was exalted in his resurrection, in 
that, not having seen corruption in death, (of 
irtiich it was not possible for him to be held) * 
and having the very same body in which h^ 

r 1 Cor. XV. 8, 4. 

' Matt. xii. 40. For as Jonas was three days and 
three nights in the whale's belly ; so shall the Son of 
man be three days and three nights in the heart of the 
earth. Psa. ztI. 10, compared with Acts ii. 24, 25, 26. 
Bom. yi. 9. 

t 1 Cor. XY. 4. And that he rose again the third day, 
according to the Scriptures. 

■ Mark xvi. 19. So then, after the Lord had spoken 
unto them, he was receiyed up into heaven. 

^ £ph. i. 20. And set him at his own right hand. 

^ Acts i. 11. This same Jesus which is taken up from 
70a into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have 
seen him go into heaven. Acts xvii. 31. 

X Acts ii. 24. Whom God hath raised up, having loosed 
the pains of death : because it was not possible that he 
should be holden of it. Psa, xvi. 10. For thou wilt not 
leare my soul in hell : neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy 
On« to see corruption. 
18 

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2U6 THE LARGER CATECHISM. 

suffered, with the essential properties thereof,' 
(but without mortality and other common in- 
firmities belonging to this life) really united 
to his soul,' he rose again from the dead the 
third day by his own power;* whereby he 
declared himself to be the Son of God,* 
to have satisfied divine justice,* to have van- 
quished death and him that had the power 
of it,* and to be Lord of quick and dead.* 
All which he did as a public person,' 
the head of his church,' for their jus- 

r Luke xxir. 89. Behold my hands and my feet, thai 
it is I myself: handle me, and see ; for a spirit hath not 
flesh and bones, as ye see me have. 

■ Bey. i. 18. I am he that liveth, and was dead ; and, 
behold, I am aliye for evermore ; Amea : and h&ye the 
keys of heU and of death. 

• John X. 18. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it 
down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have 
power to take it again. 

b Rom. i. 4. And declared to be the Son of God with 
power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resur- 
rection from the dead. 

c Rom. yiii. 84. Who is he that condemneth 7 it is 
Christ that died, yea, rather, that is risen again, who is 
eyen at the right hand of Go^. 

' d Heb. ii. 14. That through death he might destroy 
him that had the power of death, that is, the devil. 

• Rom. xiv. 9. For to this end Christ both died, and 
rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead 
and living. 

. r 1 Cor. xy. 21, 22. For since by man came death,' 
by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as 
in Adam aU die, even so in Christ shall all be made 
alive. 

V £ph. i. 22, 23. And gave him to be the head over all 
things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of him 
that fiUeth aU in aU. Col. L 18. 

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JMB lULBQXB CAXSGHI8M. 207 

.tification,'^ quickening in grace,' support 
against enemies, J and to assure them of their 
resurrection from the dead at the last day. ^ 

Q. 53. JSow was Christ exalted in his ascen- 
sion ? 

A. Christ was exalted in his ascension, in 
that having, after his resurrection, often ap- 
peared unto, and conversed with his apostles, 
speaking to them of the things pertaining to 
the kingdom of God, ^ and giving them com- 
mission to preach the gospel to all nations ; "* 
forty days after his resurrection, he, in our 
nature, and as our head, ^ triumphing over 
enemies,*^ visibly went up into the highest 
J . 

b Bom. iy. 25. Who was delivered for our o£fences, and 
"Wias raised again for oar justification. 

i £pli. ii. 6, 6. Even when we were dead in 
sins, hath quickened us together with Christ. Col. 
ii. 12. 

i 1 Cor. iy. 25, 26. For he must reign, till he hath 
put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall 
be destroyed is death. 

k 1 Cor. xy. 20. But now is Christ risen from the dead, 
and become the first-ft-uits of them that slept. 

> Acts i. 2, 8. Until the day on which he was taken 
up, after that he through the Holy Qhost had given com- 
mandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen : to 
whom also he showed himself alive after his passion, by 
many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, 
and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of 
God. 

m Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. Go ye therefore and teach all 
nations. Mark xvi. 15. 

» Heb. vi. 20. Whither the forerunner is for us en- 
tered, even Jesus, made an high-priest for ever. See also 
letter 1, above. 

o JBph. iv. 8. Wherefore he saith, When he asoende4 

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208 SHS XiAHQSR OATSCHIBM. 

heavens, there to receive gifts for men, ^ to 
raise up oar affections thither, ^ and to prepare 
a place for us, ' where himself is, and shall 
continue till his second coming at the end of 
the world. ■ 

Q. 54. How 18 Christ exalted in hU sitting 
at the right hand of Grod f 

A. Christ is exalted in his sitting at the 
right hand of God, in that as God-man he is 
advanced to the highest favour with God liie 
Father, * with all fulness of joy,* glory, ' 
and power over all things in heaven and 
earth ; ^ and doth gather and defend hk 

up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto 
men. 

p Acts i. 9.— While they beheld, he was taken op ; 
and a dond received him out of their sight Pea. Izviii. 
18. Thoa hast ascended on high: — thou hast received 
gifts for men ; yea, for the rebellions also, that the Lord 
God might dwell among them. 

4 Col. iii. 1, 2. If ye then be ri&en with Christ, seek 
those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the 
right hand of God, &c. 

» John xiv. 2. I go to prepare a place for yon. 

" Acts iii. 21. Whom tiie heaven must receive, until 
jfie times of restitution of all things. 

t PhiL 11. 9. Wherefore God also hath highly ex- 
alted him, and given him a name which is above every 
name. 

« Acts ii. 28. Thou shalt make me full of joy with thy 
countenance. Compared with Psa. zvi. 11. 

^ John xvii. 5. And now, Father, glorify thou me 
with thine own self, with the glory which I had with th€« 
before the world was. 

^ £ph. i. 22. And hath put all things under his feet^ 
and gave him to be the head over all things to the ohnroh. 
1 Pet iii. 22. 



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sou IiAftABR CATXOHIBM. 209 

4)liarch9 and subdue their enemies ; furnisheth 
his ministers and people with gifts and graces, * 
and maketh intercession for them. ^ 

Q. 55. How doth Ohri%t make intereej^ 
9ion? 

A. Christ maketh intercession, by his ap- 
pearing in our nature continually before the 
father in heayen, ■ in the merit of his obe- 
dience and sacrifice on earth ;'^ declaring 
bis will to have it applied to all Jbelievers ; * 
answering all accusations against them ; ^ 
and procuring for them quiet of conscience, 
Eotwithstanding daily failings,^ access with 
boldness to the throne of grace,* and 

^ Eph. iv. 11, 12. Psa. ex. throughout. 

y Rom. viii. 34. 

s Heb. iz. 24. For Christ is not entered into the holy 
places made with hands, which are the figures of the 
true ; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the pres- 
ence of God for us. 

A Heb. i. 8. When he had by himself purged our sins, 
sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. 

b John xvii. 9, 20, 24. Father, I will that they 
also whom thou hast given me be with me where I am ; 
that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given 
me. 

c Bom. viii. 83, 84. Who shall lay any thing to the 
oharge of God's elect ? It is God that justifieth. Who 
is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea, 
rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand 
of God, who also maketh intercession for us. 

A 1 John ii. 1, 2. If any man sin, we have an ad- 
vocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. 
Rom. V. 1. 

e Heb. iv. 16, 16. Let us therefore come boldly unto 
the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find 
grace to help in time of need. 
18* 

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SIO !rHB LAAGEa OATSCHXSM. 

acceptance of their persons ' and ser- 
vices. * 

Q. 56. How is Christ to be exalted in his 
coming again to judge the world f 

A. Christ is to be exalted in his coming 
again to judge the world, in that he, who was 
unjustly judged and condemned by wicked 
men, ^ shall come again at the last day in 
great power,' and in the full manifestation 
of his own glory, and of his Father's, widi 
all his holy angels,^ with a shout, with the 
voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet 
of God, ^ to judge the world in righteous- 
ness. ' 

f Eph. i. 6. To the praise of the glory of his grace, 
wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved. 

c 1 Pet. ii. 5. Ye also, as lively stones, are built up 
a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spirituiU 
sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. Rev. viu. 
3,4. 

h Acts iii. 14, 15. But ye denied the Holy One, and 
the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you ; 
and killed the Prince of life. 

I Matt. xxiv. 80. And then shall all the tribes of 
the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man 
coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great 
glory. 

J Luke ix. 26. For whosoever shall be ashamed of 
me, and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be 
ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in 
his Father's, and of the holy angels. Matt. xxv. 81. 

k 1 Thess. iv. 16. For the Lord himself shall descend 
from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the arch- 
angel, and with the trump of God. 

1 Acts xvii. 81. Because he hath appointed a day, 
in the which he will judge the world in righteousness, 
by that man whom he hath ordained ; whereof he hath 

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THE LA&OEB 0ATSCHI6M. 211 

Q. 57. What benefits hath Christ procured 
hy his mediation f 

A. Christ by his mediation hath procured 
redemption,"^ with all other benefits of the 
covenant of grace. * 

^ Q. 58. How do we come to be made par^ 
takers of the benefits which Christ hath pro* 
cured f 

A. We are made partakers of the benefits 
vbich Christ hath procured, by the application 
of them unto us, ** which is the work especially 
of God the Holy Ghost, p 

Q. 59. Who are made partakers of redemp* 
tion through Christ f 

A. Kedemption is certainly applied, and ef- 
fectually communicated, to all those for whom 
Christ hath purchased it ; ^ who are in time 

^Ten assurance unto aU men, in that he hath raised him 
from the dead. 

■■ Heb. ix. 12. Neither by the blood of goats and 
ealyes, but by his own blood, he entered in once into the 
holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. / 

* 2 Cor. i. 20. For all the promises of God in him are 
yea, and in him, Amen, unto the glory of God by us. 

o John i. 12. But as many as received him, to them 
gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them 
tiiat beUeve on his name. 

p Tit. iii. 6,. 6. But according to his mercy he saved 
us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the 
Holy Ghost. John xvi. 7, 8. 

4 John vi. 87, 39. All that the Father giveth me, shall 
come to me : and him that cometh to me, I will in no wise 
cast out. — And this is the Father's will which hath sent 
me, that of all which he hath given me, I should lose 
nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day. 
John z. 15, 16.— I lay down my life for the sheep. And 

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$12 THE LARQER CATECHISM. 

ty the Holy Ghost enabled to believe in Christ, 
according to the gospel. ' 

Q. 60. Can they who have never heard th$ 
^ospely and so know not Jesvs Christy nor be- 
lieve in him, be saved hy their living according 
io the light of nature f 

A. They who having never heard the gos- 
pel, ■ know not Jesus Christ, * and believe not 
in him, cannot be saved, "^ be they never so 
diligent to frame their lives according to the 
light of nature, ^ or the law^ of that religion 
which they profess ; ^ neither is there salvation 
in any other, but in Christ alone, * who is the 
Saviour only of his body the church. '^ 

other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them 
also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice. £ph. 
i. 18, 14. 

' Eph. ii. 8. For by grace are ye saved, through faith ; 
And that not of yourselves : it is the gift of God. John 
iu. 36. 

* Rom. z. 14. How then shall they call on him in whom 
.they have not believed ? and how shall they believe in 
him of whom they have not heard ? and how shall they 
hear without a preacher? 

* 2 Thcss. 1. 8, 9. In flaming fire taking vengeance on 
.them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. 

» John viii. 24. If ye believe not that I am he, ye 
lihall die in your sins. Mark xvi. 16. He that believeth 
not, shall be damned. 

V 1 Cor. i.20 to 25. 

^ John iv. 22. Phil. iii. 4 to 10. 

' Acts iv. 12. Neither is there salvation in any others 
for there is none other name under heaven given among 
men, whereby we must be saved. 

y Eph. V. 23. Even as Christ is the head of the ohuroh ; 
ftnd he is the Saviour of the body. 



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THJB LAuaia oATiomnii. 218 

Q. 61. Are aU they 9aved who hear ihego$^ 
pelf and live in the church f 

A. All that bear the gospel, and live iu the 
visible xhurch, are not saved ; bat only they 
who are true members of the church invisi*- 
ble.' 

Q. 62. What is the visible church t 

A. The visible church is a society made up 
of all such as in all ages and places of the 
world do profess the true religion,* and of their 
children.** 

Q. 63. What are the special privileges of the 
visihle church f 

A. The visible church hath the privilege of 
being under God's special care and govern- 
ment ; * of bcung protected and preserved in 



* Eom. ix. 6. They are not aU Israel which are of 
IsraeL Matt. Tii. 21. Not every one that saith unto me, 
liord. Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven ; but 
he' that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. 
Matt. xxii. 14. John zii. 88, 89, 40. 

A 1 Cor. 1. 2. Unto the church of God which is at 
Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called 
to be saints, with aU that in every place call upon the 
name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours. 1 
Cor. xii. 18. Rom. xv. 9 to 13. Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. 

b Acts ii. 89. For the promise is unto you, and to your 
children. 1 Cor. vii. 14. Rom. xi. 16. Gen. xvii. 7. 

e Isa. iv. 6, 6. And the Lord will create upon every 
dwelling-place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, 
a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming 
fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence. 
And there shall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the day- 
time from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a 
covert from storm and from rain. 1 Tim. Iv. 10. 



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Sli Tax LAKaXB CATXOHISM. 

-•U agCB, notwithstanding the oppoution of all 
enemies ; ^ and of enjoying the communion of 
«aint8y the ordinary means of salvation,* and 
offers of grace by Christ, to all members 
of it, in the ministry of the gospel, testifying 
that whosoever believes in hipi shall be saved,' 
and excluding none that will come unto 
him/ 

Q. 64. What is the invisible church t 
' A. The invisible church is the whole number 
of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be 
gathered into one under Christ the head.^ 

d Matt. zyi. 18. And upon this rock I will build mj 
church ; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it 
•Isa. zxzL 4, 5. Zeoh. zii. 2, 3, 4, 8, 9. Ex. iii. 2, 8. 
Psa. cxY. throughout. 

• Acts ii. 42. They continued steadfastly in the apos- 
tles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, 
and in prayers. 

f Psa. cxlyii. 19, 20. He showeth his word unto Jacols 
Jiis statutes and his judgments unto Israel. He hath not 
dealt so with any nation : and as for his judgments, they 
have not known them. Bom. ix. 4. Mark. xvi. 16, 16.— 
preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth, 
and is baptized, shall be saved. Acts xvi. 81. Isa. xlv. 
22. Rev. xxii. 17. 

ff John vi. 37. And him that cometh to me, I will in 
no wise cast out 

h Eph. i. 10. That in the dispensation of the fulness 
of times, he might gather together in one all things in 
Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth ; 
even in him. Johil xi. 52. And not for that nation only, 
but that also he should gather together in one the cbildreo 
of God that were scattered abijoad. John x. 16. And 
other sheep I have, which are not of this fold ; them 
also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice and 
there shall be one fold, and one shepherd, i^ph. i. 
22, 28. 



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THE LAECXER CATBCHISM. 215 

Q. 65. What special benefits do the members 
$f the invisible church enjoy by Christ f 

Ji. The members of the invisible church, by 
Christ, enjoy union and communion with him 
in grace and glory. ^ 

Q. 66. What is that union which the elect 
have tmth Christ f 

A.. The union which the elect have with 
Christ is the work of God's grace, J whereby 
they are spiritually and mystically, yet really 
and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head 
and husband ; * which is done in their effectual 
calling. ^ 

Q. 67. What is effectual calling ? 

A, Effectual calling is the work of God's 
almighty power and grace," whereby (out 

i John xvii. 21. That they aU may be one ; as thou. 
Father, art in me, and I in thee, that thegr also may be 
one in us. £ph. ii. 5, 6. 1 John i. 8. — ^And truly our 
fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus 
Christ. John XTii. 24. Father, I will that they also 
whom thou hast given me be with me where I am. ; that 
they may behold my glory. 

J Eph. ii. 6, 7, 8. For by grace are ye saved, 
through faith : and that not of yourselves : it is the gift 
of God. 

^ 1 Cor. vi. 17. But he that is joined unto the Lord 
is one spirit. John x. 28. And I giv« unto them eternal 
life ; and they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck 
them out of my hand. Eph. v. 23, 30.— Even as Christ 
Is the head of the church. — For we are members of his 
body, of his flesh, and of his bones. 

I 1 Cor. i. 9. God is faithful, by whom ye were called 
unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, 
1 Pet. V. 10. 

■ Eph. i. 18, 19, 20. That ye may know what is the 
hope of his caUing— and what is the exceeding greatness 

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216 THE LABOBE 0ATBCHT8M. 

of his free and especial love to his elect, and 
from nothing in them moving him there- 
unto)* he doth in his accepted time invite 
and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his word 
and Spirit ; • savingly enlightening their 
minds, ' renewing and powerfully determin- 

of his power to uB-irard who believe, according to the 
working of his mighty power, which he wrought ia 
Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him 
at his own right hand in the heavenly places. 2 Tim. L 
8, 9. — Who hath saved us and called us with an holy 
calling, not according to our works, but according to his 
own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ 
Jesus, befoce the world began. 

■ Tit. iii. 4, 5. But after that the kindness and love of 
God our Saviour toward man appeared, not by works of 
righteousness which we have done, but according to Ms 
mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and 
renewing of the Holy Ghost. Eph. ii. 4 to 10. God, who 
is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved 
us, even when we were dead In sins, hath quickened us 
together with Christ ; (by grace ye are saved) — not of 
works, lest any man should boast. Rom. ix. 11. — ^Ac- 
cording to election might stand, not of works, but of him 
that calleth. 

* 2 Cor. V. 20. Now then we are ambassadors for 
Christ, as though God did beseech yon by us ; we pray 
you, in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. 2 Cor. 
vi. 2. Behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now 
is the day of salvation. ' John vi. 44. No man can come 
to me, except the Father, who hath sent me, draw him ; 
and I will raise him up at the last day. 2 Thess. ii. 13, 
14. But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for 
you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath 
from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through 
sanctification of tfae Spirit, and belief of the truth; where- 
onto he called you by our gospel, to the obtaining of the 
glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
^ f Aots zxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn 



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SIT 

fag tbek 'wSk^ 4 ao M ihej (sliboogh !ii them- 
0^^eB dead in tin) are hereby made wilKng 
tnd able^ freely to answer his call, and to ac- 
cept and embraee the grace offered and oon^ 
veyed therein. '^ 

Q. 68. Are the elect only iffeetuallji called f 
A. AH the eleet, and they only, are effect* 
vally oalkd;* although others may be, and 
often are outwardly called by the ministry of 
the word, ^ and have some common operations 
of the Spirit, ^ who, for their wilful neglect 
tod contempt of the grace offered to them, 
being justly left in their unbelief, do never 
ttoly eome to Jesus Ohrist. ^ 

fbem from darkness to light, f^nd from the power of Satan 
onto Qod, that they may receive forgiyeness of sios, and 
loheritance among them which are .sanctified by faith 
that is in me. 

4 Ezek. xl. 19. And I will put a new spint within 
yon: and I will take the stony neart out of. their flesh, 
and will give them a heart of flesh. Ssek. xxxvi 
26, 27. 

' John Ti. 46. And they shall be all tanght of God. 
ETery man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned 
of the Father, cometh unto me. Phil. ii. 13. For it is 
Ood which worketh in you both to will and to do of his 
good pleasure. - Deut zxz. 6. £ph. ii. 5. 

• Acts idii. 48. And as many as were ordained to 
eternal life, believed. 

t Matt. zzii. 14. For many are called, but few are 
diosen. 

« Matt. xiii. 20, 21. But he that receiyed the seed 
Into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word- 
yet liath he not root in himself, but dureth for awhile ; 
for when tribulation or persecution 3riseth because of th« 
Word» by and by he is offended. Heb. yi. 4, 6, 6. 

r psa. Ixxzi. 11» 12. Bat my people ^aold not 
19 

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sit sBx iiAMm eoEcmmu: 



Ql 69. What i$ the e^mmuni&n in graeBi 
whieh the, members of the intntible church Aav4 
with Christ f 

A. The communion in grace^ which the 
members of the invisible church have witk 
Christy ia their partaking of the virtue of his 
mediation, in their justification, ^ adoption, ' 
aanctification, and whatever else in this lif4 
manifests their union with him. ^ 

Q. 70. What is justification f 

A. Justification is an act of God's free graod 
unto sinners, * in which he pardoneth all 

hearken to my yoice ; and Israel would none of me. Sd 
I gaye them up unto their own hearts' lust ; and th^ 
walked in their own counsels. John zii. 38, 39, 401 
That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled 
which he spake, Lord, who hath belieyed our report? 
and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed t 
Therefore they could not believe, because that Esalas 
said again. He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened 
their heart ; that they should not see with their eyes, Dor 
understand * with their heart; and be converted, and I 
should heal them. Acts xxviii. 25, 26, 27. John vi. 64, 
65. Prov. i. 24 to 32. Psa. xcv. 9 to the end. 

^ Rom. viii. 80. Moreover, whom he did predesti- 
nate., them he also called ; and whom he called, them he 
also justified, and whom he justified, them he also glo- 
rified. 

z Eph. i. 6. Having predestinated us unto the adop" 
tion of children by Jesus Christ to himself. 

7 1 Cor. i. 80. But of him are ye in Christ Jesusj who 
of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and 
eanctification, and redemption. 

> Rom. iii. 22, 24, 25. EVen the righteousness of God, 
which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all, and upon sU 
them that believe ; iot there is no difference — being yasr 
tified freely by his grace, through the redemption Uuit ii 
in Christ JesuB, &o. Bom. It. 6. 

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^ir Bin, ftcceptetk and acoounleth their per- 
Bons righteous in his sight ; * not for any thing 
wrought in them, or done by them, ^ but only 
for the perfect obedience and fall satisfaotioQ 
of Christ, by God impated to them, ^ and re* 
ceived by faith alone* * 

Q. 71. Bow 18 justification an act of Q-od^i 
free grace f 

A. Although Christ by his obedience and 
death, did make a proper, real, and full satis- 
faction to God's justice in the behalf of them 

• 2 Cor. T. 19, 21. To wit, that God wm in Christ, 
teeoDoiling the world unto himself, not imputing their 
trespasses unto them. — For he hath made him to be sin 
for us, who knew no sin ; that we might be made the 
righteousness of God in him. Bom. ill. 22, 24, 25. Eyen 
tiie righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus 
Christ unto all, and upon all them that belieye, &c. 

k £ph. L 6, 7. Wherein he hath made us accepted in 
Uie Beloved : in whom we have redemption through his 
blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of 
bis grace. Bom. iii. 28. Therefore we conclude, that 
» man is justified bj faith without the deeds of the law. 

e Bom. iii. 24, 26. Being justified ft*cely by his grace, 
Ihrou^ the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: whom 
God hath set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in 
his blood. Bom. v. 17, 18, 19. — Much more they which 
receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteous* 
Bess, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ — So by the 
obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Bom. 
iv. 6, 7, 8. Even as David also describeth the blessed* 
Bess of the man unto whom God imputeth righteousness 
without works, &c. 

<> Bom. T. 1. Therefore being justified by faith, we 
have peace with God. Acts z. 43. To him give all the 

grophets witness, that through his name whosoever be- 
eveth in him shall receive remission of sins. Gal. lu 
}«. PhU. iiL 9. Bom. iii. 26, 26. 

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S2tt 

that are justified : * yet inasmnoh aa God a^ 
eepteth the satisfaetion from a surety, which 
he might have demanded of them ; and did 
proyide this surety, his^only Son,' imputing 
his righteousness to them, ' and requiring no* 
thing of them for their justification but faith,^ 
irhioh also is his gift^ ^ their justification is to 
them of free grace. ^ 

• Matt zz. 28. Even as the Son of man came sot to 
be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life t 
ransom (or prioe of redemption) for panj*. 1 Tim. ii. 6b 
1 Pet i. 18, 19. Forasmuch as ye know that ye w€M 
not redeemed with corraptible things, as tilTcr and geld 
•—but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb ^ 
without blemish and without spot. Rom. t. 8, 9, 10.— ^ 
While we were yet sinners, Christ died for hb, &o. 

r Dan. Ix. 24, 26. Isa. liii. 6, 10, 11, 12.^And t]i« 
Lard hath laid on him the iniquity of us alL — ^Yel it 
pleased the Lord to bruise him; he hath put him it 
grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sia, 
he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and tht 
pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall 
see of the travail of his soul, and shall be sali8fied.-«> 
Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and 
he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he 
hath poured out his soul unto death : and he was nan* 
bered with the transgressors ; and he bare the sin of 
many. Heb. vii. 22. By so much was Jesus made S 
•nrety of a better testament. Rom. viii. 82. He that 
spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for ni 
all, how shall he not wiUi him also freely give us all 
things? 

ff 2 Cor. T. 21. That we might be made the righl* 
eousness of God in him. ^om. iv. 11. 1 Cor. i. 80. 
« k Rem. iii. 24, 25. Whom God hath set forth to be i 
propitiation, through faith in his blood. Acts xvi. 81. 

i £ph. ii. 8. For by grace are ye saved, through faith | 
Md that not of yourselves : it Is the gift of God. 
^ i JBph. i 7. In whom we bate redemptioii threaik 

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S21 

' Q. 72. What U yyfHfylng fault 

A. Justifying faith is a saying grace,^ 
inroiight in the heart of a rinner, by the Spi- 
rit^ and word of €h>d;"^ whereby he, being 
oonyinced of his sin and misery, and of the 
disability in himself and all other creatures to 
yeoover him out of his lost condition,* not 
only assenteth to the truth of the promise of 
the gospel,*^ but receiveth and resteth upon 
Christ and his righteousness therein held forth, 
for pardon of sin,!* and for the accepting and 
aoeonnting of his person righteous in the sight 
of God for salviation.^ 

liU blood, the forgiveness of nns aooording to the riches 
qf hie grace. ^ 

k Heb. z. 39. But ve »re pot of them who draw baok 
nnto perdition ; but of them that belieye to the laving of 
thesouL 

I 2 Cor. iv. 13. We having the same spirit of faith. 
£ph. i 17, 18, 19. That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wis* 
dom and revelation in the knowledge of him, Ac. 

» Bom. X. 14, 17. So then faith cometh by hearing, 
•ad hearing by the word of God. Bom. i. 16. 

■ John xvi. 8, 9. And when he is come, he will reprove 
the world bf sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment; 
«f sin, because they believe not on me. Acts xri. 30.— 
(Sirs, what must I do to be saved ? Acts ii. 87. £ph. ii. 1. 
Acts iv. 12. Bom. vii. 9. 

« £ph. i. 18. In whom ye also trusted, after that ye 
lieard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. 

P Acts z. 48. To him give all the prophets witness, 
that, through his name, whosoever believeth in him shall 
teceive remission of sins. Acts xvi. 81. John i. 12. 

4 Phil. iii. 9. And be found in him, not having mine 
own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which i« 
tlunragh the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of 
X9« 

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S2t WB LAMB om 

Q. 7S. E(wf daOi fmth f^ud^y a iinner l» 
tUnghtofCMif 

A. Faith jiiBtifiea a siQiier in the sight of 
God, not because of those other graces whidi 
do alwajs accompany it, or of good works that 
are the fruits of it ; ' nor as if the grace of 
faith, or any act thereof, irere imputed to ham 
for justification ; ' but only as it is an instn]^ 
a»e&t, by which he receiveth and appUetfar 
Ghrigt and his righteousness.^ 

Q. 74. What ii adoption f 

A. Adoption is an act of the free grace of 
God,* in and for his only Son Jesus Christ,^ 
whereby all those that are justified ar^ received 

Qod by faith. Acts zt. 11. But we b«lieTe that through 
the grace of the Lord Jesas Christ, we shall be saTed, evea. 
aft they. 

' Gal. iii. 11. Bat that nb man is Justified by the law 
in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall tiira 
by faith. Eotn. iii. 28. Therefbre we oonclnde that % 
man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law. 

• Rom. !▼. 6. But to him that woriceth not, but bellvfw 
•tfa on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted^ 
for righteousness. Compared with Rom. x. 10. 

* John i. 12. But as many as received him, to ttem 
gave he power to become the sons of God. Phil. iii. 9. 

" 1 John iii. 1. Behold, what manner of love the Father 
hath bestowed upon ua^ that we should be oalled the sons 
of God! 

V Eph. L 5. Having predestinated us unto the adoptioa 
qf children by Jesus Christ to himself, aooordlng to the* 
good pleasure of his will. Gal. iv. 4, 5. But when the 
/Alness of the time was eome, God sent fbrth hia Sob, 
made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem iSbnmr 
that were under the hiw, that we might re«elv« the adop* 
tlon of lo&ft. 



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mto tke number of his eluUren,^ hare hii 
name putapoa them,'' the Spirit of his Son 
ffiTeD to tbem/ are under his fatherly care and 
lispensatioQS," admitted to all the liberties and 
privileges of the sons of Ood, made heirs of 
all the promises, and fellow-^l^eirs with Qhrist in 
glory/ 

Q. 75. What isMnetifieationf 

A. Sanctification is a work of God's grace, 
whereby they, whom God hath, before the 
foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, are, 
in time, through the powerful operation of his 
Spirit,^ applying the death and resurrection of 

w John i. 12. But as many as reoeiyed him, to thoa 
gaye he power to become the sons of God. 

' Rey. Ut. 12. And I will write i^pon him mj new name* 
fi Cor. yi. 18. 

7 Gal. iy. 6. And beoanse ye are sons, God hath sent 
Ibrth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, 
Father. 

> Psa. ciii. 18. Like as a father pltieth his children, 
so the Lord pltieth them that fear him. Prov. xiy. 2S. 
In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence ; and his child- 
ren shall haye a place of refuge. Matt. yi. 82. — For your 
heayenly Father knoweth that ye haye need of all thes9 
things. 

« Rom. yiii. 17. And if children, then heirs ; heirs of 
God, and joint heirs with Christ : if so be that we suffer 
with him, that we may be also glorified together. Heb. 
a, 12. 

b £ph. i. 4. • According as he hath chosen us in him, 
before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy 
•ttd irithout blame before him in loye : 1 Cor. yi. 11. And 
sneh were some of you : but ye are washed, but ye are 
•aoctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. 2 Thess. ii. 18. But 
we are bound to giye thanks alway to God for you, breth« 
fttt MoTed of ike Lord, beoaoM God hath firom ^ be^ 

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SM m 

Chrnt unto them/ renewed in their whole msa 
after the image of Gh>d ; ^ having the seeds of 
repentance unto life, and all other saving gr% 
oes, put into their hearts,* and those graces so 
Stirred up, increased and strengthened,' ss 
that they more a^d more die unto sin, and rise 
unto newness of life.' 

ginning chosen jou to saWation, throagh Banctlfieation of 
the Spirit, and belief of the truth. 

e Rom. vi. 4, 5, 6. Therefore we are buried with him 
by baptism into death ; that like as Christ was raised up 
from the dead by the glory of the Father, eyen so we 
also should walk in newness of life. For if we have 
been planted together in the likeness of his death, we 
shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection, &o. Phil, 
m. 10. 

* £ph. It. 28, 24. And be renewed in the spirit of your 
mind ; and that ye put on the new man, whion after God 
ia created in righteousness and true holiness. 

• Acts xi. 18. When they heard these things, they held 
their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also 
to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life. 1 John ill 
9. Whosoeyer is bom of God doth not commit sin ; for 
bis seed remaineth in lum ; and he cannot sin ; because 
be is born of God. 

' Jude 20. But ye, beloyed, building up yourselves on 

Sour most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost. Eph. 
i. 16, 17, 18. That he would grant you, according to 
the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by 
bis Spirit in the inner man ; that Christ may dwell in your 
bearts by faith ; that ye, being rooted and grounded ia 
loye, may be able to comprehend with all saints, &c. CoL 
i. ID, 11. That ye might walk worthy of the Lord unto 
all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and in- 
creasing in the knowledge of God ; strengthened with all 
might, according to his glorious power, unto all patienoo 
«nd long-suffering with joyfulness. 

c Rom. vi. 4, 6, 14. Even so we also should walk in 
newness of U^.^-Knowing this» that our old man ii 

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Q. 76. What ft rq^entance unio life f 
A. B^pentanee unto life is a saving grace, ^ 
m^ought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit^ 
and word of God,^ whereby out of the sight 
and sense, not only of the danger, ^ but alsa 
ef the filthiness and odioosness of his sins,^ 
and' upon the apprehension of God*s mercy ia 

erocified with Mm, that the body of sin night b« de* 
•troyedy that henceforth we should not serve sin. — For 
tin shall not haye dominion over yott: for ye are not 
wider the law, bat under grace. 

k 2 Tim. ii. 25. If God peradventure will give them 
repentance to the aoknowledging of the truth. 

I Zeeh. zii. 10. I will pour upon the house of David, 
and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of 
grace and of supplications; and they shall look upoit 
me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for 
him. 

i Acts xi. 18, 20, 21. And some of them were men 
of Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they were come to 
Antioch, spake unto the Qreoians, preaching the Lord 
Jesus. And the hand of the Lord was with them : and 
a great number believed, and turned unto the Lord. 
Psa. zix. 7—14. Acts ii. 87. 

k £sek. xviii. 80, 82. Eepent, and turn yourselves 
from all your transgressions ; so iniquity shall not be 
your ruin. Turn— and live ye. Luke xv. 17, 18. How 
many hired servants of my father's have bread enough, 
and to spai^e, and I perish with hunger : &o. Hos. it 
6,7. 

1 Ezek. zzxvi. 81. Then shall ye remember your own 
evil ways, and your doings, that were not good, aud shall 
loathe yourselves in your own sight, for your iniquities, 
and for your abominations. . Ezek. zvi. 61, 68. Then 
thou shalt remember thy ways, and be ashamed. — That 
thou mayest remember, and be confounded, and never 
•pen thy mouth any more because of thy shame, Isa. 
JUL 22. 



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S26 m LAMxxm ekimalami 

Christ, to sudk as are penitent, * be so grieves 
for, ^ and bates bis sins, ^ as that be turns 
from tbem all to God, ' purposing and endea% 
Touring constantly to iralk with him in all Uie 
ways of new obedience. ^ 

Q. 77. Wherein do JtMtifieatiofi and tancti" 
fication differ $ 

* Psa. cxxx. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. If tbou, Lord, shouldeat 
nark iniquities, Lord, who shall stand ? But there ia 
forgivenesB with thee, that thou mayest be feared, &e. 
Joel ii. 12, 18. — Rend your heart, and not your garments, 
and turn unto the Lord your God : for he is gracious and 
merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and re- 
penteth him of the evil. Zeeh. xii. ID. 

» Jer. xxxi. 18, 19. I have surely heard Ephraim be- 
moaning himself thus: Thou hast chastised me, and I 
was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke : 
turn thou me, and I shall be turned ; for thou art the 
Lord my God. Surely after that I was turned, I re- 
pented; and after that I was instructed, I smote upon 
my thigh : I was ashamed, yea, even confounded, because 
I did bear the reproach of my youth. 

« 2 Cor. vil. 11. For behold this selfsame thing that 
ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it 
wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, 
what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehetnenl 
desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge I 

P Acts yxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn tbea 
firom darkness to light, and from the power of Satan ante 
God. Evek. xiv. 6. Repent, and turn yourselves from 
your idols : and turn away your faces from all your 
abominations. 1 Kings viii. 47, 48. — If they shall be* 
think themselves — ^and so return unto thee with all their 
bearU and with all their soul. 1 Sam. vil. 8. 

H Psa. cxix. 59, 128. I thought on my ways, and turned 
my feet unto thy testimonies. Therefore I esteem all tby 
precepts concerning all things to be right ; and I hal^ 
every false way. Lake i. 6, 



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^. Although sanctification be inseparably 
joined with juBttficadon, ' yet they differ, ia 
that God in justification, impute th the rights 
eousness of Christ;' in sanctification, his 
Spirit infuseth grace, and enableth to the ex^ 
ercise thereof ; * in the former, sin is pardon- 
ed ; "^ in the other, it is subdued ; ^ the ono 
doth equally free all believers from the reveng* 
ing wrath of God, and that perfectly in this 
life, that they never fall into condemnation ;^ 

' 1 Cor. n. 11. And sach were some of you : but j9 
are washed, but ye are sanctified* but ye are justified in 
the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our 
God. 1 Cor. i. 80. But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, 
who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness 
and sanctification, and redemption. 

• Bom. iy. 6, 8. Even as David also describeth th0 
blessedness it the man unto whom God imputeth right- 
eousness without works. — Blessed is the man to whom 
the Lord will not Impute sin. 2 Cor. v. 21. Bom. iii. 2i. 

t £aek. zzxtI. 27, And I wiU put my Spirit within 
you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shaU 
keep my judgments, and do thenv. 

• Bom. iii. 24, 25. Being justified freely by his grac% 
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesns ; whom 
God hath set forth, to be a propitiation, through faith in 
his bloody to declare his righteousness for the remission 
of sins. 

▼ Bom. yi. 6, 14. Knowing this, that our old man i$ 
cmcified with him, that the body of sin might be de- 
atroyed, that henceforth we should Dot serye sin. — For 
dn shall not have dominion over you : for ye are not 
under the law, but under grace. 

w Bom. yiii. 1, 88, 84. There is therefore now no 
oondemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus. — Who 
shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect 7 It if 
God that justifieth. Who is he Uiat oondemneth i 



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S28 VHB LABOSa CATECHISM. 

the other is neither equal in all, * nor in this 
life perfect in any, ^ but growing up to pei^ 
fection.* 

Q. 78. Whence ariseth the imperfeetian of 
danctifieation in believers f 

A, The' imperfection of sanctification in be* 
iievers ariseth from the retnnants of sin i^biding 
in every part of them, and the perpetual lust- 
, ings of the flesh against the Spirit ; whereby 
th^y are often foiled with temptations, and fall 
into many sins,* are hindered in all their 

» Heb. V. 12, 18, 14. For when for the time ye ougbt 
to be teachers, ye have need that one teach yon agtiin 
which be the first principles of the oracles of Ood ; an<t 
«re become such as have need of milk, and not of strong 
meat. For every one that useth milk, is nnskilfdl in tiie 
word of righteousness ; for he is a babe.^ But strong 
meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those 
irho by reason of use have their senses exercised to dis* 
eern both good and CTil. 1 John ii. 12, 18, 14. 

y 1 John i. 8, 10. If we say tbat^e have no sin, wo 
ileceiTe ourselves, and the truth is not in us — If we say 
that we have not sinned, we make Mm a Uar, and hit 
word is not in us. 

• 2 Cor. yii. 1. Having; therefore these promises, 
dearly beloved, let us cleanse oursel'ves fh>m all filthineas 
of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the f^ar of 
God. Phil. iiL 12, 13, 14. Brethren, I count not my- 
self to have apprehended : but this one thing I do, for^ 
getting those things which are behind, and reaching forth 
unto those things which are before, I press toward the 
mark, for the prize of the high calling of Qod in Christ 
Jesus. 

« Rom. vii. 18, 28. For I know that in me, (that is, 
in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing : for io will ii 

f resent with me ; but how to perform that which is goo^ 
find not^-But I see another lair in my members waf^ 



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qiiritual Benrices,^ aud their best works are im* 
perfect aiid defiled in the sight of Ood.* 

Q. 79. May not true believers^ by reason of 
Aeir imperfeetiontj qpd tJhe many temptations 
and sins they, are overtaken with^ faU away 
fr0m the 9ta^ of grace f 

A. True believers, by reason of the «n-» 
i^angeable love of God,^ and hk decree and 
eovenant to giTe them perseyeranoe,* their in* 
separable nmon with Ghrist,' his continual in* 
tareeasicxn for them,' and the Spirit and seed 
of God abiding in them,^ can neither totally 

tiDg against the law of my mind, and bringing me into 
iH^l^tity to tlM law of sin wbich is in my members. 

b Oal. T. 17. . For the flesh lastetb against the spint— 
00 that ye eannot do the tliinga that ye waald. Heb. zii* 
l.-^Let us lay aside erery weight, and the sia which doth 
fo easily beset oa. 

« Isa. IxiT. 6. But we are all as aa unclean thing, and ail 
<Mr rtghteonsneasea are as filthy rags ; and we all do fade 
aa a leaf ; and onr iniquities, like the wind> have taken ut 
away. Bx. xxyiii. 88. 

d Jer. TTxi. 8. < I ha^e l0?ed thee with aa e^riaating 
lore. John xiii. 1. 

• Heb. xiii. 20, 21. Now the God of peace, that brought 
Igain from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd 
of the sheep, through the blood of the everhkBting coTe- 
nant, make you pei^ect* 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. — ^Yet he hath 
made wUh me aa everlasting coTenant^ ordered in all 
things, and sure. Isa. liv. 10. 

f 1 Cor. i. 8. Who shall aleooonfirQi you unto the end^ 
that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesua 
Chriat. 

s Heb. Tii. 25. Wherefore he is able also to save them 
to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he 
^▼er liyeth to make intercession for them. Luke xxti. 83^ 
Bat I have prayed for th«e» that thy faith fail not. 

^ I John iii. 9. Whosoever is bom cT Ood deth as* 
20 

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nor finally fall away from the state of grace,' 
but are kept by the power of God through faith 
nnto salvation.^ 

Q. 80. Can true beltever$ be infaUtbty ad- 
mired that they are in the estate of grace^ and 
that they ehall persevere therein unto dohth 
tionf 

A, Saoh as truly believe in Ohrist, and en- 
deavour to walk in all good conscience before 
hiin,^ may, without extraordinary revelation, 
by faith grounded upon the truth of God's 

5 remises, and by the Spirit enabling them to 
iscern in themselves those graces to which 
the promises of life are made,^ and bearing 

eommit sin ; for his seed remaineth in him ; and he oatt« 
Bot sin, because he is bom of God. 1 John ii. 27. But 
the anointing, which ye have received of him, abideth la 
jou : and ye need not that any man teach you ; but as 
the same anointing teaebeth you of all things, and is truth, 
•od is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye ahaU 
abide in him. 

I Jer. xxxii. 40. And I will make an everlasting oeve* 
nant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to 
do them good ; but I will put my fear in Uieir hearts, that 
fhey shall not depart from me. John x. 28. And I give 
unto them eternal life ; and they shall never perish, nei* 
tiier shall any pluck them out of my hand. 

J 1 Pet i. &. Who are kept by the power of God through 
fiaith unto salvation. Phil. i. 6. — He which hath begun 
a good work in you, will perform ft until the day of Jesus 
Christ. 

k 1 John ii. 8. And hereby we do know that we know 
him, if we keep his commandments. Acts xxiv. 16. 

> 1 Cor. ii. 12. Now we have received, not the spirit 
of the world, but the Spirit which is of God ; that we 
might know the things that are freely given to us of 
6od. 1 John iv. 18, 16. Hereby know we that wt 

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SBX XsMMtaOL CATI0HI81I. 231 

iritness m%h tkdr spirits that tbey are th'« 
children of God,"" be ififallifoly assured that 
they are in the estate of erace, and shall per* 
aerere therein unto salyation.*^ 

Q. 81. Are all true believers at all times 
assured of their present being in ike estate of 
grace^ and that they shall be saved f 

A, Assurance of grace and salyation not 
being of the essence of faith,* true believers 
lliay ^ait long before they obtain it;^ andy 

4well in hiiSi and he in ns, beoftuse he hath giren ub of 
Ids Spirit. — And we have known and believed the love 
ihttt God hath to ns. God is love ; and he that dwelleth 
fai lOTe, dwelleth in God, and God in him. 1 John iii. 14, 
18, 19, 21, 24. We know that we hare pasned from death 
unto life, becanse we love the brethren. — Let us not love 
in word, neither in tongne, bat in deed and in truth. Ant 
kereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure 
Onr hearts before him. ^Beloved, * if our heart condemn us 
not, then have we eonfideni^e toward God. — And he that 
keepeth his commandments, dwelleth in him, and he ia 
him. And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the 
Spuit which he hath given us. 

" Bom. Tiii. 16. The Spirit itself beareth witness with 
our Bpirit, that we are the children of God. 

" 1 John Y. 18. These things have I written unto you 
that believe on the name of the Son of God ; that ye may 
know that ye have eternal life. 

• Eph. L IS. In whom ye also trusted, after that ye 
hea^d the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation : in 
whom also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with 
that Holy Spirit of promise. 

p Isa. 1. 10. Who is among you that feareth the 
Lord, that obeyeth the voice of hie servant, that walk^th 
in darkness, and hath no light ? let him trust in the da me 
ef the Lord| and stay upon his God. Psa. Ixzzviii. 
throughout. 



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t83 9111 IUdU3ia Oi^TBOHXAII. 

after the eorjoTiiietit thereof, may have it weak* 
ened aad intermitted, through manifold di8> 
tempers, sine, temptations, and desertions;^ 
yet are they never left wilfaont such a presence 
ftnd support of the Sj^rit of God, as keeps 
them from sinking into utter despair/ 

Q. 82. What u the communion in ghrg 
which the memberioftiie mviMSAe church have 
with Christ 

A. The oommimion in glcrry, whioh tbb 
members of the invisible ehurch have with 
Christ, is in this life,' immediately after death,* 
and at last perfected at the resurrection and 
day of judgment/ 

, 4 Psa. IxxTlL 1 to 12. WiU tlie Ufd east off fbr evert 
Mid will he be favoumlde no more? la his meroy cietm 
fone for evert doth his promiBe iUl fbr erennoret 
ilath God forgetten to b^ graotovs ? hath he in anger shi^ 
up his toncter ntereies ¥ &o. Cant. t. 2, S, 6. I s loop ■ 
I have pttt off my coat ; ftiow shall I p«t it on ?— *M7 be«> 
loved had viihdrawii himself, and iras gone; my soid 
failed when he spake: I sought him, but I eovld 
not find him; I called him bat he gave me nd an- 
swer. Psa. xxxi. 22. For I said in my hasto, I adl 
oat off from before thine eyes. Psa. xxx. S, 7, and IL 
8, 12. 

' Job xiii. 15. Though he slay me» yet will I trust in 
him. Psa. Izxili. 18, 14, 16, 28. Nevertheless I am 
eontinoaUy with thee ; thou hast holden me by my right 
hand. 1 John iii. 9. Isa. liv. 7 to 11. 

■ 2 Cor. iii. 18. But we all, with open faoe beholding 
as in a glass the glery of the Lord, are changed into the 
same image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of 
the Lord. 

t Luke xxiii. 48. And Jesus said mito him, Verily I 
say unto thee. To-day shalt thou be with me la paradise. 

• 1 Thess. iv. 17. Then we which are alive and 



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VHs LiLRasa OAfrxoHiftM. * ^l]Mt 

Q. 88. What i$ the comtnuinmi in ghry 
with Chmty which the members of the inviiible 
church enjoy in this Itfe f 

A. The members of the invisible church 
have commumcated to them, in this life, the 
first-fruits of glory with Christ, as they are 
members of him their head, and so in him are 
interested in that g}ory which he is fully pos- 
sessed of;^ and as an earnest thereof, enjoy 
the sense of God's love,^ peace of conscience, 
joy in the Holy Ghost, and hope of glory,* 
As, on the contrary, sense of God's rerenging 
wrath, horror of conscience, and a fearful ex* 

Kctation of judgment, are to the wicked the 
ginning of the torments, which they shatt 
enaore after death.^ 



remain, shall be caught up together with them in th« 
elouds, to meet the Lord in the air : and so shall we SYer 
be with the Lord. 

▼ Eph. ii. 5, 6. Even when we were dead in sins, hath 
quickened us together with Christ ; — and hath raised us up 
together, and made us sit together in heaTenly places, itt 
Christ Jesus. 

T Bom. Y. 5. And hope maketh not ashamed ; because 
Ike loYC of Qod is shed abroad in our hearts, by the Holy 
Ghost which is given unto us. 2 Cor. i. 22. Who hath also 
sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. 

■ Bom. Y. 1, 2. Therefore, being justified by faith, w© 
hsYO peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ : by 
whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein . 
we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. Bom. 
ziY. 17. For the kingdom of God is not meat and 
drink ; but righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holj 
Ohoat 

r Gen. iv. 13. And Cain said unto the Lord, My pui^ 
Uhment is greater than X can bear. Matt xxvii. 4.-^1 
80* 



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^U TBX LAROIBB OATBCHISlt 

Q, 84. Shall all men die f 

A. Death being threatened as the wages of 
sin,* it is appointed unto all men once to die;* 
Cor that all have sinned.^ ^ 

Q. 85. Death being the wagee of ein^ whv 
or^ not the righteoue delivered from death, 
9$eing aU their sins are forgiven in Christ t 

A. The righteous shall be delivered frott 
ieath itself at the last da^, an*d even in death 
are delivered from the stmg and curse of it;* 
so that although they die, yet it is out of God's 
knre/ to flree them perfectly' from sin and 
misery/ and to make them capable of fur- 
— - ■ ■ ■ ■ .,.,.. .. 1. 

hvr^ sbiM4, in ihftt t luive betnyed the innooent blood. 
Heb. X. 27. But a certain fearful looking (br of judgmeiit 
and fiery indignation, which shall deyonr the adTermiiec 
Mark ix. 44. Where their worm dieth not, and the ftn 
h not quenched. Botn. ii. 9. 

* Rom. vi. 28. For the wages of sin is death. 

« Heb. ix. 27. And as it is appointed unto men oaei 
to die. r 

b Rom. Y. 12. 8o death passed upon all men, for thai 
all have sinned. 

« 1 Cor. XT. 26, 65, 66, 67. The last enemy that shall 
be destroyed is death.— <) death, where is thy sting ? 
grave, where is thy yiotory ? The sting of death is sin ; 
and the strength of sin is the law. Bat thanks be to GK>d» 
which giyeth us the victoiy, through our Lord Jesus Chrisi 
Heb. ii. 15. 

< Isa. iTii. 1, 2. The righteous is taken away from the 
evil to come. He shall enter into peace : they shall rest in 
their beds. 2 Kings xxii. 20. Behold, therefore, I wiU 
gather thee unto thy fathers, and thou shalt be gathered 
Into thy grave in peace : and thine eyes shall not aes aQ 
the evil which I will bring upon this place. 

• Rev. xIt. 18. Blessed are the dead which die in tfct 
Lord from heassforth: yea» Math the Spirit^ thaS th«f 

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iBDB ijuton cAJtmrnxmu tM9 

iher conmuziion wit& Gbrist in glory, whieh 
they then enter, upon.' 

Q. 86. Wluit 18 tie communion in glorp 
tPtth Okriaty which the members of the inmSbU 
church enjoy immeditUety after death. 

A.. The commanion in glory with Christy 
which the members of the invisible chnreh 
enjoy immediateiy after death, is in that their 
souls are then made perfect in holiness,' asi 
received into the highest heavens,^ where they 
b^old the face of God in light and glory ;^ 
iraiting for the fnll redemption of their bo^ 
dies,^ which even in death continue united to I 
Christ,^ and rest in their graves as in their 

naj rest ih>m their Jabonrt ; aad their works do foUow 
tbem. Eph. ▼. 27* 

' Luke xziii. 43. And Jesus said unto him, Verily, I 
•ay onto thee, To-day sbalt thou be with me in paradise. 
Phil. i. 28. For I am in a strait betwixt two, haying a 
desire to depart, and to be with Christ ; which is far 
better. 

s Heb. zii. 28, To the general assembly and dbnroh 
of the £r8t*born, which are written in heaTcn, and to God 
the Jadge of all, and to the spirits of just men made pei^ 
feot. 1 John iii. 2. Eph. y. 27. 

k 2 Cor. Y. 1, 6, 8. If our earthly house of this taber- 
nacle were dissolved, we haye a building of 6od« an house 
not made with hands, eternal in the heayens, &o. 

i 1 John iiL 2. But we know that, when he shall 
appear, we shall be like him ; for we shall see him as 
hit ie. 1 Cor. xiii.* 12. Now we see through a glas^ 
darkly ; but then face to face. Bey. xziL I, 6. Matt 
T. 8. 

i Rom. yiii. 28^ Waiting for the adoption, to wit^ the 
redemption of our body. Psa. xtL 9. d[y flesh also shall 
rest in hope. 

k 1 Xh«s»it. 14 Ver if we beUere that Jesas dM 

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SM m Ti^MTO OAIIM IIIIW 



bedfl,^ tin at the last day they be again united to 
their Mnk.'* Whereaa the soi}b of the wicked 
are at their deaA cast into hell, whore they re- 
main in torments and ntter darlmess ; and tiieir 
bodies kept in their graves, as in their prisons, 
until the resurrection and judgment of the 
great day.'^ 4 

Q. 87* What are we to believe eaneeming 
the reeurreetian f 

A. We are to believe, that at the last day, 
there shall be a general resurrection of the 
dead, both of the just and unjust;* when 
ihey that are then found alire shall in a mo- 
ment be changed ; and the selfsame bodies of 
the dead which are laid in the grave, beins 
then again united to their souls for ever, shall 
be raised up by the power of Christ.^ The 

and rose again, even so them also irluch sleep in Jesus, 
will God bring with him. 

< Isa. iTii. 2. He shall enter into peace; they shsU 
rest in their beds. 

• Job xix. 26, 27. And tbongh after my skin worm! 
destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God : whom 
I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not 
another. 

• Luke rvi. 2S, 24 And in hell he lifted np his eyes^ 
Mng in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Laza* 
ms in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father Abra* 
ham, — send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger 
in water, and cool my tongue ; for I am tormented in this 
flame. Acts i. 26. — From which Judas by transgression 
fell, that he might go to his own place. Jade 6.— He hath 
reserred in CTerlasting chains, under darkness, unto the 
Judgment of the great day. 

• Acts zxiT. 16. There shall be a resurrection of the 
dead, both of the just and uigust 

i 1 Cor. XT. ^1| 6S^ 5S. Behold I shofv yoa a myateiy 1 

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bodies of the just, by ^e Spirit of Christ, and 
by virtue of his resurrection as their ,head> 
shall be raised in power, spiritual, aud ineor- 
mptible, and made like to. his glorious body : * 

^ 1.,.,. I ,11..- .1.1 . « . II p I.I..I -II. II I 1^ 

Fe shall mot aU sleep b«t we shsU «li be oli«Dged, fti 4 
momeot, in the twinkling of an eye, ftt the last Iriunpf 
for the trumpet shall sound ; and the dead shall be raised 
ineorraptible, and ire shall be changed. For this cor» 
miytible mast pot on iocorraptioo, awl tkls mortal miiat 
put on immortality. 1 Thess. iy. 15, 16, 17. For this ve 
say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which srs 
aB?e and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not 
l^veiit them which are asleep. For the Lord himsvtf 
•hall descend from heaTen with a shout, with the toim «f 
the archangel, and with the trump of Qod ; and the deiMi 
fat Christ shall rise first : then we which are alive and r»- 
Maia, shall be tmugfat up toge^er with them in the clouds, 
to «e«t the Lord in the sir : and so shall we eter be witli 
Ibe Lord. John ▼. 28, 29. 

4 1 Cor. XY. 21, 22, 23, 42, 48, 44. For since by maa 
same death, by man came also the resurrection of the 
dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be 
made alive. [It is evidently the scope of the apostle's 
argument in this passage* to prove, that as all the natural 
seed of Adam, their covenant-head, were subjected to 
death by his offence ; so all the spiritual seed of Christ, 
their new covenant-head, shall be raised from death, to 
an immortal life of glory and blessedness, by virtue of 
his resurrection. It is therefore a perversion of the Scrip- 
ture, to adduce this text as a proof of universal redemp- 
tion.] But every man in his own order : Christ the first- 
fruits ; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.— 
Bo also is the resurreetioo of ihe dead : it is sown in cor- 
ruption, it is raised in inoorruption : it is sown in dishon- 
our, it is raised in glory : it is sown in weakness, it is 
raised in power x it is sown a natural body, it is r^ed a 
spuitital body. PhiL iii. 21. Who shall change our viio 
body, that it may be fashioned like unto hiOf^orious body. 
Paii.xii2. 



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98ft Tja hAMiMBL mnoBum. 

wd the bodies of tbe wicked shall be raised up 
in dishonour by him aa an offended judge.' 

Q. 88. What shall mmediatelpfoUowqfUr 
theremrrection f 

A, Immediately after the resurrection shall 
foHow the general and final judgment of angels 
and men : ' the day and hour whereof no 
man knoweth, that all may watch and pray, 
and be ever ready for the coming of the 
Lord.* 

Q. 89. What shall be done to the wicked at 
the day <^ judgment f 

A. At the day of judgment, the wicked shall 
be set on Christ's left hand,^ and upon clear 

r John y. 28, 29. Maryel not at this : for the hour is 
oomlng, in the which aU that are in the grates shall hear 
his Toice, and shall oome forth ; they that have done good, 
unto the resurrection of life ; and they that ha^e done 
evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. Ban. xii. 2. 
And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth 
shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame 
and everlasting contempt. Matt. xxy. 88. 

• 2 Pet. ii. 4. For if God spared not the angels that 
tinned, but oast them down to hell, and delivered them 
into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment. 
2 Cor. V. 10. For we must all appear before the judgment 
seat of Christ : that every one may receive the ihtnga 
done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether 
it be good or bad. Rev. xx. 12. 

t Matt. xxiv. 86, 42, 44. But of that day and hour 
knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven but my 
Father only. — Watch, therefore ; for ye know not what 
hour your Lord doth oome. — Therefore be ye also ready t 
for in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of man 
oometh. Luke«xxi. 86, 86. 

• Matt. XXV. 88. And he shall set the sheep on Ilia 
right hand, bnt the goata on the left. 

\ 

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evidence, and fall conTiotion of their own con* 
Bciences/ shall have the fearful bat jast sen- 
tence of condemnation pronounced against 
them ; ^ and thereupon shall be cast out from 
the favourable presence of God^ and the gl<»i« 
ons fellowship with Christy his saints, and all 
Ids holy angels, into hell, to be punished with 
unspeakable torments both of body and soul, 
with the devil and his angels for ever/ 

Q. 90. What $haU be done to the righteom 
at the day of judgment f 

A, At the day of judgment, the righteous^ 
being caught up to Christ in the clouds,' 
shall be set on his right hand, and there 
openly acknowledged and acquitted,' shall join 

▼ Bom. ii. 16, 16. Which show the work of the law 
written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing wit- 
ness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing, or else 
excusing one another; in the day when God shaU 
judge the secrets of. men by Jesus Christ, according to 
my gospel. 

V Matt. xxY. 41, 42. Then shall he say also unto them 
on the left hand, Bepart from me, ye cursed, into eyer* 
lasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels : for I 
was an hungered, and ye gave me no meat, &o. 

* Matt. XXY. 46. And these shall go away into eveiv 
lasting punishment 2 Thess. i. 8, 9. In flaming fire 
taking vengeanoe on them that know not God, and that 
llbey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ : who shaU 
be punished with everlasting destruction from the pres- 
ence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. Luke 
zri. 26. John iii. 86. Mark ix. 48, 44 ; xiv. 21. 

7 1 Thess. iv. 17. Then we which are alive and remain, 
ihku be caught up together with th«n in the clouds, to 
meet the Lord in the air. 

s Matt. XXV. 88. And he shall set the sheep on hie 
ilfht Iwnd. Matt. z. 82. WbosoeVer therefore shaa 

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witli him in the judging of .reprohate sngcds 
and men : * and aball be received into* heai» 
▼«n^^ where they AM be fdllj and forevor 
freed from all sin and misery;* filled with 
inoonoeiTable joys ; ^ made perfectly holy and 
bappy both in body and soul, in the cosn 
pany of innnmeraUe saints and angels,* bwl 
especially in the immediate vision and fnn* 
tioii of God the Father, of our Lord Jeana 
Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, to all eternity/ 

QonfaBs me before raen, him will I oonfesft also before my 
father which is in heaven. 

« 1 Cor. y\. 2, 8. Do ye not know that the saints shaU 
}«dge the world r^— Know ye not that we shall judge 
•Bgels? 

b Matt. xxT. 84, 46. Then shall the King say nnto them 
on his right hand, Game, ye biemed of my Father^ inherit 
the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of tint 
world : — ^But the righteous into life eternal, 

e Eph. T. 27. That he mi^t present it to himself e 
l^orious ohoroh, not having spot, or wrinkle. Bev. -viL 
17. And God shall wipe away all tears from dteir eyea^ 

RST. ZIY. 18. 

4 Psa xTi. 11. Thou wilt show me the path of life ; ie 
thy presence is ftilness of joy ; at thy right hand tlwfe 
are pleasures for evermore. 1 Cor. ii. 9. 

• Heb. zii. 22, 28.. But ye are come nnto Mount Sieii, 
snd unto the city of the living God, the heavenly JeroM* 
lem, and to an innumerable oompany of angels, to thft 
general assembly and church of the first-bom, wh|eh 
are written in heaven, and to God the judge of aiU> $aA to 
the spirits of just men made perfect. 

' 1 John ill. 2. Beloved, bow are we the bods of Ge^ 
end it doth not yet appear what we shall be; bat we 
Imow that, when he shall appear, we shall be Uke him; 
for we shall see him as he is. l«Cor. xiii 12. For m»w 
we see through a glass, darkly ; but then face to Hm . 
aew I know in peit^ bat then ahalX I keow evcsi ee alat A 

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And t}&i k the perfect and ibil eommtmion, 
whi«h tb« metnbeFB of the inyisible ehtirch 
«hall enjoy with Ohrist in glorj, at the resup- 
teetien and daj of judgment. 



Saving seen what the Scriptures frincipaUy 

teach u% to believe concerning Q-od^ it follows 

to consider what they require as the duty of 

man* 

Q. 91, What is the duty which God re- 
quireth of man f 

A. The duty which God requireth of man ia 
obedience to his revealed wilL* 

Q. 92. What did God at first reveal unto 
mtan as ike rule of his obedience f 

A. ISife rule of obedience revealed to Adam 

in the estate of innocence, and to all mankind 

in him, beside a specid command, net to eat 

t)f the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of 

J gooct and evil, was the moral law.^ 

Q. dS. Whatisthemor^dhmf 

am known. ' 1 Tbess. ir. 17, 18.— So shall we ever b« 
with the Lord. Wherefore, comfort one another with these 
words. Bey. xxii. 8, 4, 6. 

V Dent. xxix. 29. The secret things belong unto tire 
iiord onr God ; but those things which are revealed 
twlong onto ns, and to onr children for ever, that we 
ttfty do all the words of this law. Mich. n. 8. 1 Sam. 
Kf. 22. 

h Bom. X. 5. For Moses describeth fhe righteonsnesB 
Wiilch is of the law, iSiat the man which doeth those things 
tfiaflliTebj^em. R<mi.ii. 14, 16.— Whicfh Bhow the 
work of the law written in their hearts. Oen. ii. 17. 

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TBS LAXOn OAXXOHKUI. 

A. The moral law is the declnration of tbe 
will of God to mankind, directing and binding 
every oae to personal, perfect, and perpetual 
conformity and obedience thereanto, in the 
frame and disposition of the whole man, soul 
and body,' and in performance of all those 
duties of holiness and righteousness which he 
oweth to God and man: ^ promising life upon 
the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the 
breach of it.*^ 

Q. 94. Is there any u%e of the moral law U 
man since the fall? 

A. Although no man since the fall can at- 
tain to righteousness and life by the moral 
law,^ yet there is great use thereof, as well 

i Deut. T. 1, 31, 83. Hear, Israel, the statutes and 
judgments which I speak in your ears this day, that yt 
may learn them, and keep, and do them. — I wiU speak 
unto thee all the commandments, and the statutes, and th« 
judgments, which thou shalt teach them» that they may 
do them. — Ye shall walk in aU the ways which the Lord 
your God hath commanded you. Luke x, 26, 27. — What 
is written in the law? how readest thou? And he answer 
ing, said. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy 
,beart, and with all thy fionl, and with all thy strength, 
and with all thy mind ; and thy neighbour as thyself. 1 
Thess. Y. 28. — ^I pray God, your whole spirit, 4nd soul, 
and body, be preserved blameless unto the coming of our 
Lord Jesus Christ 

J Luke i. 76. Li holiness and righteousness before him, 
all the days of our. life. Acts xxiv. 16. And herein do 
I exercise myself, to have always a conscienoa void of 
offence toward God, and toward men. 

^ Bom. X. 5. — The man which doeth those things shall 

live by them. Gal. iii. 12. Cursed is every one that 

eontinueth not in all things which are written in the book 

of the law to do them. 

xi Bom. yiuL &• for what the law could not do^ ia 

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TBS lARGXE CAflOSItM. 948 

common to all men, as pecduur either to the 
nnregenerate, or the regeneri^te.'* 

Q. 95. Of what use is the moral law to aU 
menf 

A. The moral law is of use to all men, to 
inform them of the holy nature and will of 
God,* and of their duty binding them to 
walk accordingly ; ® to convince them of their 
disability to keep it, and of the sinful pollution 
of their nature, hearts, and lives,' to humble 
them in the sense of their sin and misery,* 

thAt it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own 
Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned 
Bin in the flesh. GaL ii. 16.— For by the works of the 
law shall no flesh be justified. 

■ 1 Tim. i. 8. But we know that th^ law is good, if a 
man use It lawfully. 

■ Lev. xi. 44, 45. For I am the Lord your God : ye 
lihall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy : 
for I am holy. Lev. xx. 7, 8. Rom, vil. 12. MTherefore 
the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and 
good. 

• James ii. 10, 11. For whosoever shall keep the whole 
law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. Mioah 
ti. 8. What doth the Lord require of thee, but to do 
justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy 
God? 

p Psa. xix. 11, 12. Moreover by them is thy servant 
warned : — who can understand his errors ? Rom. ill. 20. 
— For by the law is the knowledge of sin. Rom. vii. 7. 
-—I had not known sin, but by the law : for I had not 
known lust, except the law had said. Thou shalt not 
eovet. 

4 Bom. iii. 9, 28. What then ? Are we better than 
they f Ko, in no wise: for we have before proved both 
JewB and Gentiles, that they are all under sin : for all 
have sinned and come short of the glory of God. Rom. 
vit 9, 18.-^lVhen the commandment came, sin retived* 

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244 Tta LAftOlK OATXOmSlf . 

and tliereby help..tbem taa clearer sight of th^ 
need they have of Christy ^^^ of the perfeo*- 
tion of hi8 obedience." 

Q. 96. What particular use i» there of f A# 
moral law to nnregenei^ate men t 

A. The moral law is of use to ttRregenerate 
men, to awaken^ their eoneciences to flee from 
the wrath to eooie,* and to drive them to 
Christ ; " or, upon their continuance in the 
eetate and way of sin, to leave them inexcifr* 
sable/ and under the curse thereof.^ 

Q. &7. What special use is thereof the moral 
taw to the regenerate, 

A. Although they that are regenerate an<{ 
believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral 

and I di«d.--Thftt sia bjtbe commandment might become 
exceeding sinful. * 

' Gal. ill. 21, 22. Is the law then against the promiset 
of God ? God forbid : for if there had been a law givea 
which could have given life, yerily righteousness should 
have been by the law.. But the Scripture hath conclude<f 
all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ 
might be given to them that believe. 

> Rom. X. 4. For Christ is the end of the lawfbr right* 
•ousuess to every one that believeth. 

< 1 Tim. i. 9, 10. Knowing this, that the law is not 
made for a righteous man, but for the lawless an<l 
disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, &c. Rom. 
iriii. 9. 

• Gal. iii. 24. Wherefore the law was our school* 
master to bring us unto Christ, that we might be Justified 
by faith. 

V Rom. i. 20. So that they are without excuse, Com« 
pared with Rom. ii. 15. 

" Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the works of tba 
law, are under the corse. 

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hw M % eoreramt of worlds,' so as thereby 
they are neither justified ^ nor condemiied : * 
yet, beside the general uses thereof common to 
them with all men, it is of special use to show 
them how much they are bound to Ohrist for 
his fulfilling it, and enduring the curse thereof, 
in their stead and for their good ; *• and there* 
by to provoke them to more thankfulness,^ 
and to express the same in their greater care 

> Rom. Tii. 4» 6. Wherefore, my brethren, ye also nn 
become dead to the law by the body of Christ ; that ye 
should be married to another, even to him who is raised 
'from the dead, that we should bring forth trmt nnto God. 
—Bat now we are ddivered from the law, that being 
dead wherein we were held ; that we should serve ia 
newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter. 
Aad Yi. 14.— For ye are not under the law, but under 
grace. 

7 Rom. ill. 20. Therefore by the deeds of the law 
there shall no flesh be justified in bis sight. 

* Rom. Till. 1, 84. There is therefore now no oondem* 
nation to them which pore in Christ Jesus. — ^Who is he that 
condemneth? 

» Gal. iii. 18, 14. Christ hath redeemed us from the 
«arfe of the law, being made a curse for us.— That we 
night receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. 
Eom. Yiii. 8, 4. For what the law could not do, in that 
it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Sob 
In the likeness of sinfiil flesh, and for sin, condemned sin 
In the flesh ; that the righteousness of the law might be 
fulfilled in us. 2 Cor. t. 21. 

b CoL i. 12. 18, 14. Giring thahks unto the Father, 
which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inherit- 
ance of the saints in light ; who hath delivered us from 
the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the 
kingdom of his dear Son ; in whom we have redemption 
through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins. Luke i. 
68, 69, 74. 76. . 

21» 

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|0 ooofonn tibemselvM tJbrennto as the rde t)f 
their obedience/ 

Q.. 98. Wherein u the fMoral law 9ummaf 
rUyemfrthendedf 

. A. Tlie moral kw is sumiBfurity compre* 
hended in the ten oomifiandiDentfl, vhich vere. 
delivered by the voice of God upon mount 
Sinai, and written by him on two tables of 
atone ;^ and are recorded in the twentieth 
chapter of Exodus; the first four command-* 
ments containing our duty to Gk)d, and the 
other six our duty to man.* 

Q. 99. What rules are to be observed for 
the .right understanding of the ten commtmd* 
ments f 

A* For the right understanding of the ten 

« Eov. vii. 22. Fdr I deHght in the law of God, after 
the inward man. Tit ii. 11, 12, 18, 14. For the graes 
«f Qod that bringeth salra^on hath appeared to aU men, 
teaehing ni, that» denying nagodlinees, and worldly hisH^ 
we should Iito soberly, righteously, and godly, in thii 
present world; looklog for tiiat bleseed hope, and the 
glorious appearing of the great €M and our SaTionr Jeava 
Christ ; who gave himself for us, that he night redeem 
us from all iaiqwty, and purify unto himself a peeuliac 
people, lealouB of good works. Ronr. xii. 2. 

A Deut. X. 4. And he wrote on the tables, aeoorditt| 
to the first irriting^ the ten oommandments. Bx. zzzir. 
1. 2, a, 4. 

• Matt xxH. 87, 88, 89, 4a Jesus said onto him» 
Thou Shalt love the Lord thy God with att thy heart, and 
with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the firsi 
and great eonmaadnent And the seoond is like «nlo it| 
Xhou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two 
•ommandaeats bang all tba law aiad tha propheta 



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m 

eOQittaadiiittila^ tfietd nileo are to te oIh 
served :— 

1. That the law is perfect, «»d bindeth erary 
<me to full conformity in the whole man a&t9 
the righteoosnen thereof, and unto entire ohe* 
dience (o^ ever; so as to reqnke the ntmoel 

C^rfection of every duty, and to forbid the 
ast degree of every sin/ 
2« That it is spiritaal, and so reaeheth the 
understanding, will, affections, and aH other 
powers of the soul ; as well as words^ work% 
and gestures** 

S» That one and the same thing, in diverfl 
respects, is required or forbidden in several 
commandments^ 

( Psa. ziz. 7. The law of the Lorcl Is perfect Jamefi 
fi. 10. For whoeoever shall keep the whole law^^ aad yet 
offend k vne pointy he is gtulty of all. Matt t. i22, zCL 
S7, 44. Whosoever shall say, [to his brother] Thou fool^ 
•ha^ be hi. da&ger of hell-fire. — ^WhosooTer lookeUi on a 
woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with 
her already in his heart.— But let your communication b^ 
ye% yea ; Nay nay : for whatsoever is more than these 
someth of evil. — ^Bnt I say unto you, Love your enemieS| 
Uesa them that onrse you, do good to them that hate you^ 
and pray for them which despitefuUy use you, and perse- 
««te yo«. 

f Bom. vit 14. For we know that the law is spirituaK 
Beut vi. 5. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
tiiy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mights 
Matt xxii. 87, 88, 89. Matt xii. 86, 87. 

k Cot iii. 6. Mortify therefore your members whiolL 
flore vpon the earth ; fDrnioation, undeannesss, inordinate 
afeotloB, «vU eoncupiscence, and covetousnest, which is 
idolatiy. 1 Tim. vi. 10. Vw the love of money is tha 
i«at of all tnH; wUeh while some ooveted sfter, thej 

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4. Thai a8> where a duty is oommanded, the 
eontri^ry sin is forbidden ; ' and where a ein is 
forbidden, the contrary doty is commanded:^ 
80, where a promise is annexed, the contrary 
threatening is included ; ^ and where a threat- 
ening is annexed, the contrary promise is in- 
dttded.^ , 



kaye erred from the faith, and pierced themseWeB throng)! 
irith many sorrows. Ex. zx. 8, 4, 6. Amos yiii. 6. 

i Isa. Iviii. 13. If thou turn away thy foot from the 
Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day ; and 
call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honour- 
able ; and shalt honour him, npt doing thine own ways, 
tor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own 
words. Matt xt. 4, 6, 6. For Qod commanded, saying, 
Honour thy father and mother: and He that curseS 
fkther or mother, let him die the death. But ye say, 
' Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother. It is a 
gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; and 
honour not his father or Ms mother, he shaB be free. 
Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none 
«ffect by your tradition. Deut vi. 18. Compared with 
Matt. iv. 9, 10. 

J Eph. iv. 28. Let him that stole steal no more; but 
rather let him labour, &o. 

k Ex. XX. 12. Honour thy father and thy mother : that 
thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy 
God giveth thee. Compared with Prov. xxx. 17. The 
•ye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey his 
mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, and the 
young eagles shall eat it. 

1 Jer..^viU. 7, 8. At what instant I shall speak 00a- 
eoming a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, 
and to pull down, and to destroy it; if that nation, against 
whom I have pronounced, turn from their evil, I will re- 
pent of the evil that I thought to do unto them. Ex. xx. 
7. Thou shalt not tf^ke the name of the Lord thy God in 
ndn ; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh 



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6» That what God forbids, is at no tine to 
be done ; " what be eommands is always omr^ 
duty ; * and jet every partieular da^ is not' 
to be done at all times/ 

6. That, under one sm or duty, all of tba^ 
same kind are forbidden or aommi£hded ; to* 
gether with all the eaixieey means, oecafiioniV' 
MEid appearances thereof, aikd pvorocationa 
tiiereuato** • 

7. That what i» forUdden or comoMided tou 
(mrselTes, we are boond, «aoooirding to oar* 
places, to endeavour that it may be avoided or 
perfonned by others, acoording to the dnty of 
their places.*^ 

liU name in yain. Compsred with Pas« xv. 1| ^ 5t sudv 
with Psa. zxiv. 4, 5. 

n Rom. iii. 8. And not rather, (as we be slanderously 
reported, and aS some aflSrm that we say) Let va do ev^^ 
that gpod may come? whoae damnation is ivst Heh* 
xi.26. 

» Dent. iv. 9. Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy 
aoul diligently, lest thou forget the things which tMxMi 
eyes have seen, and lest they depart from thine heart all 
the days of thy life ; but teach them thy sons, a^d thy 
sons' sons. 

« Matt. xii. 7. But if ye had known what this meaneth». 
I will hare mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not haT« 
condemned the guiltless. Mark xiv. 7. 

p 1 Thess. Y. 22. Abstain from all appearance of eviL 
Gal. v. 26. Let us not be desirous of yain-glory, provok- 
ing one another, envying que another. Heb. z. 24. Let 
us consider one another, to provoke unto love, and to good; 
works. Col. iii. 21. 

<i Ex. XX. 10. But the seventh day is the Sabbath of 
tihe Lord thy God : in it thou shalt not do any work, thou» 
nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thj 
maid-servant, nor thy eattle, nor tby^ stranger that ii 

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260 TBmUMkMB, CATmOttUOL 

8. That in wbat is eomiiiaiicled to oihers, we 
are bound, aooordmg to oar places and callings, 
to be helpful to them ; ' and to take heed of 
partaking with others in what k forbidden 
them.' 

• Q. 100.^ What special thing$ are we to ttm^ 
Mer in the ten commandments t 

ui. We are to consider in the ten ^sommand* 
ments, the preface, th^ substance of the ooBir 
mandments themselves, and the seyeral reasons 
annexed to some of them the more to enforce 
them. 

Q. 101* What is the prefciee ta the ten eom^ 
mandments f 

A, The preface to the ten commandments is 
contained in these words, / am the Lard thy 
Cf-od^ which have brought thee out of the land 
of Egypt, out of the house of bondage^ Where- 
in God .manifesteth his sovereignty, as being 
Jehovah, the eternal, immutable, and almighty 

within thy gates. Gen. xyiii. 19. For I know him, that 
he will command his children, and his household after 
him ; and they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do 
justice and judgment. Deut vi. 6, 7. And these words, 
which I command thee this day, shall be in thy heart i 
•nd thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, 
and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, 
and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou lieat 
down, and when thou risest up. Josh. xxiv. 16. 

» 2 Cor. i. 24. Not for that we have domin*on over your 
Ikith, but are helpers of your joy. 

" 1 Tim. y. 22. Lay hands siiiHdenly on no man, neither 
be partakers of other men's sins : keep thyself pure. 
£ph. y. 11. And have no fellowship with the unfruitful 
works of darkness, but rather reprove them. 
(Ex. zz. 2. * 

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G4I ; * Baying his being in and of himself, ^ 
and giving being to all his words ^ and works ; * 
and that he is a God in covenant, as with Israel 
of old, so with all his people ; ^ who as he 
brought them out of their bondage in £gypt| 
so he delivered us frem our spiritual thraldem ; ' 
and that therefore we are bound to take him 
for our God alone, and to keep all his command* 
ments/ « 

« Isa. xUt. 6. Thus sftith the Lord the King of Israel, 
and his Redeemer the Lord of hosts ; I am the first, and 
I am the last ; and beside me there is no God. 

▼ Ex. iU. 14. And Ood said unto Moses, I AM THAT 
I AM : and he said, Thos shalt thou say unto the children 
of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. 
' ▼ Ex. Ti. 8. And I appeared unto Abraham, unto 
Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of Gtod Almighty) 
bat by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them. 

s Acts rvii. 24, 28. God that made the world, and all 
things therein, seeing that be is Lord of heayen and earthy 
dwelleth not in temples made with hands-^For in him #» 
Uyo, and move, and have our being. 

f Gen. xrii. 7. And I will establish my covenant be- 
tween me and thee. Compared witb Bom. ill. 29. Is ba 
the God of the Jews only ! is he not also of the Gentiles t 
Tes, of the Gentiles also. 

s Lake i. 74, 75. That he would grant unto ns, that 
we being detivered out of the hand of our enemies, might 
■enre him without fear, in holiness and righteousnesi 
b^ore him, all the days of our life. 

• 1 Pet i. 15, 16, 17, 18. But as he which hath called 
you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation ; 
because it is writtten, Be ye holy ; for I am holy. And 
if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons 
jodgetb according to every man's work, pass the time ef 
your sojourning here in fear : forasmuch as ye know that 
ye were not r^eemed with conruptible things, as silver 
and gold, fh>m your vain oonversation. Lev. xviit. 8^ 
and xix. 37. See also letter (s), above. 

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tin TBI LASOXR OATXOHISltf. 

Q. 1©2. TF^a* & t/l« nem tf tHe jmir 
c^iHmandmefftU whieh contain our duty to 

^l.The smn of the four commftndmeDts 
MEitdnisg oar Ant j to God, is to loVe the LorA 
OUT Cted with all our heart, and with all our 
feOTily and with all our strength, and with all onr 
Bikid« ^ 

Q. 108. Which is the first commandment f 

Jl The first comTnandment is, Thou ihaU 
%ave no other gods hefore me, * 

Q. 104« What are the dvsties required ui 
Me first commandment f 

A, The duties required In the first oommand** 
iikent are, the knowing and acknowledging of 
God to he the only true God, and out God;* 
wd to worship and glorify him accordingly;* 

• Luke X. S7. Thoa tiutltloTe tiiv Lord, fto. 

• Sx. zz. 8. 

« K^ffMi. zzfiii. 9. And tiiou, Solomon mj sob, know 
Hkxm the €^od of iky Iktlier, and serre Mm irith a pwfedk 
kMtft, «ad vitk « irilling mind. Poot zxvL 17. Tkoa 
kftit avonehed the Lord this day to be thy Qod. Isa. 
fflBL }0. Y'O ave my witnesfees, skith tiie Lord, and my 
Mrant vkem I haye okosen ; tkat ye may know and Ihh 
Mwae, and vaStterstand that I am he: before me then 
was no GN>d formed, neither shall there be after me. Jef . 
«lv. 28. 

• Psa. x«r. 6, 7. eeme, let ns vorrtiip and bow 
tdown ; 'let ns kneel before the Lurd our Maker. For he 
iB «ur God ; and we are the people <tt his pastecre, and 
Ike sheep of his hand. Mattt It. 16.-- Thon shalt wor- 
«kip the Lord thy God, and hkn only ahaH <thon sei^tt. 
9sa.^ uiz. 2. Give onto the Lord the gjlory dne nnt» 
kla aim : worship the Lord in tke beanty of holfaiess. 

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THE LAEGEB OATXCHIBM. 268 

by thinking, ' meditating, * remembering, ^ 
highly esteeming, * honouring, J adoring, ^ 
choosing, ^ loving, ™ desiring, ^ fearing of 
him ; ® believing him ; ^ trusting ; ^ hoping * 
delighting, ' rejoicing in him ; ^ being zeal- 

f Mai. iii. 16. Then they that feared the Lord, spake 
often one to another; and the Lord hearkened, and 
heard it : and a book of remembrance was written before 
him for them that feared the Lord, and that thought upon 
his name. 

f Pea. Ixiii. 6. When I remember thee upon my bed, 
and meditate on thee in the night-watches. 

b Eecl. xii. 1. Remember now thy Creator in the days 
of thy youth. 

* Psa. Ixxi. 19. Thy righteousness also, God, is very 
.high, who hast done great things : God, who is like unto 

thee? 

i Mai. i. 6. If then I be a father, where is my 
honour? 

k Isa. xlv. 28. I have sworn by myself, the word has 
gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not re- 
^ tum,^that unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue 
shall swear. Psa. xcvi. throughout. 

1 Josh. zxiv. 22. Ye are witnesses against yourselves 
that ye have chosen you the Lord, to serve him. 

>" Deut. vi. 5. And thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God. 

■ Psa. Izxiii. 25. Whom have I in heaven but thee ? 
and there is none upon earth that I desire besides thee. 

* Isa. viii. 13. Sanctify the Lord of hosts himself; and 
let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. 

P Ex. xiv. 31. And the people feared the Lord, and 
believed the Lord. Bom. x. 11. Acts x. 43. 

•» Isa. xxvi. 4. Trust ye in the Lord for ever. Psa. 
Xl. 4. 

' Psa. cxxx. 7. Let Israel hope in the Lord. 

' Psa. xxxvii. 4. Delight thyself also in the Lord. 

* Psa. xxxii. 11. Be glad in the Lord, and rejoice, ye 
righteo\is : and shout for joy, all ye that are upright ta 
heart. 

22 

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254 THE LARGER 0ATECHI8M. 

OQS for him;* calling upon him, giving all 
praise and thanks/ and yielding all obedi- 
ence and submission to him with the whole 
man ; ^ being careful in all things to please 
him,' and sorrowful when in any thing 
he is offended;^ and walking humbly with 
him." 

Q. 105. What are the sins forbidden in the 
first commandment? 

A. The sins forbidden in the first command* 
ment are atheism, in denying, or not having a 
God ; * idolatry, in having or worshipping 
more gods than one, or any with, or instead 
of the true God ; * the not having and vouch- 

" Rom. zii. 11. Fervent in Spirit ; serving the Lord. 
Rev. iii. 10. Be zealous therefore. Num. zxv. 11. 

▼ Phil. iy. 6. But in every thing by prayer and sup- 
plication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be ^lade 
known unto God. 

^ Jer. vii. 28. But this thing commanded I them 
saying, Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye 
shall be my people ; and walk ye in all the ways that I 
have commanded you. James iv. 7. Submit yourselves 
therefore to God. Bom. xii. 1. 

* 1 John iii. 22. And whatsoever we ask, we receive 
of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those 
things that are pleasing in his sight. 

f Neh. xiiL 8. And it grieved me sore. Psa. Izziii. 
21. Thus my heart was grieved. Psa. cxix. 186. Riv- 
ers of waters run down mine eyes, because thejf keep not 
thy law. Jer. xxxi. 18, 19. 

» Mich. vi. 8. And to walk humbly with thy God. 

*■ Psa. xiv. 1. The fool hath said in his heart. There 
is no God. £ph. ii. 12. And without God in the 
world. 

^ Jer. ii. 27, 28. Saying to a stock, Thou art mj 



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THE LARGllB 0ATSCHI8M. 255 

ing him for God, and our God ; ^ the omission 
or neglect of any thing due to him, required 
in this commandment ; * ignorance, • forgetful- 
ness, ' misapprehensions,' false opinions, ^ un- 
'worthy and wicked thoughts of him ; * bold 
' I ■ ■■ «■■■■■ I ■■■■, „ . ., 

father ; and to a stone. Thou hast brought me forth*- 
where are thj gods that thou hast mad^ thee ?'-*for ac- 
cording to the number of thy cities are thy gods, Judah. 
Compared with 1 Thess. i. 9. 

« Psa. bcxxi. 11. But my]^eople wvnld not hearken to 
my voice : and Israel would none of me : 

^ leia. zliii. 22, 23. But thou hast not called upon me, 
O Jacob ; but thou hast been weary of me, Israel. 
Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt- 
offerings: neither hast thou honoured me with thy sac- 
rifices. 

• Jer. iy. 22. For my people is foolish, they have not 
known me ; theyvare sottish children, and they have none 
understanding : they are wise to do evil, but to do good 
they have no knowledge. Hos. iv. 1, 6. — For the Lord 
Jwth a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, be- 
cause there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God 
In the land.^-My people are destroyed for lack of know- 
ledge. 

' Jer. ii. 82. Can a maid forget her ornaments, or a 
l»ide her attire ? yet my people have forgotten me days 
without number. Psa. 1. 22. 

« Acts xvii. 23, 29. For as I passed by, and beheld 
your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, To 
THE UNKNOWN GoD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly wor- 
rtiip, him declare I unto you. — We ought not to think that 
the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven 
by art and man's device. 

*» Isa. xl. 18. To whom then will ye liken God ? or 
what likeness will ye compare unto him ? 

* Psa. 1. 21. These things hast thou done, and I kept 
silence ; thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one 
as thyself : but I will reprove thee and set them in order 
before thine eyes. 



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256 THE LAEOSR GATXCHI8H. 

and curious searcliiugs into his secrets;^ 
all profaneness, ^ hatred of God, ^ self- 
love, ™ self-seeking, '^ and all other inor- 
dinate and immoderate setting of our mind, 
will or affections upon other things, and 
taking them off from him in whole or in 
part ; * vain credulity, ^ unbelief, •* heresy, ' 
misbelief,' distrust,* despair;^ incorrigible- 

i Deut xxix 29. The secret things belong unto the 
Lord our God. 

k Tit. i. 16. They profess that they know God ; but 
in words they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, 
and unto every good work reprobate. Heb. zii. 16. 

1 Rom. i. 80. Backbiters, haters of God, despiteftil, 
proud, boasters. 

m 2 Tim. iii. 2. For men shall be loverfl of their own 
selyes, ooyetous, &o. 

■ Phil. ii. 21. For all seek their own, not the things 
which are Jesus Christ's. 

« 1 John ii. 16. Love not the world, neither the things 
that are in the world. If any man love the world, the 
love of the Father is not in him. 1 Sam. iL 29. — ^And 
honourest thy sons abore me. CoL iii. 2, 6. 

P 1 John iy. 1. Beloved, believe not every spirit, but 
try the spirits whether they are of God ; because many 
false prophets are gone out into the world. 

4 Heb. iii. 12. Take heed, brethren, lest there be in 
any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from 
the living God. 

» Gal. V. 20. Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, 
emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies. Tit. iii. 10. 

• Acts xxvi. 9. I verily thought with myself, that I 
ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus 
of Nazareth. 

• Psa. Ixxviii. 22. Because they believed not in God, 
and trusted not in his salvation. 

• Gen. iv. 18. And Cain said, — My punishment il 
greater than I can bear. 



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TBB LARGER CATSOHISM. 257 

ness, ^ and iDsensibleness under judgments, ^ 
hardness of heart, * pride, ^ presumption, " 
carnal security, * tempting of God : ^ using 
unlawful means ; ' and trusting in lawful 
means ; * carnal delights and joys ; • cor- 
rupt, blind, and indiscreet zeal;' luke- 
warmness, ' and deadness in the things of 

▼ Jer. V. 8. Thou hast stricken them, but they have 
not grieved ; thou hast consumed them, but they have re- 
fused to receive correction : they have made their faces 
harder than a rock ; they have refused to return. 

* Isa. zliL 25. Yet he knew not ; yet he laid it not to 
heart. 

*■ Rom. ii. 5. But after thy hardness and impenitent 
heart, treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day 
of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of 
God. 

J Jer. xiii. 15. Hear ye, and give ear ; be not proud : 
for the Lord hath spoken. 

> Psa. xix. 18. Keep back thy servant also ftrom pre- 
sumptuous sins ; — then shall I be — innocent from the 
great transgression. 

& Zeph 1. 12. And punish the men that are settled on 
their lees ; that say in their heart, The Lord will not do 
good, neither will he do evil. 

b Matt iv. 7. Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. 

c Bom. iii. 8. And not rather, (as we be slanderously 
reported, and as some affirm that we say) Let us do evU 
that good may come ? 

d Jer. xvii. 5. Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, 
and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from 
the Lord. 

e 2 Tim. iii. 4. Traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers 
of pleasure more than lovers of God. * 

' Gal. iv. 17. They zealously affect you, but not well. 
Rom. X. 2. For I bear them record that they have a zeal 
of God, but not according to knowledge. John xvi. 2. 
Luke ix. 54, 55. 

g Rev. iv. 16. So then, because thou art lukewarm, 
22* 

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258 THE LABGEB CATECHISM. 

God ; ^ estranging ourselves, and aposta- 
tizing from God ; ^ praying or giving any 
religious worship to saints, angels, or any 
other creatures;^ all compacts and con- 
sulting with the devil, ^ and hearkening to 
his suggestions ; ^ making men the lords of 
our faith and conscience ; ™ slighting and 
despising God, and his commands ; ^ resist- 

and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of mj 
mouth. 

^ Rer. ill. 1. I know thy works, that thou hast a name 
that thou litest, and art dead. 

i Ezek. xiv. 5. Because they are all estranged from 
me through their idols, Isa. i. 4. 5. — They have forsaken 
the Lord, — they are gone away backward. Why should 
ye be stricken any more ? Ye will revolt more and more. 

J Hos. iv. 12. My people ask counsel at their stocks, 
and their staff declareth unto them. Rev. xix. 10. And 
I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, 
See thou do it not ; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy 
brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship 
God. • Col. ii, 18. Let no man beguile you of your 
reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of 
angels, intruding into those things which he hath 
not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind. Rom. 
i. 26. 

k Lev. XX. 6. And the soul that tumeth after such 
as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a 
whoring after them, I wiil even set my face against 
that soul, and will cut him off from among his peo- 
ple. 1 Sam. xzviii. 7, 11. Compared with 1 ChroiL 
X. 13, 14. 

I Acts V. 8. But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan 
filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep 
back part of the price of the land T « 

■» 2 Cor i. 24. Not for that we have dominion over 
your faith, but are helpers of your joy. Mat. xxiii. 9. 

> Deut. xxxii. 15. Then he forsook God which made 



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THS IiARO£a CATECHISM. 259 

ing and grieving of his Spirit,®, discontent 
and impatience at his dispensations, charg- 
ing him foolishly for the evils he inflicts 
on us;^ and ascribing the praise of any 
good, we either are, have, or can do, to 
^ fortune, ^ idols, ' ourselves, ■ or any other 
creature. ^ 

Q. 106. What are we especially taught hy 
these words (before me) in the first command- 
ment f 

A. These words {before me^ or before my 
face,) in the first commandment, teach us, that 
Ood, who seeth all things, taketh special notice 

him, and lightly esteemed the Book of his salvatioii. ProT. 
ziii. 13. Whoso despiseth the word shall be destroyed: 
bat he that feareth the commandment shall be rewarded. 
2 Sam. xii. 9. 

« Acts Til. 61. Ye stiff-necked, and uncircnmcised 
in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy 
Ghost. Eph. iy. 80. And grioYe not the Holy Spirit 
of Goc^ 

p Psa. Ixxiii. 2, 8, 13, 14, 15, 22. But as for me, my 
feet were almost gone ; my steps had well nigh slipped. 
For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the prosperity 
of the wicked, &o. 

4 1 Sam. tI. 9. But if not, then we shall know that it 
ts not his hand that smote us ; it was a chance that hap- 
pened to us. 

r Dan. T. 23. And thou hast praised the gods of 
siWer, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which 
see not, nor hear, nor know : and the God in whose hand 
tby breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not 
glorified. 

• Deut yiii. 17. And thou say in thine heart, Mypowe)» 
and the might of mine hand hath gotten me this wealth. 
Dan. iv. 80. 

< Hab. i. 16. Therefore they sacrifice unto their ne(^ 
and bum incense unto their drag. 

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260 THS L^QXB CATSOHIStf . 

of, and is much displeased with, the sin of hav- 
ing any other god : that so it may be an arga- 
ment to dissuade from it, and to aggravate i( 
as a most impudent provocation ; ^ as also to 
persuade us to do as in his sight, whatever we 
do in his service/ 

Q. 107. Which is the second commandr 
ment f 

A. The second commandment is, Thoushatt 
not make unto thee any graven image^ or any 
likeness of any thing that is in heaven above^ 
or that is in the earth beneath^ or that is in the 
water under the earth : thou shalt not bow down 
thyself to them nor serve them ; for I the Lord 
thy Grod am a jealous Crod^ visiting the ini- 
quity of the fathers upon the children^ unto 
the third and fourth generation of them that 
hate me : and showing mercy unto thousands 
of them that love me^ and keep my command- 
ments, ^ • 

Q. 108. What are the duties required in 
the second commandment? 

• Psa. xliv. 20, 21. If we have forgotten the name of 
our God, or stretched out our hands to a strange god : 
shall not God search this out? for he knoweth the secrets 
of the heart. £zek. yiii. 5, to the end of the chapter. — 
And, behold northward at the gate of the altar this imags 
of jealousy in the entry. — But turn thee yet again, and 
thou shalt see greater abominations, &o. 

^ 1 Chron. xxviii. 9. And thou, Solomon my son, know 
thou the God of thy father, and serve him with a perfect 
heart, and with a willing miud ; for the Lord searcheth 
all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of th« 
thoughts. 

" Ex. XX. 4, 6, 6. 

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THB iJlRaER OATSCHIBM. 261 

A. The duties required in the second com* 
mandment are, the receiving, observing, and 
keeping pure and entire, all such religious 
worship and ordinances as God hath instituted 
in his word ; * particularly prayer and thanks- 
giving in the name of Christ ; ^ the reading, 
preaching, and hearing of the word;' the 
administration and receiving of the sacra- 
ments ; * church government and disci- 
pline ; ^ the ministry and maintenance there- 

* Dent xxzii. 46. Set your hearts unto all the words 
which I testify among you this day, which ye shall com- 
mand your children to observe to do, all the words of this 
law. Matt zxyiii. 20. Teaching them to obserye all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you. 1 Tim. tI. 18, 
14. — That thou keep this commandment without spot, un- 
rebukable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Acts ii. 42. 

7 Phil. iv. 6. Be careful for nothing : but In every thing 
by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your 
requests be made known unto 0od. £ph. v. 20. 

> Deut. zvii. 18, 19. That he shall write him a copy 
of this law in a book, — and it shall be with him, and ho 
shall read therein all the days of his life. Acts xv. 21. 
For Moses — hath in every city them that preach him, 
being read.in the synagogues every Sabbath-day. 2 Tim. 
iv. 2. Preach the word ; be instant in season, out of 
season ; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all long-suffering 
and doctrine. James i. 21, 22. — ^Receive with meekness 
the engrafted word, &c. Acts x. 33. 

« Matt, xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all na- 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. xi. from the 23d 
to the 80th verse. For I have received of the Lord, that 
which also I delivered uoto you, that the Lord Jesus, the 
same night in which he was betrayed, took bread, &c. 

b Matt. xvi. 19. And I will give unto thee the keys of 
the kingdom of heaven : and whatsoever thou shalt bind 

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262 THS LABQEB CATECHISM. 

of ; * religious fasting ; * swearing by the name 
of God ; • and vowing unto him : ' as also the 
disapproving, detesting, opposing all false wor- 
ship ; < and, according to each one's place and 
calling, removing it, and all monuments of 
idolatry. ^ 

on earth, shall be boand in heaven ; and whatsoeyer thou 
Bhalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. And 
John zx. 23. Matt. xyIU. 15, 16, 17 — And if he shaU 
neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church ; but if he 
neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as 
an heathen man and a publican. 1 Cor. ▼. and ohap. 
zii. 28. 

« £ph. It. 11, 12. And he gave some, apostles ; and 
6ome, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and some, pas- 
tors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints, for the 
work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of 
Christ. 1 Tim. y. 17, 18. Let the elders that rule well, 
be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who 
labour in the woitl and doctrine. For the Scripture saith. 
Thou Shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth ouf the com. 
And, The labourer is worthy of his reward. 1 Cor. ix. 1 
to 16. 

d Joel ii. 12, 13. Therefore also^ now, saith the Lord, 
Turn ye even to me with all your heart, and with fasting, 
and with weeping, and with mourning, &;o. 1 Cor. 
vii. 5. — That ye may give yourselyes to fasting and 
prayer. 

• Deut yi. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and 
serve him, and shalt swear by his name. 

f Psa. Ixxvi. 11. Vow, and pay unto the Lord your 
God. Isa. xix. 21. Psa. cxvi. 14, 18. 

« Acts xvii. 16, 17. Now, while Paul waited for them 
at Athens, his spirit was stirred in him, when he saw tiie 
city wholly given to idolatry. Psa. xvi. 4. Their sorrows 
shall loe multiplied that hasteo after another god : their 
drink- o£feriDgs of blood will I not offer, nor take up their 
names into my lips. 

^ Deut. vii. 5. Isa. xxx. 22. » > 

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THE LARGER CATECHISM. 26S 

Q. 109. What are the gins forbidden in ih6 
second commandment ? 

A. The sins forbidden in the second com- 
mandment are, all devising,^ counselling,^ 
commanding, ^ using, ^ and any wise approv- 
ing any religious worship not instituted by 
God himself ; "^ the making any represen- 
tation of God, of all, or of any of the three 

i Num. XT. 39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, 
that ye may look upon it, and remember all the command-* 
ments of the Lord, and do them ; and that ye seek not 
after your own heart, and your own eyes, after which ye 
use to go a whoring. 

i Deut. ziii. 6, 7, 8. If thy brother, the son of thy 
mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the ^fe of thy 
bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice 
thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, 
which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers ; — thou 
shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him ; neither 
shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither 
shalt thotf conceal him. 

k Ho8. Y. n. Ephraim is oppressed — in judgment be^ 
cause he willingly walked after the commandment. Mio. 
tI. 16. For the statutes of Omri are kept. 

1 1 Kings xi. 38. Because that they have forsaken me, 
and have worshipped Ashtoreth. 1 Kings zii. 33. So he 
offered upon the altar which he had made in Bethel the 
fifteenth day of the eighth month, even in the month 
which he had devised of his own heart ; and ordained a 
feast unto the children of Israel : and he offered upon the 
altar and burnt incense. 

» Deut. xii. 80, 31, 82. Take heed to thyself, that thou 
be not snared by following them, after that they be des- 
troyed from before thee ; and that thou inquire not after 
their gods, saying. How did these nations serve their gods t 
Even so will I do likewise. — What thing soever I command 
you, observe to do it : thou shalt not add thereto, noz 
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264 THl LABOER CATSCHISM. 

Persons, either inwardly in onr mind, or oat* 
vardlj in any kind oi image or likeness of 
any creature whatsoever;" all worshipping of 
it, * or God in it or by it ; ** the making of 
any representation of feigned deities, ' and all 
worship of them, or service belonging to 
them;' all superstitious devices,' corrupting 

■ Dent. iv. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Take ye therefore good 
heed unto yourselves, (for ye saw no manner of similitude 
on the day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb, out of 
the midst of the fire) lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make 
you a graven image, the similitude of any figure. — Aota 
xvii. 29. Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, 
we ought not to think that the Oodhead is like unto gold, 
or silver, or stone, graven by art, and man's device. Rom. 
i. 21 , 22, 38, 26. — But became vain in their imaginations 
—and changed the glory of the uncorruptible Ood into an 
Image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, — ^who 
Changed the truth of Ood into a lie, and worshipped and 
served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed 
for ever. Amen. ^ 

o Gal. iv. 8. Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, y« 
did service unto them which by nature are no gods. Dao. 
Ki. 18. 

p Ex. xxxii. 5. And when Aaron saw it, he built aa 
altar before it, and Aaron made proclamation and said, To- 
morrow is a feast to the Lord. 

<i Ex. xxxii. 8. They have made them a molten oaU^ 
and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed thereunto, 
and said, These be thy gods, Israel, which have brought 
thee up out of the land of Egypt. 

T 1 Kings xviii. 26, 28. And they took the ballo^c 
which was given them, and they dressed it, and called ah 
the name of Baal from morning even until noon, saying, 
OBaal, hear us, &c. Isa. Ixv. 11. 

■ Acts xvii. 22. Then Paul stood in the midst of ManK 
hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all 
things ye are too superstitious. Col. ii. 21, 22, 23. (Touoh 
not 'f taste not ; handle not ; which all are to perish with 

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THK LARGER 0ATECHI8M. 265 

the worship of God, * adding to it, or taking 
from it,* whether invented and taken up of 
ourselves, ^ or received hy tradition from 
others, "^ though under the title of antiqui- 
ty, * custom, ^ devotion, ■ good intent, or any 

Hie using;) after the commandments and doctrines 
of men; Which things haye indeed a show of wis- 
dom in wiU- worship, and humility, and neglecting of 
the body : not in any honour to the satisfying of the 
Hesh. 

* Mai. 1. 7, 8, 14. Ye offer polluted bread upon mine 
altar. — But cursed be the deceiver, which hath in his 
Hock a male, and Toweth, and sacrificeth unto the 
iiord a corrupt thing ; for I am a great King, saith the 
Lord of hosts, and my name is dreadful among the 
heathen. 

•- Deut. IT. 2. Ye shall not add unto the word which I 
command you, neither shall ye diminish aught ft*om it, 
that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your 
Ood, which I command you. 

▼ Va% cvi. 89. Thus were they defiled with their 
4>wn works, and went a whoring with their own in- 
Tentions. 

^ Matt. XY, 9. But in vain they do worship me, teaeh- 
$ng for doctrines the commandments of men. 

' 1 Pet. i. 18. Forasmuch as ye know that ye were 
not redeemed with corruptible things, as silyer and gold, 
from your Tain conversation received by tradition from 
your fathers. 

y Jer. xliv. 17. But we will certainly do whatsoever 
thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to bum incense 
unto the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerinir^ . 
unto her, as we have done, we, and our fathers, our king^j 
and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets 
of Jerusalem. 

' Istt. Ixv. 8, 4, 6. A people that provoketh me to 

anger continually to my face; that sacrificeth in gardens, 

and bupneth incense upon altars of brick; — which ert 

•wine'^ flesh, and broth of abominable things •ts in the^r 

28 

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266 THE LARGER 0ATECHT8M. 

other pretence whatsoever;* simony,* sacri- 
lege;" all neglect, "^ contempt,* hindering,' 
and opposing the worship and ordinances 
which God hath appointed. « 

▼essels ; which say. Stand by thyself, come not nekr to 
xne, for I am holier than thou. These are a smoke in my 
nose, a fire that barneth all the day. Gal. i. 13, 14.-^ 
How that beyond measure I persecuted the church of 
God, and wasted it ; and profited in the Jews' religion 
above many my equals in mine own nation, being 
more exceedingly zealous of the traditions of my 
fathers. 

• & 1 Sam. xiii. 11, 12. I forced myself, therefore, and 
offered a burnt-offering. 1 Sam. xt. 21. But the people 
(said Saul) took of the spoil, sheep and oxen, the chief 
of the things which should have been utterly destroyed, 
to sacrifice unto the Lord thy God in Gilgal. 

b Acts Yiii. 18, 19, 22. And when Simon saw that 
through the laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy Ghost 
was given, he offered them money, &c. 

« Rom. ii. 22. Thou that abhorrest idols, dost thoa 
commit sacrilege? Mai. iii. 8. Will a man rob Godt 
yet ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein have w« 
robbed thee ? In tithes and offerings. 

' Ex. iv. 24, 25, 26. And it came to pass by the my 
in the inn, that the Lord met him, and sought to kiU 
him, &c. 

« Matt. xxii. 5. But they made light of it, and went 
their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandii^ 
Mai. i. 7, 13. Ye offer polluted bread upon mine altar^* 
ye say, The table of the Lord is contemptible — Ye s^d 
also. Behold, what a weariness is it ! and ye have snuffed 
at it, saith the Lord of hosts : and ye brought that which 
was torn, and the lame and the sick. 

' Matt, xxiii. 18. But woe unto you, scribes and 
Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye shut up the kingdom of 
heaven against men ; for ye neither go in yourselves, 
neither suffer ye them that are entering, to go in« 

s Acts jdii. 45. But when the Jews saw the mullH 



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lax L^aasB catsohism. 267 

Q. 110. What are the reasons amiexed to 
the second commandment, ike more to enforce 
it? . . , 

A. The reasons annexed to the second com- 
mandment, the more to enforce it, contained 
in these words, For I the Lord thy Crod am a 
jealous Grod, visiting the iniquity of the fa- 
thers upon the children unto the third and 
fourth generation of them that hate me : and 
"^hewing mercy unto thousands of them that 
love me, and keep my commandments ; ^ are, 
])esides God's sovereignty over us, and pro- 
priety in us, ^ his fervent zeal for his own wor- 
ship, ^ and his revengeful indignation against 
all false worship, as being a spiritual whore- 
dom ; * accounting the breakers of this com- 

tades, they were filled with enyy, and spake against those 
things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blas- 
pheming. 1 Thess. ii. 15, 16. 

»» Ex. XX. 6, 6. 

I Psa. xlv. 11. — He is thy Lord ; and worship thon him. 
Bev. XV. 8, 4. And they sing the song of Moses, the ser- 
vant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying. Great and 
marTcllous are thy works, Lord God Almighty ; just and 
true are thy ways, thou King of saints. Who shall not 
fear thee, Lord, and glorify thy name ? for thou only 
art holy. 

J Ex. xxxiv. 13, 14. But ye shall destroy their altars, 
break their images, and cut down their groves : for thou 
ehalt worship no other god ; for the Lord, whose name is 
Jealous, is a jealous God. 

k 1 Cor. X. 20, 21, 22. But I say, that the things which 
the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to 
God : and I would not that ye should have fellowship with 
devils.' Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup 
of devils : ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and 

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266 THX LAEGEB CATSOHISIC. 

mandment such as hate him, and threatei^g 
to punish them unto divers generations, ^ and 
esteeming the observers of it such as love 
him and keep his commandments, and prom- 
ising mercy to them unto many genera* 
tions. "" 

Q. 111. Which is the third commandment t 

A. The third commandment is. Thou ghaU 
not take the name of the Lord thy Q-od in vain; 
for the Lord will not hold him guiltless thai 
taketh his name in vain.^ 

Q. 112. What is required in the third com^ 
mandment f 

A, The third commandment requires, that 
the name of God, his titles, attributes,* 

of the table of denls. Do we proYoke the Lord to 
jealousy? Are we stronger than he? Deut. xzxiL 
16, 17, 18, 19. Jer. vU. 18, 19, 20. Ezek. xvL 
26, 27. 

1 Hos. ii. 2, 8, 4. Plead with your mother, plead ; for 
she is not my wife, neither am I her husband : let her 
therefore put away her whoredoms, — and her adulteriea 
from between her breasts ; lest I strip her naked, and set 
her as in the day that she was born, and make her as a 
wilderness, and set her like a dry land, and slay her with 
thirst. And I will not have mercy upon her children ; for 
they be the children of whoredoms. 

» Deut. Y. 29. that there were such a heart in them, - 
that they would fear me, and keep all my commandments 
always, that it might be well with them, and with their 
children for OYor I 

» Ex. XX. 7. 

Matt. Yi. 9. After this manner therefore pray ye : 
Our Father which art in heaven ; hallowed be thy name. 
Deut. xxviii. 68. — That thou mayest fear this glorious 
and fearful name, THE LORD THY GOD. Psa. IxYiii. 4. 
£xtol him that rideth upon the heavens by his nam« 

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MM LABOEB OATEOHISM. 

wdinances, ' the word, *> sacraments, ' pray- 
er, ■ oaths,* TOWS,' lots>^ his works, ^ 
and whatsoever else there is whereby he 
makes himself known, be holily and rev- 
erently used in thought,* meditation, ^^ 

JAH. Psa. zzix. 2. Rev. zt. 3, 4. See letter (t), 
page 267. 

p Eccl. V. 1. Keep thy foot when thou goest to the 
tiouse of God, and be more ready to hear than to give the 
tacrifioe of fools : for they consider not that they do evil. 
Mai. i. 14. 

s Psa. cxxxviii. 2. I will worship toward thy holy temple, 
and praise thy name for thy loving-kindness, and for thy 
truth : for thou hast magnified thy word above all thy 
Bame. 

^ 1 Cor. xi. from verse 24 to 29. But let a man exam- 
ine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of 
that cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, 
eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning 
the Lord's body. 

• 1 Tim. ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray 
every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and 
doubting. 

• Jer. iv. 2. And thou shalt swear, The Lord liveth, in 
truth, in judgment, and in righteousness. 

" Eccl. V. 2, 4. Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not 
thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God : for 
God is in heaven, and thou upon earth : — When thou 
Towest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it. 

^ Acts i. 24, 26. And they prayed, and said, Thou, 
Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, show whether 
40t these two thou hast chosen. — And they gave forth their 
lots : and the lot fell upon Matthias. 

^ Job xxxvi. 24. Remember that thou magnify his 
work, which men behold. 

« Mai. iii. 16. And a book of remembrance was writ- 
ten before him for them that feared the Lord, and that 
thought upon his name. 

7 Psa. viiL'throu^out. — When I consider thy heavens, 
23* 

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270 THB XiABaXR €UtTSCHI8H. 

word,* and writing;* by an holy profession,* 
and answerable conversation,^ to the glory 
of God ,"* and the good of ourselves * and 
others. ' 

Q. 113. What are the sins forbidden in the 
third commandment f 

A. The sins forbidden in the third com- 
mandment are, the not using of God's 
name as is required;^ and the abuse of 

the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which 
thou bast ordained ; what is man that thoa art mindfol 
of him ? — Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in 
all the earth. 

• Psa. CT. 2, 6. Talk ye of all his wondroas works, 
&o. Col. iii. 17. 

» Psa. cii. 18. This shall be written for the generativn 
to oome: and the people which shall be created shall 
praise the Lord. 

b 1 Pet iii. 15. Be ready always to giye an answer to 
every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that 
is in you, with meekness and fear. Mic. iv. 6. — We 
will walk in the name of the Lord our God for ever and 
ever- 

• Phil. i. 27. Only let your conversation be as it be- 
Cometh the gospel of Christ. 

d 1 Cor. X. 81. Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or 
whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God. 

• Jer. xxxii. 39. And I will give them one heart, and 
one way, that they may fear me for ever, for the good of 
them. 

' 1 Pet. ii. 12, Having your conversation honest among 
the Gentiles ; that, whereas they speak against yon as evil 
doers, they may, by your good works which they shall 
behold, glorify God in the day of visitation. 

r Mai. ii. 2. If ye will not hear, and if ye will not lay 
it to heart, to give glory unto my name, saith the Lord of 
hosts, I will even send a curse upon you, and I will cura^ 
yonr blessings. ^ 



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TfiB LAAaXa GATSCHIfiK. 271 

it in an ignorant, ^ vain, * irreverent, profane,^ 
Buperstitious, ^ or wicked mentioning or other* 
wise using the titles, attributes, ^ ordinances, ™ 
or works ; " by blasphemy ; ** perjury ; ' all sin- 

>> Acts XTii. 23. Whom therefore ye ignorantly wor- 
ship. 

i ProY. zzx. 9. Lest I be full and deny thee, and say, 
Who is the Lord ? Or lest I be poor, and steal, and take 
the name of my God in vain. 

i Mai. i. 6, 7» 12. If then I be a father, where is my 
honour ? And if I be a master, where is my fear ? saith 
the Lord of hosts unto you, priests, that despise my 
name. — But ye have profaned it, in- that yd say. The table 
of the Lord is polluted ; and the fruit thereof, even his 
meat, is contemptible. Mai. iii. 14. 

k Jer. yii. 4, 9, 10, 14, 81. Trust ye not in lying wordB, 
Bc^yingt Tiie temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord, 
the temple of the Lord, are these, &c. Col. ii. 20, 
21, 22. 

> £x. Y. 2. And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I 
should obey his yoice to let Israel go ? Psa. oxxxix. 20. 
For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine enemies 
take thy name in vain. 

B Psa. 1. 16, 17. But unto the wicked God saith. What 
hast thou to do to declare my statutes, or that thou should- 
est take my cpyenant in thy mouth ? seeing thou hatest 
instruction, and oastest my words behind thee. 

» Isa. V. 12. And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, 
and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts : but they regard 
not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operation 
of his hands. 

o 2 Kings xix. 22. Whom hast thou reproached and 
blasphemed? and against whom hast thou exalted thy 
voice, and lifted up thine eyes on high ? even against the 
Holy One of Israel. Lev. xxiv. 11. 

P Zech. V. 4. And it shall enter into the house of the 
thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by 
my name : and it shall remain in the midst of his house^ 
and shall consume it. 



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272 IBS LASaSB cuitbohibm. 

fill cursing,* oaths,' vows,' and lots;* vio- 
lating our oaths and vows, if law&l ; * aad 
fulfilling them, if of things unlawful;^ mur* 
muring and quarrelling at, ^ curious prying 
into,* and misapplying of God's decrees^ 

4 Rom. xU. 14. Bless, and curse not. 1 Sam. xvii. 48. ^ 
2 Sam. xvi. 6. 

' Jer. V. 7. Thy children have forsaken m ft, and sworn 
by them that are do gods. Jer. xxiii. 10. For because 
of swearing the land moumeth. 

• Deut. xxiii. 18. Thou shalt not bring the hire of a 
whore, or the price of a dog, into the house of the Lord 
thy God for any vow. Acts xxiii. 12, 14. And when it 
was day, certain of the Jews banded together, and bound 
themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither 
eat nor drink till they had killed Paul. 

< Esth. iii. 7, and ix. 24. They oast Pur, that is, the 
lot, before Haman, from day to day. — Because Haman-* 
had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had 
oast Pur. 

> Psa. xxiv. 4. Who hath not lifted up his soul unto 
Tanity, nor sworn deceitfully. Ezek. xvii. 16, 18, 19. — 
Surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant 
that he hath broken, even it will I recompense up »n hia 
own head. 

^ Mark vi. 26. And the king was exceeding sorry: 
yet for his oath's sake, and for their sakes which sat with 
him, he would not reject her. 1 Sam. xxv. 22, 32, 
88, 84. 

^ Rom. ix. 14, 19, 20. Is there unrighteousness with 
God ? God forbid.— Why doth he yet find fault ? For 
who hath resisted his will ? Nay, but, man, who art 
thou that repliest against God ? Shall the thing formed 
Bay to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus ? 

> Deut xxix. 29. The secret things belong unto the 
Lord. 

7 Rom. iii. 6, 7, 8. But if our unrighteousness com- 
mend the righteousness of God, what shall we say ? Is 
God unrighteous who taketh vengeance ? — For if the truth 



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TH£ LAKOJSB 0A7SCHISM. 273 

and providences ; ' mkinterpreting, * misapply- 
ing,** or any way perverting the word, or 
any part of it, ^ to profane jests, ^ curious 
and unprofitable, questions, vain janglings, or 
the maintaining of false doctrines ; * abusing 
it, the creatures, or any thing contained under 
the name of God, to charms, ' or sinful lusts 

of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory ; 
why yet am I also judged as a sinner ? &o. 

* Eccl. viii. 11. Because sentence against an evil 
work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the 
sons of men is fully set in them to do eYil. Psa, Izxiii. 
12, 18. 

a Matt Y. 21 to the end. 

*> Ezek. xiii. 22. Because with lies ye have made the 
heart of the righteous sad, whom I have not made sad ; 
and strengthened the hands of the wicked, that he should 
not return from his wicked way, by promising him 
Ufe. 

« 2 Pet. ill. 16. In which are some things hard to be 
understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable 
wrest as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own 
destruction. Matt. xxii. 24 — 31. — Ye do err, not knowing 
the Scriptures, nor the power of God, &c. 

d Jer. xxiii. 34, 86, 88. 

• 1 Tim. y'u 4, 6, 20. He is proud, knowing nothing, 
but doting about questions and strifes of words, whereof 
Cometh envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings, perverse 
disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the 
truth. — Avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppo- 
sitions of science falsely so called. 2 Tim. ii. 14. — 
Charging them before the Lord, that they strive not about 
words to no profit, but to the subverting of the hearers. 
Tit. iii. 9. 

f Deut. xviii. 10 to 14. There shall not be found among 
you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass 
through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer 
of times, of »n enchanter, or a witch, or a charmer, or a 



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274 31SB LABGOB 0ATI0HI8M. 

and practices ; ' the mftligning, ^ scorning, ^ 
reviling,^ or any ways opposing of Ood's 
truth, grace, and ways;^ making profession 
of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends ; ' 
being ashamed of it, "^ or a shame to it, by 

•onsulter with familiar spirits, or^a wizard, or » aeoro- 
oiancer. Acts xix. 13. 

s 2 Tim. iv. 3, 4. For the time will come when they 
will not endure sound doctrine ; but after their own lusts 
^all they heap to themselves teachers, having itching 
tars ; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, 
And shall be turned into fables. Jude 4. Bom. ziii. 13, 
14. 1 Kings xxi. 9, 10. 

h Acts ziii. 45. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, 
they were filled with envy, and spake against tliose things 
^hidi were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blasphem- 
fcig. 1 John iii. 12. 

i % Pet. iii. 3. Knowing this first, that there shall come 
hi tiM» last day scoffers, walking after their own lusts. 
yatk. f, 1. — nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful. 

i f f et. iy. 4. Wherein they think it strange that ye 
nm I >t with them to the same excess of riot, speaking 
#vil 0' you. 

fc i ots xiii. 46, 46, 60. See letter (i), above. But the 
lews itirred up the devout and honourable women, and 
(he e> (ef men of the city, and raised persecution against 
f aul '^nd Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts. 
A.cts Ir. 18. — And commanded them not to speak at all, 
ftor toJich in the name of Jesus. Acts xix. 9. 1 Thess. 
i. 16. Heb. x. 29. 

» 2 Tim. iii. 6. Having a form of godliness, but deny- 
ing the power thereof. Matt, xxiii. 14. "Woe unto you, 
Acribes and Pharisees, hypocrites I for ye devour widows' 
houses, and for a pretence make long prayer. Matt. vL 
1, 2, 3, 6, 16. 

» Mark viii. 88. Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed 
of me, and of ^y words, in tdis adulterous and sinful 
generation, of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, 
when he cometh in the glory of his Fatlier, with the holj 
angels. 

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THB LAEOIB €ATSOHISM. 275. 

Uneomfortable, "* unwise,*, unfruitful,' and 
offensive walking « or baoksliding from 
it.' 

Q. 114. What reasons are annexed to th^, 
third commandment? 

A. The reasons annexed to the third com* 
mandment, in these words ^^the Lord thy 
Q-odj' and "/or the Lord will not hold him 
guiltless that taketh his name in vain^'* ' are, 
because he is the Lord and our God, therefore 
his name is not to be profaned, or any way 
abused by us ; * especially because he will be 
80 far from acquitting and sparing the trans- 

> Psa. Ixxiii. 14, 15. For all the day long have I been 
plagued, and chastened every morning, &o. 

• Eph. T. 16, 16, 17. See then that ye walk cirouxn- 
ipectly, not as fools, but as wise.-^-Wherefore be ye not 
unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. 
1 Cor. Ti. 6, 6. 

p Isa. V. 4. What could have been done more to my 
vineyard, that I have not done in it t Wherefore, when 
I looked that it should bring forth grapes, brought it forth 
wild grapes ? 2 Pet. i. 8, 9. 

4 Rom. ii. 23, 24. Thou that makest thy boast of the 
law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God ? 
For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles, 
through you. 

' Gal. iii. 1, 8. foolish Galatians, who hath be- 
witched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before 
whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, 
crucified among you ? — Are ye so foolish ? Having begun 
in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh ? Heb. 
vi. 6. 

• Ex. XX. 7. 

• Lev. xix. 12. And ye shall not swear by my name 
falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God i 
I am the Lord. 



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276 THX LABORER OATBCHISM. 

gressors of this commandment, as that he will 
not suffer them to escape his righteons jiidg« 
ment, ^ albeit many such escape the censures 
and punishments of men/ 

Q. . 115. Which is the fourth eommmndr 
mentf 

A, The fourth commandment is, Rememhef 
the Sabbath-day to keep it holy. Six dayi 
ihalt thou labour, and do all thy work : but 
the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord 
thy &od : in it thou shalt not do any work^ 
thouy nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy 
man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy 
cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy 
gates ; for in six days the Lord made heaven 
and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, 
and rested the seventh day: wherefore the 
Lord blessed the Sabbath-day and hallowed 
it.^ 

Q. 116. What is required in the fourth 
commandment ? 

A. The fourth commandment requireth of 
all men the sanctifying or keeping holy to God 
such set times as he hath appointed in his 
word, expressly one whole day in seven; 

■ Deut. xxviii. 68, 69. If thou wilt not observe to do 
nil the words of this law, that are written in this book, 
that thou mayest fear this glorious and fearful name» 
THE LORD THY GOD ; then the Lord will make thy 
plagues wonderful, and the plagues of thy seed, eyeii 
great plagues, and of long continuance. Zech. y. 2, 8, 4. 
Eaek. mvi. 21, 22, 23. 

^ 1 Sam. ii. 12, 17, 22. 

^ Ex. XX. 8, 9, 10,11. 

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THl LABOXB CAT10HI8BC. 277 

wliich vas tbe seventh frmn the beginning of 
the world to the resurrection of Christ, and the 
first day of the week ever since, and so to con* 
tinue to the end of the world ; which is the 
Ghristian Sabbath,"" and in the New Testament 
called The Lord*9 day J 

Q. 117. Hmjo i% the Salbath or LorSn 
dap to be %anctified ? 

A, The Sabbath, or Lord's day, is to be 
sanctified bj an holy resting all that day,' 
not only from such works as are at all times 
sinful, but even from such worldly employ- 
ments and recreations as are on other days 
lawful ; * and making it our delight to spend 

K Gen ii. 3. And God blessed the seyenth day, and 
•a&ctified it ; because that in it he had rested from all his 
work. 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2. — Upon the first day of the week 
let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath pros 
pered him. Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of the 
week, when the disciples came together to break bread, 
Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow. 
John XX. 19 to 27. Matt. y. 17, 18. Isa. Ivi. 2, 4, 6, 7. 
Blessed is the man that doeth this, — that keepeth the 
Sabbath from polluting it, &c. 

7 Bey. i. 10. I was in the Spirit on the Lord's 
day. 

• Ex. XX. 8, 10. Remember the Sabbath-day to keep 
it holy. — In it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy 
0on, &c. 

a Ex. xyi. 25 to 29. And Moses said, Eat that to-day ; 
for to-day is a Sabbath unto the Lord : to-day ye shall 
not find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it ; but 
on the seventh day, which is the Sabbath, in it there shall 
be none, &c. Jer. xvii. 21, 22. Thus saith the Lord, 
Take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the Sab- 
bath-day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem ; 
neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the 

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278 THX LAROCa CAIX0HI8M. 

the whole time (except bo muoh of it as is to 
be taken up in works of necessity and mercy) ^ 
in the public and private exercises of God's 
worship. ^ And, to that end, we are to pre- 
pare our hearts, and with such foresight, dili- 
gence, and moderation, to dispose, and season- 
ably to despatch our worldly business, that we 
may be the more free and fit for the duties of 
that day.* 

8abbath*day, neither do ye any work; but hallow ye the 
Sabbath-day as I commanded your fathers. Neh. xiii. 16 
to 23. In those days saw I in Jndah some treading wine- 
presses on liie Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and 
lading asses ; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all man* 
ner of burdens. — Then I contended with the nobles of Jn- 
dah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye 
do, and profane the Sabbath-day ? 

b Matt. xii. I to 14. At that time Jesus went on the 
Sabbath-day, through the corn ; and his disciples were an 
hungered, and began to pluck the ears of com, and to 
eat. But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him. 
Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do 
upon the Sabbath-day. But he said unto them, &c. 

e Lev. xxiii. 8. Six days shall work be done ; but the 
seyenth day is the Sabbath of rest, a holy conTocatioo. 
Isa. Iviii. 18. — And call the Sabbath a delight, the 
holy of the Lord, honourable : and shalt honour him, 
not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleas- 
ure, nor speaking thine own words. Luke iv. 16. — 
And as his custom was, he went into the synagogue 
on the Sabbath-day, and stood up for to read. Acts. xx. 7. 

<* Ex. XX. 8. Remember the Sabbath-day to keep it 
holy. Luke xxiii. 54, 66. And that day was the prepa- 
ration, and the Sabbath drew on, &c. Neh. xiii. 19. And 
it came to pass, that, when the gates of Jerusalem began 
to be dark before the Sabbath, I commanded that the gates 
should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened 
tiU after the Sabbath. 



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THE IiABQEB 0A19S0HIBM. 279 

Q. 118. Why is the charge of keeping the 
Sabbath more specially directed to governors of 
families and other superiors ? 

A. The charge of keeping the Sabbath is 
more specially directed to governors of fami- 
lies and other superiors, because they are bound 
not only to keep it themselves, but to see that 
it be observed by all those that are under their 
charge ; and because they are prone oft-times 
to hinder them by employments of their own.* 

Q. 119. What are the sins forbidden in the 
fourth commandment ? 

A* The sins forbidden in the fourth com- 
mandment are, all omissions of the duties re«- 
2uired,' all careless, negligent, and, unprofita- 
le performing of them, and being weary of 
them;' all profaning the day by idleness, 
and doing that which is in itself sinful ; ^ 

• See letter (a), page 277. Ex. xx. 10. In it (the Sab- 
bath) thou Shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, &c. 
Ex. xxiii. 12. — That thine ox and thine ass may rest, and 
the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be re- 
freshed. Ex. xvi. 22, 25, 29. 

f Ezek. xxii. 26. Her priests have violated my law, 
and have profaned my holy things ; — and have hid their 
eyes from my Sabbaths, and I am profaned among them. 

K Ezek. xxxiii. 80, 31, 32. And they come unto thee 
as the people cometh, and they sit before thee as my peo- 
ple, and they hear thy words, but they will not do them : 
for with their mouth they show much love, but their heart 
goeth after covetousness, &c. Mai. i. 13. Ye said also. 
Behold, what a weariness is it ! and ye have snufifed at 
it, saith the Lord of hosts : and ye brought that which 
was torn, and the lame, and the sick. Amos viii. 5. Acts 
XX. 7, 9. 

b Ezek. xxiii. 88. Moreover, this they have done unto 

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^80 THE LABQEB CATECHISM. 

and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, 
about our worldly employments and recrea- 
tions. * 

Q. 120. What are the reasons annexed to the 
fourth commandment^ the more to enforce it f 

A. The reasons annexed to the fourth com- 
mandment, the more to enforce it, are taken 
from the equity of it, God allowing us six days 
of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but 
one for himself, in these words, six days shalt 
thou labour and do all thy work:^ irom 
God's challenging a special propriety in that 
day, the seventh is the Sabbath of the Lord 
thy Giod : * from the example of God who in 
six days made heaven and earthy the sea^ and 
all that in them is, and rested the seventh day : 
and from that blessing which Grod put upon 
that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day 
for his service, but in ordaining it to be a 
means of blessing to us in our sanctifying it, 
wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath-day and 
hallowed it} 

Q. 121. Why is the word remember set in 
the beginning of the fourth commandment f 

me ; they have defiled my sanctuary in the same day, and 
have profaned my Sabbaths. 

» Jer. xvii. 24, 27. But if they wiU not hearken unto 
me, to hallow the Sabbath-day, and not to bear a burden, 
— then will I kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall 
devour the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be 
quenched. Isa. IviiL 13. 

J Ex. XX. 9. 

k Ex. XX. 10. 

* Ex. XX. 11. 

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IH£ LAEG£R CATJ&OHISM. ' 281 

A. The word remember is set in the begin- 
ning of the fourth commandment, ™ partly 
because of the great benefit of remembering it, 
we being thereby helped in our preparation to 
keep it ; ^ and, in keeping it, better to keep 
all the rest of the commandments, ° and to 
continue a thankful remembrance of the two 
great benefits of creation and redemption, which 
contain a short abridgment of religion : ^ and 
partly because we are ready to forget it, ^ for 
that there is less light of nature for it, ' and 

■» Ex. XX. 8. 

«> Ex. xri. 28. To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sab- 
Itoth UQto the Lord : bake that which ye will bake to-day, 
and seethe that ye will seethe. Luke xxiii. 54, 56. And 
that day was the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on, 
&c. Compared with Mark xy. 42. And now, when the 
even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, 
the day before the Sabbath. Neh. xiii. 19. 

o Ezek. XX. 12, 19, 20. Moreover also, I gave them my 
Sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they 
might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them. — And 
hallow my Sabbaths ; and they shall be a sign between 
me and you, that ye may know that I am the Lord your 
God. 

. P Gen. ii. 2, 8. And on the seventh day God ended his 
work which he had made ; and he rested on the seventh 
day from all his work which he had made. And God 
ble>.sed the seventh day, and sanctified it : because that 
in it he had rested from all his work which God created 
and made. Psa. * cxviii. 22, 24. The stone which the 
builders refused, is become the head-stone of the cor- 
ner. — This is the day which the Lord hath made; we 
will rejoice alid be glad in it. Rev. i. 10. I was in the 
Spirit on the Lord^s day. — Heb. iv. 9. 

<i Ezek. xxii. 26. Her priests have violated my law,— ^ 
and have hid their eyes from my Sabbaths. 

' I^eh. ix. 14. And madest known unto them thy holy 
24* 

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282 THI LASGER 0ATXCHI8K. 

yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things 
at other times lawfal ; ' that it cometh but 
once in seven days, and many worldly busi- 
nesses come between, and too often take off 
our minds from thinking of it, either to pre- 
pare for it, or to sanctify it ; * and that Satan 
with his instruments, much labour to blot out 
the glory, and even the memory of it, and to 
bring in all irreligion and impiety.'* 

Q. 122. What is the sum of the six comr 
mandments which contain our duty to man f 

A, The sum of the six commandments which 
contain our duty to man, is, to love our neigh- 
bour as ourselves, ^ and to do to others what 
we would have them to do to us. ^ 

Q. 123. Which is the fifth commandment t 

Sabbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes, and 
laws, by the hand of Moses thy servant. 

* Ex. xxxiy. 21. Six days thou shalt work ; but on the 
seyenth day thou shalt rest : in earing- time and in haryest 
thou shalt rest. 

* Ex. XX. 9. Six days thou shalt labour. Amos yiii. 
6. — When will the new moon be gone, — and the Sabbath, 
that we may set forth wheat ? &c. 

" Lam. i. 7. Jerusalem remembered in the days of her 
affliction, and her miseries, all the pleasant things that 
she had in the days of old, when her people fell into the 
hand of the enemy, and none did help her: the adversa^ 
ries saw her, and did mock at her Sabbaths. Neb. xiiu 
from yerse 16 to 23. In those days saw I in Judah, some 
treading wine-presses on the Sabbath. Jer. xvii. 21, 
22, 28. 

▼ Matt. xxii. 89. And the second is like unto it. Thou 
Bhalt loye thy neighbour as thyself. 

^ Matt. yii. 12. Therefore all things whatsoever y« 
would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them ; 
for this is the law and the prophets. 

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THE lARGSR CATXGHI8M. 283 

A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy 
father and thy mother^ that thy days may be 
long upon the land which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee. * 

Q. 124. Who are meant by father and mo- 
ther, in the fifth commandment f 

A, By father and mother j in the fifth com- 
mandment, are meant not only nataral p«i» 
rents, ^ hut all superiors in age ' and 
gifts;* and especially such as by God's 
ordinance are over us in place of autho- 
rity, whether an family, * church, • or common- 
wealth. * 



« Ex. XX. 12. 

7 Proy. xxiii. 22, 25. Hearken unto thy father that 
begat thee, and despise not thy mother when she is old. 
— Thy father and thy mother shall be glad, and she that 
bare thee shall rejoice. Eph. yi. 1, 2. 

s 1 Tim. y. 1, 2. Rebuke not an elder, but entreat him 
as a father ; and the younger men as brethren ; the elder 
women as mothers ; tLe younger as sisters. 

•'Gen. iy. 20, 21. And Adah bare Jabal: he was the 
father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as haye cattle. 
And his brother's name was Jubal : he was the father of 
all such as handle the harp and organ. Gen. xly. 8.— • 
And he hath made me a father to Pharaoh. 

^ 2 Kings y. 13. And his servants came near, and 
spake unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet had 
bid thee do some great thing, wouldst thou not haye 
done it ? 

c Gal. iy. 19. My little children, of whom I trayail ia 
birth again, until Christ be formed in you. 2 Kings ii. 
12. And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my 
father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof I 
2 Kings xiii. 14. 

d Isa. xlix. 28. And kings shall be thy nursing fathuv^ 
and their queens thy nursing mothers. 



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284 TBX LAB0EB CATSCHI8M. 

Q. 125. Why are superiors styled father 
and mother ? 

A. Superiors are styled father and mother^ 
both to teach them in all duties towards their 
inferiors, like natural parents, to express love 
and tenderness to them, according to their 
several relations ; • and to wofk inferiors to a 
greater willingness and cheerfulness in per- 
forming their duties to their superiors, as to 
their parents. ' 

Q. 126. What is the general scope of the 
ftfth commandment ? 

A, The general scope of the fifth command* 
xnent, is the performance of those duties which 
we mutually owe in our several relations, as 
inferiors, superiors, or equals. * 

e Eph. vi. 4. And ye, fathers, provoke not your chUd- 
ren to wrath : but bring them up in the nurture and ad- 
monition of the Lord. 1 Thess. ii. 7, 8, 11. But we were 
gentle among you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children: 
so, being aflfectionately desirous of you, we were wiUing 
to have imparted unto you, not the gospel of God only, 
but also our own souls, because ye were dear unto us. — 
As ye know how we exhorted, and comforted, and charged 
every one of you, as a father doth his children. Num. xi. 
11, 12, 16. 

f 1 Cor. iv. 14, 15, 16. I write not these things to 
shame you, but, as my beloved sons, I warn you. For 
though ye have ten thousand instructers in Christ, yet 
have ye not many fathers : for in Christ Jesus I have be- 
gotten you through the gospel. Wherefore, I beseech 
you, be ye followers of me. 

t Eph. V. 21. Submitting yourselves one to another ia 
the fear of God. 1 Pet. ii. 17. Honour all men. Love 
the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king. Roni. 
zil. 10. Be kindly affectioned one to another, with broth* 
erly love, in honour preferring one another. 

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THS LABQEB 0ATB0HI8K. 28S 

Q. 127. What i% the hdnour that t^feriari 
owe to superiors f 

A. The honour which inferiors owe to their 
superiors is, all due reverence in heart, * 
word,* and behaviour;-' prayer and thanks* 
giving for them ; ^ imitation of their vir- 
tues and graces ; \ willing obedience to their 
lawful commands and counsels f" due sub- 
mission to their corrections ; ^ fidelity 

^ Mai. i. 6. A son honoureth his father, and a serrant 
his master : if then I be a father, where is my honoar? 
and if I be a master, where is my fear ? Lev. xix. 3. Ye 
shall fear every man his mother and his father. 

i ProY. xxzi. 28. Her children arise up, and call her 
blessed ; her husband also, and he praiseth her. 1 Pet. 
iii. 6. Even as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him 
lord : — 

J Lev. zix. 82. Thou shalt rise up before the hoary 
head, and. honour the face of the old man. 1 Bangs IL 
19. — And she sat on his right hand. 

k 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. I exhort, therefore, that, first of all; 
supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks 
be made for aU men ; for kings, and all that are in au-* 
thority. 

1 Heb. xiii. 7. Remember them which have the rule over 
you, who have spokeif unto you the word of God ; whose 
faith follow, considering the end of their conversation. 
Phil. iii. 17. Brethren, be followers together of me; 
and mark them which walk so, as ye have us for an en* 
sample. 

m Eph. vi. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7. Children, obey your parents 
in the Lord : — Servants, be obedient to them that are your 
masters, according to the flesh, &c. 1 Pet. ii. 18, 14, 
Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the 
Lord's sake : whether it be to the king, as supreme, or 
unto governors, &c. Rom. xiii. from 1 to 6. Heb. xiiL 
17. Prov. iv. 8, 4 ; and xxiii. 22. 

■ Heb. zii. 9. Furthermore, we have had fathers of 

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S8d . THB LABQER CATXCBI8K. 

io, ^ defence' and maintenance of their per- 
sons and authority y^ according to their several 
ranks, and the nature of their places ; ^ bear- 
ing with their infirmities, and covering them 
in love, ' that so they may be an honour to 
them and to their government. * 

* .III . 

oar flesh which corrected as, and we gaye them reverence. 
1 Pet. ii. 18, 19, 20. Seryants, be subject to yoar mas- 
ters, with all fear ; — but if, when ye do well, and suffer 
for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with 
God. 

• Tit. ii. 9, 10. Exhort servants to be obedient onto 
their own masters, and to please them well in all things ; 
not answering again ; not purloining, but showing all good 
ftdelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God ooi 
Baviour in all things. 

p 1 Sam. xxvi. 15, 16. Wherefore then hast thou not 
kept thy lord the king ? — As the Lord liveth, ye are wor- 
thy to die, because ye have not kept your master, the 
Lord's anointed. 2 Sam. xviii. 8. Esti^. vi. 2. 

q Matt xxii. 21. Render therefore unto CsBsar, the 
things which are Geasar's. Bom. xiii. 6, 7. — For this 
eause pay ye tribute also : for they are God's ministers, 
attending continually upon this very thing. Render 
therefore to all their dues : tribute to whom tribute is 
due ; custom to whom custom ; fear to whom fear ; hon- 
our to* whom honour. 1 Tim. v. iV, 18. Let the elders 
that rule well, be counted worthy of double honour, es- 
pecially they who labour in the word and doctrine. — Thou 
shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, 
the labourer is worthy of his reward. Gal. vi. 6. Gen. 
xIt. 11, and xlvii. 12. 

' Gen. ix. 28. And Shem and Japhet took a garment, 
and laid it upon both their shoulders, and went backward, 
and covered the nakedness of their father: and their 
faces were backward, and they saw not their father's 
nakedness. 1 Pet. ii. 18. Prov. xxiii. 22. 

■ Psa. cxxvii. 8, 4, 5. Lo, children are a heritage of 
the Lord. — Happy is the man that hath his quiver fiill 

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THE LARGER OATEGHIBM. 28? 

Q. 128. What are the stns of irtferiar$ 
against their superiors ? 

A. The sins of inferiors against their supe- 
riors are, all , neglect of the duties required 
toward them;* envying at," contempt of,^ 
and rebellion "^ against their persons * and 
places,^ in their lawful counsels," com- 
mands and corrections;^ cursing, mock* 

of them : they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak 
with the enemies in the gate. Prov. xxxi. 23. Her hus- 
band is known in the gates, when he sitteth among the 
elders of the land. 

t Matt. XV. 4, 5, 6. — But ye say, Whosoever shall say 
to Ms father or his mother. It is a gift, by whatsoever 
thou mightest be profited by me ; and honour not his 
father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye 
made the commandment of God of none effect by your 
tradition. 

" Num. xi. 28, 29. And Moses said unto him, Enviest 
thou for my sake ? Would God that all the Lord's people 
were prophets. 

▼ 1 Sam. viii. 7. For they have not rejected thee, but 
they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them. 
Isa. iii. 6. — The child shall behave himself proudly against 
the ancient, and the base against the honourable. 

w 2 Sam. XV. from verse 1 to 12. And it came to pass 
after this, that Absalom prepared him chariots and 
horses, &c. 

' Ex. xxi. 15. And he that smiteth his father, or his 
mother, shall be surely put to death. 

y 1 Sam. x. 27. But the children of Belial said, How 
shall this man save us ? And they despised him, and 
brought him no presents. 

s 1 Sam. ii. 25. Notwithstanding, they hearkened not 
unto the voice of their father, because the Lord would 
slay them. 

« Deut xxi. 18, 19, 20, 21. And they shall say unit 
the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebe^ 



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288 THE LABGXB OATIOHISBff. 

ing, ^ and all such reAragtory and scandaloas 
carriage, as proves a shame and dishonour to 
them and their government. ^ 

Q. 129. What is required of mperion Uh 
wards their inferiors ? 

A, It is required of superiors, accordinff 
to that power they receive from God, and 
that relation wherein they stand, to love,* 
pray for, • and bless their inferiors ; ' to 
instruct, < counsel, and admonish them ; ^ 

lious, he will not obej our Toice ; he is a glntton and ft 
drunkard. And all the men of his city shall stone him 
with stones, that he die. 

^ Prov. XXX. 11, 17. There is a generation that 
curseth their father, and doth not bless their mother. 
The eye that mocketh at his father, and despiseth to obey 
his mother, the ravens of the valley shall pick it out, 
and the young eagles shall eat it. 

e ProY. xix. 26. He that wasteth his father, and 
chaseth away his mother, is a son that causeth shame, and 
bringeth reproach. 

d Col. iii. 19. Husbands, love your wives, and be not 
bitter against them. Tit. ii. 4. 

• 1 Sam. xii. 28. Moreover, as forme, God forbid that 
1 should sin against the Lord in ceasing to pray for yon. 
Jobi. 5. 

' 1 Kings viii. 65, 56. And he stood, and blessed aU 
the coDgrcgation of Israel with a loud voice, &o. Gen. 
xlix. 28. 

s Deut. vi. 6. 7. And these words, wbich I command 
thee this day, shall be in thine heart : and thou shalt 
teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of 
them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 
walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when 
thou risest up. 

*» Eph. vi. 4. And ye fathers, provoke not your children 
to wrath : but bring them up in the nurture and admoni- 
tion of the Lord. 



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THX LABOSB CATECHISM. 281^ 

countenancing,^ commending,^ and reward- 
ing such as do well;^ and discountenanc- 
ing/ reproving, and chastising such as 
do ill;" protecting," and providing for 
them all things necessary for soul® and 
body:' and, by grave, wise, holy, and 
exemplary carriage, to procure glory, to 
God,* honour to themselves,' and so to 

i 1 Pet. iii. 7. Likewise, ye husbands, dweU with 
them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the 
wife, as unto the weaker yessel, and as being heirs to- 
geth^ of the grace of life ; that your prayers be not hin- 
dered. 

i Rom. xiii. 8. For rulers are not a terror to good 
works, but to the evil. — Do that whiqh is good, and thou 
fthalt have praise of the same. 1 Pet. ii. 14. 

k Esth. vi. 8. And the king said, What honour and 
dignity hath been done to Mordecai for this ? 

> Rom. xiii. 4. He is the minister of Ood, — ^a revenger 
to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 

■» Prov. xxix. 16. The rod and reproof give wisdom : 
but a child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame. 
Bom. xiii. 4, 

o Job xxix. from the 12th verse to the 18th. Because 
I delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherlesss, and 
him that had none to help him, &c. Isa. i. 10, 17. — 
Relieve the oppressed ; judge the fatherless ; plead for 
the widow. 

• Eph. vi. 4. See letter (A), page 288. 

p 1 Tim. V. 8. But if any provide not for his own, and 
specinlly for those of his own house, he hath denied the 
faith, and is worse than an infidel. 

q 1 Tim. iv. 12. Let no man despise thy youth ; but 
be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conver- 
sation, in charity,, in spirit, in faith, in purity. Tit. ii. 
8, 4, 6. 

r 1 Kings iii. 28. And all Israel heard of the judgment 
which the king had judged ; and they feared the king ; 
25 

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S90 ^HE LARGER CATECHISM. 

preserve that authority which God hath put 
upon them. ' 

Q. 130. What are the sins of superiors f 
A. The sins of superiors are, besides the 
neglect of the duties required of them, * an 
inordinate seeking of themselves, " their own 
glory,, ^ ease, profit, or pleasure ; ^ command- 
ing things unlawful, * or not in the power 
of inferiors to perform ; ^ counselling, ■ en- 

for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do 
judgment. 

■ Tit. ii. 15. These things speak, and exhort, and re- 
bake with aU authority. Let no man despise thee. 

< Ezek. xzxiT. 2, 8, 4. Should not the shepherds feed 
the flooks ? — The diseased have ye not strengthened, nei- 
ther hare ye healed that which was siok, neither haye ye 
bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought 
again that which was driven away, neither have ye sought 
that which was lost. 

a Phil, ii, 21. For all seek their own, not the things 
which are Jesus Christ's. 

V John T. 44. How can ye believe, which receive hon- 
our one of another, and seek not the honour ihat cometh 
from God only 7 John vii. 18. 

w Isa. Ivi. 10, 11. His watchmen are blind : they are 
all ignorant, they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark ; 
sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber. Tea, they are 
greedy dogs which can never have enough. Deut. xvii. 
17. — Neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver 
and gold. 

K Acts iv. 17, 18. And they called them, and com- 
manded them not to speak at all, nor teach, in the name 
of Jesus. Dan. iii. 4, 6, 6. 

y Ex. V. from verse 10 to the 19th.— -There shall no 
straw be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks, 
&c. Matt, xxiii. 2, 4. 

> Matt. xiv. 8, compared with Mark vi. 24. And she 
went forth, and said unto her mother. What shall I ask f 
And she said, The head of John the Baptist 

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Xip LABQBB GATEOHISU. 291 

eouraging, ^ or favouring tbem in that which 
is evil;^ dissaading, discouraging, or dis- 
countenancing them in that which is good ; ' 
correcting them unduly ; ^ careless exposing, 
or leaving them to wrong, temptation, and 
danger ; * provoking them to wrath ; ' or 

» Jer. V. 30,81. A wonderful and horrible thing is 
committed in the land ; the prophets prophesy falsely, and 
the priests bear rule by their means ; and my people love 
to hsi.ve it BO : and what will ye do in the end thereof? 
2 Sam. ziii. 28. 

*» Jer. vi. 13, 14. From the prophet even unto the 
liriest, every one deaieth falsely. They have healed also 
the hurt of the daughter of my people slightly, saying, 
Peace, peace; when there is do peace. Ezek. xiii. 9, 10. 

« John vii. 46, 47, 48, 49. The officers answered. 
Never man spake like this man. Then answered them the 
Pharisees, Are ye also deceived ? Have any of the rulers 
' or of the Pharisees believed on him ? But this people, 
who knoweth not the law, are cursed. John ix. 28. 
tThen they reviled him, and said, Thou a^t his disciple ; 
but we are Moses' disciples. 

d 1 Pet. ii. 19, 20. For this is thank-worthy, if a 
man for conscience toward God endure grief, suffering 
wrongfully. For what glory is it, if when ye be buffeted 
for your faults, ye shall take it patiently ? But if, when 
ye do well, and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, this is 
acceptable with God. Heb. xii. 10. — They verily for a 
£ew days chastened us after their own pleasure ; but he 
for our profit, that we might be partakers of his holiness. 
Beut. XXV. 3. 

• Lev. xix. 29. Do not prostitute thy daughter. Isa. 
IviiL 7. Is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and 
that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house ? 
When thou seest the naked, that tbou cover him; and 
that thou hide not thyself from thine own fiesh ? Gen. 
xxxviii. 11, 26. 

f £ph. vi. 4. And, ye fathers, provoke not your child* 
ren to wrath. 



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fi92 THB LABOSB OAXBOHIBBC; 

any way dislionoaring themselres, or lessen^ 
ing their authority, by an anjuat, indiscreet, 
rigorous, or remiss behaviour. « 

Q. 131. What are the duties of equals f 
A. The duties of equals are, to regard the 
dignity and worth of each other, ^ in giving 
honour to go one before another ; * and to re- 
joice in each other's gifts and advancement as 
their own. ^ 

Q. 132. ♦ What are the sins of equals f 
A. The sins of equals are, besides the neg* 
lect of the duties required, ^ the undervaluing 

s Qen. ix. 21. And he drank of the wine, a)id was 
drunken ; and he was uncovered within his tent 1 Kings 
zii. 13, 14. And the king [Rehoboam] answered the 
people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel thai 
they gave him ; and spake to them after the counsel of 
the young men, saying. My father made your yoke heavy; 
and I will add to your yoke ; my father also chastised 
you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions. 
1 Kings i. 6. AYid his father had not displeased him at 
any time in saying. Why hast thou done so ? 1 Sam. lit 
18. For I have told him, [Eli] that I will judge his house 
for ever, for the iniquity which he knoweth; because hiB 
sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not. 

^ 1 Pet ii. 17. Honour all men. Love the brother- 
hood. 

* Rom. zii. 10. In honour preferring one another. 
Phil. ii. 3. — In lowliness of mind let ea& esteem other 
better than themselves. 

J Rom. xii. 15, 16. Rejoice with them that do rejoice, 
and weep with them that weep. Be of the same mind 
one toward another. Phil. ii. 4. Look not every man 
on his own things, but every man also on the things of 
others. 

k Rom. ziii. 8. Owe no man any thing, but to love one 
another : for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the 
law. 

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VHB LABQSE OATSOHISM* ^8 

•f tho worth,* envying the gifts," grieying 
ftt the advancement or prosperity one of an- 
other ; ^ and usurping pre-eminence one over 
another. ° 

Q. 133. What is the reason annexed to the 
.fifth commandment^ the more to enforce it f 

A. The reason annexed to the fifth com- 
mandment in these words, ^*'that thy days 
may he long upon the land which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee^*' ^ is an express promise 
of long life and prosperity, as far as it shall 
«erve for God*s glory and their own good, to 
all such as keep this commandment. ^ 

1 ProY. xiy. 21. He that despiseth his neighbour 
sinneth ; but he that hath mercy on the poor, happy is 
lie. Isa. IxT. 6. Which say, Stand by thyself, come 
not near to me ; for I am holier than thou. 2 Tim. 
iii. 8. 

n Acts Til. 9. And the patriarchs, moved with envy, 
•old Joseph into Egypt : but God was with him : Gal. t. 
26. Let us not be desirous of vain glory, provoking one 
Another, envying one another. 

> 1 John iii. 12. Not as Cain, who was of that 
wicked one, and slew his brother. And wherefore slew 
he him ? Because his own works were evil, and his 
brother's righteous. Matt. xx. 16. — Is thine eye evil, 
because I am good? Num. xii. 2. Esth. vi. 12, 13, 
J^ke XV. 28, 29. 

r Matt. XX. 25, 26, 27. But Jesus called them 
unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gen- 
tiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are 
great exercise authority upon them. But it shall not 
■be BO among you, &c. S John 9. Luke xxii. 24, 25, 
26. 

P Ex. XX. 12. 

^ Eph. vi. 2, 8. Honour thy father and mother, 
(which is the first commandment with promise,) that it 
26* 

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294 THB LABOSB OATECHISXJ 

Q. 134. Which is the sixth eammandmentt 

A. The sixth commandment is, Thau $haU 
not kUL ' 

Q. 135. What are the duties required «fl 
the sixth commandment f 

A. The duties required in the sixth com- 
mandment are, all careful studies, and lawful 
endeavours, to preserve the life of ourselves* 
and others,* by resisting all thoughts and 
purposes, * subduing all passions, ^ and avoid- 
ing all occasions, ^ temptations, * and prac- 
tices, which tend to the unjust taking awaj 

may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the 
earth. Dent. ▼. 16. 1 Kings yiii. 25. 

» Ex, XX. 18. 

* Eph. T. 29. No man ever yet hated his own flesh; 
but nourisheth and cherisheth it. Matt. x. 23. 

< Job xxix. 18. The blessing of him that was ready to 
perish came upon me. 1 Kings xTiiL 4. 

« 1 Sam. xix. 4, 6. And Jonathan spake good of 
Dayid unto Saul his father, and said unto him. Let not 
the king sin against his servant, against David ; because 
he hath not sinned against thee, and because his works 
have been to thee-ward very good : — wherefore then wilt 
thou sin against innocent blood, to slay David without a 
cause? Jer. xxvi. 15, 16. Acts xxiii. 21, 27. 

V Eph. iv. 25. Be ye angry, and sin not; let not thA 
sun go down upon your wrath. 

^ Prov. xxii. 24, 26. Make no friendship with an 
angry man ; and with a furious man thou shaft 'not go ; 
lest thou learn his ways and get a snare to thy soul. 1 
Sam. XXV. 82. 33. 2 Sam. ii. 23. Deut. xxii. 8. 

« Prov. i. 10, 11, 15. My son, if sinners entice thee, 
consent thou not. If they say. Come with us, let us lay 
wait for blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without 
cause. — My son, walk not thou in the way with them ; 
refrain thy foot from their path. Matt. It. 6, 7« 

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warn LABOSB OATXCHISM. 

the life of any ; ^ by just defence thereof 
against violence ; ' patient bearing of the hand 
of God ; • quietness of mind, * cheerfulijess 
^f spirit, * a sober use of meat, ^ drink, * 

7 1 Kings xxi. 9, 10, 19. And she [Jezebel] wrote in 
the letters, saying, Proclaim a fast and set Naboth on 
high among the people ; and set two men, sons of Belial, 
before him, to bear witness against him, saying, Thou 
didst blaspheme God and the king : and then carry him 
out, and stone him, that he may die. — Hast thoa [Ahab] 
killed, and also taken possession ? — Thus saith the Lord, 
In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth, shall 
dogs lick thy blood, even thine. Gen. xxkyU. 21, 22. 
1 Sara. xxiv. 12, and xxvi. 9, 10, 11. 

« Prov. xxiY. 11, 12. If thou forbear to deliver them 
that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to 
be slain ; if thou sayest. Behold, we knew it not ; doth 
not he that pondereth the heart consider it ? and he that 
keepeth thy soul, doth he not know it ? and shall not he 
render to every man according to his works? 1 Sam. 
xiv. 45. 

A Luke xzi. 19. In your patience possess ye your souls. 
James v. 8. Be ye also patient ; stablish your hearts : 
for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh. Heb. xii. 5.^- 
My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor 
faint when thou art rebuked of him. 

b Psa. xxxvii. 8, 11. Cease from anger, and forsake 
wrath ; fret not thyself in any wise to do evil. — The meek 
shall inherit the earth ; and shall delight themselves in 
the abundance of peace. 1 Pet. iii. 8, 4. Whose adorn- 
ing — let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which 
is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet 
spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price. 

c Prov. xvii. 22. A merry heart doeth good like a 
medicine : but a broken spirit drieth the bones. 1 Thess. 
V. 16. Rejoice evermore. 

<i Prov. xxiii. 20. Be not — among riotous eaters of 
flesh. Prov. xxv. 16. 

• Prov. xxiii. 29, 80. Who hath woe ? who hath sorrow T 



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1296 TH£ lA&OEE OASMBSSH. 

physic,' sleep,* labour/ and recreati<m;^ 
by charitable thoughts,^ love,* compassion,' 
meekness, gentleness, kindness;* peacea- 
ble, *" mild, and coarteons speeches aftd 
behaviour ; * forbearance, readiness to be 

who hath contentions? who hath babbling? who hath 
wounds without cause ? who hath redness of eyes ? They 
that tarry long at the wine ; they that go to seek mixed 
wine. Eccl. x. 17. 1 Tim. t. 23. 

t Matt. ix. 12. But when Jesus heard that, he said 
unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, bikt 
they that are sick. Isa. xxxviii. 21. 

s Eccl. ii. 23. AU'his days are sorrows, and his travail 
grief; yea, his heart taketh not rest in the night. This is 
also vanity. Psa. cxxvii. 2. 

^ Eccl. V. 12.' The sleep of a labouring man is sweet, 
whether he eat little or much : but the abundance of 
the rich will not suffer him to sleep. 2 Thess. iii. 
10, 12. 

i Eccl. iii. 4. A time to mourn, and a time to 
dance. 

i 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 6. Charity — thinketh no evil. 1 Sam. 
six. 4, 6. 

k Rom. xiii. 10. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour 
Prov. X. 12. Hatred stirreth up strifes ; but love covereth 
all sins. 

1 Zech. vli. 9. Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, say- 
ing, — Show mercy and compassions every man to Mfl 
brother. Luke x. 83, 84. 

■» Col. iii. 12. Put on, therefore, as the elect of God, 
holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humble- 
ness of mind, meekness, long-suffering. 

" Rom. xii. 18. If it be possible, as much as lieth in 
you, live peaceably with all men. 

1 Pet. iii. 8, 9. Be pitiful, be courteous ; not ren- 
dering evil for evil, or railing for railing : but, contrari- 
wise, blessing. 1 Cor. iv. 12, 13. — Being reviled, we 
bless ; being persecuted, we suffer it : being defamed, we 
tntreaX. 



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XHB ULEGia CAVSOHISBC 297 

•reconciled, patient bearing and forgiving 
of injuries, and requiting good for evil;* 
4K>mforting and succouring the distressed, 
luid protecting and defending the inno- 
cent « 

Q. 136. What are the sins forbidden in the 
9kcth commandment ? 

A. .The sins forbidden in the sixth 
commandment are, all taking away the 
life of ourselves, ' or of others, ■ .ex- 
cept in case of public justice, * lawful 

P Col. iii. 13. Forbearing one another, and forgiving 
one another, if any man have a quarrel against any ; even 
as Christ forgave you, so also do ye. James iii. 17.— 
The wisdom that is from above is — gentle, and easy to be 
entreated. 1 Pet. ii. 20. — If, when ye do well, and suffer 
for it, ye take it patiently, this is acceptable with God. 
Bom. xii. 20, 21. — If thine enemy hunger, feed him ; if 
lie thirst, give him drink ; for in so doing thou shalt 
heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome of evil^ 
but overcome evil with good. Matt. v. 24. 

4 1 Thess. V. 14.— Comfort the feeble-minded, support 
the weak. Matt. xxv. 35, 86. — I was an hungered, and 
ye gave me meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: 
I was a stranger, and ye took me in: naked, and ye 
clothed me : I was sick, and ye visited me ; I was ia 
prison, and ye came unto me. Prov. xxxi. 8, 9. Open 
thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are 
appointed to destruction. — Plead the cause of the poor 
and needy. Job xxxi. 19, 20. Isa. Iviii. 7. 

r Acts xvi. 28. But Paul cried with a loud voice, 
Baying, Do thyself no harm ; for we are all here. Prov. 
i. 18. 

• Gen. ix. 6. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man 
shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he 



* Ex. xxi. 14. If a man come presumptuously upon 
liis neighbour, to slay him with guile ; thou shidt take 

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296 ZHX I.ASGIE OATXOHIBII. 

war, * or necessary defence ; ^ the ne^ 
lecting or withdrawing the lawful or neces- 
sary means of preservation of life ; "^ sin- 
ful anger, * hatred, ^ envy, ■ desire of re- 
venge ; • all excessive passions, ** distract- 

him from mine altar, that he may die. Num. zzzv. 
81, 88. 

« Dent. XX. throughout. When thou goest out to battle 
against thine enemies, and seest horses and chariots, and 
a people more than thou, be not afraid of them ; for the 
Lord thy Qod is with thee, which brought thee up out of 
the land of Egypt, &c. Heb. xi. 32, 83, 84.— The time 
would fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak,, and of Sam- 
Bon and of Jephthae, of David also, and Samuel, and of the 
prophets : who through faith subdued kingdoms, — out of 
weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned 
to flight the armies of the aliens. Jer. xlviii. 10. 

▼ £x. xxii. 2. If a thief be found breaking up, and 
1>6 smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for 
him. 

^ Matt XXV. 42, 48. I was an hungered, and ye gave 
me no meat : I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink : I 
was a stranger, and ye took me not in : naked, and ye 
olothed me not : sick, and in prison, and ye visited me 
not. James ii. 16, 16. Eocl. vi. 1, 2. 

* Matt. V. 22. — I say unto you, That whosoever is 
angry with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger 
■of the judgment. 

r 1 John iii. 16. Whosoever hateth his brother is a 
murderer. Prov. z. 12. Hatred stirreth up strifes. 
Lev. xix. 17. 

« Job V. 2. Envy slayeth the silly one. Prov. xiv. 30. 
A sound heart is the life of the flesh ; but envy the rot- 
tenness of the bones. 

» Bom. xii. 19. Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, 
but rather give place unto wrath. 

>> James iv. 1. From whence come wars and fightings 
among you ? come they not hence, even of your lusta that 
war in your members? £ph. iv. 81. 



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TSS LABGIE OAlXOfilSflr. 299 

mg cares */" immoderate Qie of meat, drink,' 
labour, * and recreations ;' provoking words ;• 
<»ppre8sion, ^ quarrelling/ striking, wounding,^ 
»nd whatsoever else tends to the destruction 
of the life of any. ^ 

Q. 137. Which is the seventh command" 
mentf 

A, The seventh commandment is, Thou 
shaU not commit adultery. ^ 

• Matt. y\. 34. Take therefore no thought for the mor- 
row : — sufficient unto the day is the e^l thereof. Job 
xxi. 25. Another dieth in the bitterness of his soul, and 
neTer eateth with pleasure. 

A Luke xxi. 84. And take heed to yourselves, lest at 
any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and 
drunkenness. 

• Eccl. iv. 8. There is one alone, and there is not a 
second ; yea, he hath neither child nor brother ; yet is 
there no end of all his labour ; neither is^his eye satisfied 
with riches ; neither saith he, For whom do I labour, and 
bereave my soul of good ? This is also vanity. Eccl. 
ii. 22, and xii. 12. 

f Eccl. xi. 9. 

I Prov. XV. 1. Grievous words stir up anger. Prov. 
xii. 18. 

h Isa. iii. 15. What mean ye that ye beat my people 
to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the 
Lord God of hosts. Ex. i. 14. 

* Gal. V. 15. But if ye bite and devour one another, 
take heed that ye be not consumed one of another. 

* Num. XXXV. 16, 21. And if he smite him with an 
instrument of iron, so that he die, he is a murderer : the 
murderer shall surely be put to death, &o. 

k Prov. xxviii. 17. A man that doeth violence to th« 
blood of any person, shall flee to the pit ; let no man stay 
him. Ex. xxi. 18, to the end. 

« Ex. XX. 14. 



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800 THB XJUtQEB OATBOHISW. 

Q. 138. What are the dtUies required in tha 

eeventh commandment ? 

A. The duties required in the seventh 
commandment are, chastity in body, mind, 
affections, " words, ** and behaviour ; • and the 
preservation of it in ourselves and others ; ^ 
watchfulness over the eyes and all the senses ; ^ 
temperance,' keeping of chaste company,* 
modesty in apparel, * marriage by those that 

m 1 Thess. It. 4, 5. Every one of you should know 
how to possess hus vessel in sanctification and honour; 
not in the lust of concupiscence. Job xxxi. 1. 

■ Eph. iv. 29. Let no corrupt communication proceed 
out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of 
edifying. Col. iv. 6. 

o 1 Pet. iii. 2. While they behold your chaste conver- 
sation coupled with fear. 

P 1 Cor. vii. 2. Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let 
every man have his own wife, and let every woman have 
her own husband. Tit. ii. 4, 6. That they may teach 
the young women — to be discreet, chaste, keepers at 
home. 

<i Matt. V. 28. Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust 
after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his 
heart. Job xxxi. 1. 

' Prov. xxiii. 81, 83. Look not thou upon the wine 
when it is red. — Thine eyes shall behold strange women. 
Jer. v. 7. — When I had fed them to the full, they then 
committed adultery and assembled themselves by troops 
in the harlots' houses. 

• Prov. ii. 16, 20. To deliver thee from the strange 
woman, even from the stranger which flattereth with her 
words; &o. 1 Cor. v. 9. I wrote unto you in an epistle 
AOt to company with fornicators. 

t 1 Tim. ii. 9. In like manner also, that women adorn 
thempelves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and 
sobriety. 



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THB IiABGEB OATEOHISM. 801 

hAve not the gift of continency, ■ conjugal 
love, ^ and cohabitation ; * diligent labour 
in onr callings ; * shunning all occasions of 
uncleanness, and resisting temptations there- 
unto. ^ 

Q. 139. What are the sins forbidden in the 
$eventh commandment f 

A. The sins forbidden in the seventh com- 
mandment, besides the neglect of the du- 
ties required, ■ are adultery, fornication, ■ 
rape, incest, ** sodomy, and all unnatural 

• 1 Cor. Tii. 9. But if they cannot contain, let thei^ 
marry. 

* Prov. V. 18, 19. Rejoice with the wife of thy youth. 
Let her be as the loving hind and pleasant roe ; let her 
breasts satisfy thee at all times, and be thou ravished 
always with her love. 

^ 1 Pet. iii. 7. Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them 
according to knowledge. 1 Cor. vii. 6. Defraud ye not 
one the other, except it be with consent for a time, — and 
come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your 
incontinency. • 

« 1 Tim. T. 18, 14. And withal they learn to be idle. 
—I will therefore that the younger women marry, bear 
children, guide the house. Prov. xxxi. 27. 

1 Prov. V. 8. Remove thy way far from her, and come 
not nigh the door of her house. 

■ Prov. V. 7. Hear me now, therefore, ye children, 
and depart not from the words of my mouth. Prov. iv. 
28, 27. 

*■ Heb. xiii. 4. Whoremongers and adulterers God will 
judge. £ph. V. 5. For this ye know, that no whoremon- 
ger, nor unclean person, — hath any Inheritance in the 
kingdom of Christ and of God. Gal. v. 19. 

^ 2 Sam. xiii. 14. Howbeit he would not hearken unto 
her voice : but, being stronger than she, forced her, and 
lay with her. Mark vi. 18. — John had said unto Herod, 

26 

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f 



802 THE LARGER CATECHISM. 

lusts ;• all unclean imaginations, thoughts, 
purposes, and affections ; * all corrupt or filthy 
communications, or listening thereunto ; 
wanton looks, ' impudent or light behaviour, 
immodest apparel ; * prohibiting of lawful, * 

It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife. 1 
Cor. ▼. 1, la. 

e Rom. i. 26, 27. For this cause God gave them op 
unto vile affections ; for even their women did change th« 
natural use into that which is against nature : and like- 
wise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, 
burned in their lust one towards another. Ley. zx. 15, 
16. If a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to 
death ; and ye shall slay the beast. And if a woman ap* 
proach unto any beast, and lie down thereto, thou shiJt 
kill the woman and the beast : they shall surely be put 
to death : their blood shall be upon them. 

' Matt. xv. 19. Out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, 
murders, adulteries, fornications. Col. iii. 5. Mor- 
tify therefore your members which are upon the earth ; 
fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil ooncu- 
piscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry. Matt. t. 
28. 

• Eph. Y. 8, 4. But fornication, and all nncleanneea, 
or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, 
as becometh saints ; neither filthiness, nor foolish tid- 
ing, nor jesting, which are not convenient. Prov. vik 6, 
21. That they may keep thee from the strange woman, 
from the stranger which flattereth with her words, &o. 
Prov. xix. 27. 

t Isa. iii. 16. The daughters of Zion are haughty, and 
walk with stretched-forth necks, and wanton eyes. 2 
Pet. ii. 14. Having eyes full of adultery, and that can« 
not cease from sin. 

s Prov. vii. 10, 13. And behold, there met him a wo - 
man with the attire of an harlot, and subtile of heart.— 
So she caught him, and kissed him, and with an impa* 
dent face said unto him — 

b 1 Tim. iv. d. Forbidding to marry. 

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TUS LABasa OATSOHIBM. 808 

and diBpensing with unlawful marriages ; ' 
allowing, tolerating, keeping of stews, and re- 
sorting to them ; ^ entangling vows of single 
life, ^ undue delay of marriage ; ^ having 
more wives or husbands than one at the same 
time ; ^ unjust divorce ^ or desertion ; ^ idle- 
ness, gluttony, drunkenness, ^ unchaste com- 
pany ; ^ lascivious songs, books, pictures, dan- 
cings, stage-plays ' and all other provocations 

* Ley. xviii. 1—21. 

i 2 Kings xxiii. 7. He [Josiali] brake down the houses 
of the sodomites, that were by the house of the Lord. — 
Ley. xix. 29. Do not prostitute thy daughter, to cause 
her to be a whore ; lest the land fall to whoredom, and the 
land become full of wickedness.— Jer. y. 7. How shaU I 
pardon thee for this ? thy children haye forsaken me, — 
when I had fed them to the full, they then committed 
adultery, and assembled themseWes by troops in the har* 
lots' houses. 

k Matt. xix. 10, 11. 

1 1 Tim. y. 14, 16. I will therefore that the younger 
Women marry,— for some are already turned aside aftef 
Satan. Gen. xxxyiii. 26. 

"^ Matt. xix. 6. For this cause shaU a man leaye father 
and mother, and shaU cleaye to his wife ; and they twain 
shall be one flesh. 1 Cor. yii. 2. 

n Matt. y. 82. But I say unto you that whosoeyer shall 
put away his wife, saying for the cause of fornication, 
causeth her to commit adultery : and whosoever shall 
marry her that is diyorced, committeth adultery. Mai 
a. 16. 

o See letter (w) page 301. 1 Cor. yii. 12, 13. 
^ P Ezek. xyi. 49. Behold, this was the iniquity of thy 
Sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of 
idleness was in her. — See letter (/), aboye. 

<» Eph. y. 11. And haye no fellowship with the un- 
fimitful works of darkness. Proy. y. 8. 

r Bom. juii. 13. Let us walk honestly, as in the day ; 
not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and 

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804 THE LARGER 0ATE0HI81C 

to, or acts of uncleanness either in oarselves or 
others. ' 

Q. 140; Which %8 the eighth eommand^ 
ment t 

A. The eighth commandment is, Thou shaU 
not steal * 

Q. 141. What are the dvtie* required m 
the eighth commandment f 

A. The duties required in the eighth com- 
mandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice 
in contracts and commerce between man and 
man ; * rendering to every one his due ; ^ 
restitution of goods unlawfully detained from 
the right owners thereof;* giving and lend- 

irantODD688. 1 Pet. iy. 3. For the time past of our lives 
may suffice ns to have mrought the will of the Gentiles, 
when we walked in lasciYiousness, lusts, excess of wine, 
revelUngs, banquetings. Eiek. xxiii. 14, 16. — When she 
taw men portrayed upon the wall, — she doted upon them. 
Isa. xxiiL 16, 16. Mark yi. 22. 

* Rom. xiii. 14. Make not proyision for the flesli, to 
ftilfil the lusts thereof. 2 Pet. ii. 17, 18.— To whom the 
mist of darkness is reserved for ever. For when they 
speak great swelling words of vanity, they allnre 
through the lusts of the flesh, through much wanton- 
ness, those that were clean escaped from them who live 
in error. 

« Ex. XX. 15. 

• Psa. XV. 2, 4. He thatwalketh uprightly, and worketh 
righteousness. — He that sweareth to his own hurt, and 
changeth not Micah vi. 8 — What doth the Lord require 
of thee, but to do justly ? Zech. viii. 16. ^ 

' Rom. xiii. 7. Render — to all their dues ; tribute to 
whom tribute, &c. 

^ Lev. vi. 4, 5. He shall restore that which he took 
violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully 
gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the 

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SBX LABOXB 0ATI0HIB1L 805 

ing freelj, according to our abilities, and the 
necessities of others ; * moderation of our judg- 
ments, wills, and affections, concerning worldly 
goods ; '^ a provident care and study to get, ■ 
keep, use, and dispose of those things which 
are necessary and convenient for the sustenta- 
tion of our nature, and suitable to our condi- 
tion ; * a lawful calling, ^ and diligence in it; ® 

lost thing which he found, or all thataboat wl^ch he hath 
0wom falsely, &c. Luke xix. 8. 

> Deut. XT. 7, 8, 10. Thou shalt not harden thine 
heart, nor shut thy hand from thy poor brother ; but thou 
ehaltopen thine hand wide unto him, and shalt surely lend 
him sufficient for his need, in that which he wanteth. — 
Thou shalt surely give him, and thine heart shall not be 
grieved, when thou givest unto him. Gal. vi. 10. Luke 
Ti. 80, 38. 

7 1 Tim. vi. 8, 9. Having food and raiment, let us be 
therewith content. But they that will be rich fall into 
temptation, and a snare, and into many foolish and 
hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdi- 
tion. 

• 1 Tim. V. 8. Bat if any provide not for his own, and 
especially for those of his own house, he hath denied the 
faith, and is worse than an infidel. 

• Prov. xxvii. 23, 24. Be thou diligent to know the 
state of thy flocks, and look well to thy herds ; for riches 
are not for ever, &o. Eccl. iii. 12, 13. I know that there 
is no good in them, but for a man to rejoice, and to do 
good in his life.— It is the gift of God. 1 Tim. vi. 17, 
18. Charge them that are rich in this world, — that they 
do good, that they be rich in good works, retkdy to distri- 
bute, willing to communicate. 

b Eph. iv. 28. Let him labour, working with his hands 
the thing which is good. — £ccl. ix. 10. Whatsoever thy 
hand findeth to do, do it with thy might. Kom. xii. 6 
to 8. 

• FroY. z. 4. The hand of the diligent maketh rich. 

26* 

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?06 THE LABGKa CATXOHIBH. 

frugalit/ ; * avoiding unnecessary law-snits, • 
and suretiship, or other like engagements;' 
and an endeavour by all just and lawful means 
to procure, preserve, and further the wealth 
and outward estate of others, as well as our 



own. 



g 



Q. 142. What are the sins forbidden in 
the eighth commandment f 

A, The sins forbidden in the eighth com- 
mandment, beside the neglect of the duties 
required, *" are, theft,* robbery,^ man-steal- 
ing, ^ and receiving any thing that is 

Rom. xii. 11. Not slothful in business ; fervent in spirit; 
serving the Lord. 

d Prov. xii. 27, and xxi. 20. The substance of a dili- 
gent man is precious. There is treasure to be desired, 
and oil in the dwelling of the inse : but a foolish man 
Bpendeth it up. John vi. 12. ^ 

• 1 Cor. vi. 7. Now therefore there is utterly a fault 
among you, because ye go to law one with another. 

' Prov. xi. 16. He that is surety for a stranger shall 
smart for it ; and he that hateth suretiship is sure. Prov. 
vi. 1 to 6. 

« Lev. XXV. 85. And if thy brother be waxen poor, 
and fallen in decay with thee ; then thou shalt relieve him ; 
yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner. PhiL ii. 4. 
Look not every man on his own things, but every man 
also on the things of others. Deut. xxii. 1 to 4. Ex. 
xxiii. 4, 6. 

h Prov. xxiii. 21. Drowsiness shall clothe a man with 
rags. 1 John iii. 17. But whoso hath this world's good, 
and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up hia 
bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love 
of God in him ? James ii. 15, 16. 

1 £ph. iv. 28. Let him that stole, steal no more. 

J Psa. Ixii. 10. Become not vain in robbery. 

k 1 Tim. L 10. (The law is made) For whoremon* 



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THB LAROKa CATIOHlSM. 307 

fiti)len ; ^ fraadulent dealing, ^ false weights 
and measures, ' removing land-marks, ^ in- 
justice and unfaithfulness in contracts be- 
tween man and man, ^ or in matters of 
trust ; ^ oppression, ' extortion, ■ usury, * 

gers, for them that defile themseWes with mankind, for 
men-stealers. Bx. xxi. 16. Gen. i. 28. 

» Prov. xxix. 24. Whoso is partner with a thief, hateth 
his own soul. Psa. 1. 18. . When thoa sawest a thief, 
then thou consentedst with him. 

» 1 ThesB. iy. 6. That no man go beyond and defraud 
his brother in any matter ; becti^use that the Lord is the 
avenger of all such. 

B Prov. xi. 1. A false balance is an abomination to 
the Lord. Pro7. xx. 10. Divers weights, and divers 
measures, both of them are alike abominations to the 
Lord. 

o Pent. six. 14. Thou shalt not remove thy neigh- 
bour's land-mark, which they of old time have set in thiae 
inheritance. Prov. xxiii. 10. 

p Amos viii. 6. Making the ephah small and the 
shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit. Psa. 
zxxYii. 21. The wicked borroweth, and payeth not 
again. 

4 Luke xvi. 11. If, therefore, ye have not been faith- 
ful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your 
trust the true riches ? 

r £zek. xxii. 29. The people of the land have 
used oppression. Lev. xxv. 17. Ye shall not there- < 
fore oppress one another ; but thou shalt fear thy 
God. 

• Matt, xxiii. 26. Woe unto you, scribes and Phari- 
sees, hypocrites 1 for ye make clean the outside of the 
cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extor- 
tion and excess. Ezek. xxii. 12. — Thou hast greedily 
gained of thy neighbours by extortion, and hast forgotten 
me, saith the Lord God. 

* Psa. XT. 6. He that putteth not out Lis money to 
usury. 



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SOS SSS IiABaXB OATSCSDCSM. 

bribery, * vexatious law-stiits, ^ unjast <mcIo- 
Bures and depopulations:^ engrossing com- 
modities to enhance the price, * unlawful 
callings, ^ and all other unjust or sinful ways 
of taking or withholding from our neighbour 
what belongs to him, or of enriching our- 
selves ; ■ covetousness, * inordinate prizing 
and affecting worldly goods ; ^ distrustful and 
distracting cares 'and studies in getting, keep- 

* Job XY. 34. Fire BhaU oonsume the tabernacles of 
bribery. Isa. zzxiii. 16. 

▼ ProY. iii. 30. StriYe not with a man With- 
out cause, if he hath done thee no harm. 1 Cor. 
ti. 7. 

^ Isa. T. 8. Woe unto them that join house to house, 
that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may 
be placed alone in the midst of the earth I Mic. ii. 2. — 
7hey ooYOt fields, and take them by Yiolence ; and houses, 
and take them away. 

*■ ProY. zi. 26. He that withholdeth com, the people 
shall curse him ; but blessing shall be upon the head of 
him that selleth it. 

r Acts xix. 19, 24, 25. Many of them also which used 
curious arts, brought their books together, and burned 
them before all men, &c. 

■ James y. 4. Behold, the hire of the labourers who 
haYe reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back 
by fraud, crieth : and the cries of them which hare 
reaped, are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth. 
ProY. xxi. 6. The getting of treasures by a lying tongue 
is a Yanity tossed to and fro of them that seek death. 
Job XX. 19. 

a Luke xii. 16. Take heed and beware of coYetous- 
ness. Prov. i. 19. 

b 1 John ii. 15, 16. Loyo not the world, neither the 
things that are in the world. If any man loYe the world, 
the loYC of the Father is not in him, &o. ProY. xzilL 6 
Pea. Ixii. 10. 



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THS LABOSB OATXOHXBK. 809 

ing, and using them ; • envying at the prosperity 
of others ; ^ as likewise idleness, * prodigality, 
wasteful gaming ; and all other ways whereby 
we do unduly prejudice our own outward es- 
tate: ' and defrauding ourselves of the due use 
and comfort of that estate which God hath 
given us.* 

Q. 143. Which is the ninth command-' 
ment ? 

A. The ninth commandment is, Thou shalt 
not bear false witness against thy neighr 
lourf^ 

e Matt. tL 25, 34. Take no thought for your life, what 
ye shaU eat, or what ye shall drink ; nor yet for your 
body, what ye shall put on. — Take therefore no thought 
for the morrow ; for the morrow shall take thought for 
the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the eyil 
thereof. Eccl. y. 12. — The abundance of Uie rich will 
not suffer him to sleep. 

•1 Psa. Ixxiii. 8. I was enyious at the foolish, when I 
saw the prosperity of the wicked. James v. 9. Grudg« 
not one against another, brethren, lest ye be con- 
demned. 

e 2 Thess. iii. 11. We hear that there are some which 
walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are 
busybodies. — Prov. xviii. 9. 

f ProY. xxi. 17. He that loveth pleasure shall be a 
poor man ; he that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich. 
Prov. xxiii. 20, 21 . Be not among wine-bibbers ; among 
riotous eaters of flesh : for the drunkard and the glutton 
Bhall come to poverty. Prov. xxviii. 19. 

ff Eccl. iv. 8. There is one alone and there is not a 
second ; yea, he hath neither child nor brother : yet is 
there no end of all his labour ; neither is his eye satisfied 
with riches ; neither saith he, For whom do I labour^ and 
bereave my soul of good ? Eccl. vi. 2. 

^ £^ XX. 16. 



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810 THS liAKGKB GATEOHISIC. 

Q. 144. What are the duties required m 
the ninth commandment f 

A. The duties required in the ninth com- 
mandment are, the preserving and promoting 
of truth between man and man, * and the 
good name of our neighbour, as well as our 
own ; ^ appearing and standing for the 
truth ; ^ and from the heart, ^ sincerely, ■* 
freely,/* clearly, ** and fully, ' speaking the 
truth, and only the truth, in matters of 
judgment and justice,^ and in all other 
things whatsoever;' a charitable esteem 

* Eph. It. 25. Putting away lying, speak OTory man 
truth with his neighbour : for we are members one of 
an))ther. 

J 8 John 12. Demetrius hath good report of all men, 
and of the truth itself : yea, and we also bear record : and 
ye know that our record is true. 

k Prov. xxxi. 9. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, 
and plead the cause of the poor and needy. 

1 Psa. XY. 2. He that walketh uprightly, and worketh 
righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart. 

m 2 Chron. xix. 9. And he charged them, saying. 
Thus shall ye do in the fear of the Lord, faithfully, and 
with a perfect heart. 

n Jer. ix. 8. They are not valiant for the truth upon 
the earth. 1 Sam. xix. 4, 6. 

« Jer. xlii. 4. Whatsoever thing the Lord shall answer 
you, I will declare it unto you ; I will keep nothing back 
from you. Josh. vii. 19. Acts xx. 20. 

r Acts XX. 27. I have not shunned to declare unto yon 
all the counsel of God. 2 Sam. xIt. 18, 19, 20. 

4 Ley. xix. 16. Thou shalt not respect the person of 
the poor, nor honour the person of the mighty : but in 
righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour. Prov. xiy. 
6. A faithful witness will not lie ; but a false witness will 
litter lies. 

' Isa. IxiiL 8^ Surely they are my people, children 

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THE LABaXB OATKOHIgM. 811 

of our neighbours;' loTing, desiring, and 
rejoicing in their good name ; * sorrowing 
for, ^ and covering of their infirmities ; ' 
freely acknowledging of their gifts and 
graces,^ defending their innocency;* a 
ready receiving of a good report,^ and nn- 
willingness to admit of an evil report con- 
cerning them ; ' discouraging tale-bearers, * 

that will not lie. Col. iii. 9. Lie not one to another, 
Beeing that ye haTe put off the old man with his deeds. 
2 Cor. i. 17. 

• Heb. vi. 9. But, beloved, we are persuaded bettet 
things of you, and things that accompany salvation, 
though we thus speak. 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 6. — Charity — think- 
eth no evil. 

• 8 John 4. I have no greater joy than to hear that my 
children walk in truth. Rom. i. 8. 

• 2 Cor. xii. 21. And lest, when I come again, my 
God will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail 
many which have sinned already, and have not repented 
of the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness, 
which they have committed. Psa. cxix. 158. 

^ Prov. xvii. 9. He that covereth a transgression seek- 
eth love. 1 Pet. iv. 8. 

^ 1 Cor. i. 4, 5. I thank my Ood always on your 
behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by 
Jesus Christ; that in every thing ye are enriched by 
him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge. 2 Tim. i. 
4,6. 

' Psa. Ixxxii. 8. Defend the poor and fatherless : do 
justice to the afflicted and needy. 1 Sam. xxii. 14. 

7 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 6, 7. Charity — rejoiceth not in ini- 
quity, but rejoiceth in the truth — belie veth all things, 
hopeth all things. 

» Psa. XV. 3. Nor taketh up a reproach against his 
neighbour. 

• Prov. XXV. 23. The north wind driveth away rain • 
80 doth an angry countenance a baokbiting tongue. 



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812 THE LA&GSR OATECHISM. 

flatterers,* and slanderers ; • love and care 
of our own good name, and defending it when 
need requireth ; * keeping of lawful promises ;• 
studying and practising of whatsoever 
things are true, honest, lovely, and of good 
report. ' 

Q. 145. What are the sins forbidden in the 
ninth commandment f 

A. The sins forbidden in the ninth com- 
mandment are, all prejudicing of the truth, 
and the good name of our neighbours as well 
as our own, « especially in public judica- 
ture;*^ giving false evidenoe, * suborning 

•» Prov. xxvi. 24, 26. He that hateth, dissembleth 
with his lips, and layeth up deceit within him : when he 
speaketh fair, believe him not : for Aere are seven abomi- 
nations in his heart. 

c Psa. ci. 5. Whoso privily slandereth his neighbour, 
him will I cut off. 

d 2 Cor. xi. 18, 23. Seeing that many glory after the 
flesh, I will glory also. — Are they ministers of Christ ? — 
I am more; in labours more abundant, in stripes above 
measure, &o. Prov. xxii. 1. John viii. 49. 

• Psa. XV. 4. He that sweareth to his own hurt, and 
ehangeth not. 

f Phil. iv. 8. Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are 
true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things 
are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things, 
are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report ; if there 
be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these 
things. 

E Luke iii. 14. And he said unto them. Do violence to 
no man, neither accuse any falsely. 2 Sam. xvi. 8. 2 
Sam. i. 9—16. 

• k Lev. xix. 15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness la 
Judgment. Hab. 1. 4. 

i Prov. ux. 6. A false witness shall not be on- 



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THB IJIBOSB OATECBISM. 813 

false witnesses, ^ wittingly appearing and plead- 
ing for an evil cause, out-facing and over- 
bearing the truth ;^ passing unjust sentence,^ 
calling evil good, and good evil ; reward- 
ing the wicked according to the work of 
the righteous, and the righteous according 
to the work of the wicked ; "* forgery, " con- 
cealing the truth, undue silence in a just 
cause, " and holding our peace when iniquity 
calleth for either a reproof from ourselves, ^ 

panished ; and he that speaketh lies ahall not escape. 
Prov. *vi. 16, 19. 

J Acts vi. 18. And set up false witnesses, which said, 
This man ceaseth not to speak blasphemous words against 
this holy place, and the law. 

k Jer. ix. 8. And they bend their tongues like their 
bow for lies ; but they are not yaliant for the truth upon 
the earth. Psa. xii. 8, 4. The Lord shall cut off— the 
tongue that speaketh proud things ; who have said. With 
our tongue will we prevail, our lips are our own ; who is 
lord over us. Psa. lii. 1, 2, 3, 4. Acts xxiv. 2, 5. 

1 ProY. xTii. 15. He that justifieth the wicked, and he 
that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination 
to the Lord. 1 Kings xxi. 9 — 14. 

■» Isa. V. 23. [Woe unto them|| which justify the wicked 
for reward, and take away the righteousness of the right- 
eous from him. 

> 1 Kings xxi. 8. 

• Ley. T. 1. And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of 
swearing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or known 
of it ; if he do not utter it, then he shall bear bis iniquity. 
Acts V. 8. — Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled 
thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back 
part of the price of the land ? 

9 Lev. xix. 17. Thou shalt in any wise rebuke thy 
neighbour, and not suffer sin upon him. Isa. Iviii. 1. 
Cry aloud^ spare not ; lift up thy voice like a trumpet, 
27 

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S14 7BS IiABOER QATBCHTSM. 

or complaint to otherB;^ speaking the trath 
unseasonably,' or maliciously to a wrong 
end, ■ or perverting it to a wrong mean- 
ing,* or in doubtful and equivocal expres- 
sion, to the prejudice of truth or justice;* 
speaking untruth, ^ lying, ^ slandering, * back- 
biting, ^ detracting, * tale-bearing * whisper- 

and show my people their transgresfiion, and the house of 
Jacob their sins. 1 Elngs i. 6. 

4 Isa. lix. 4. None calleth for justice, nor any pleadeth 
for truth : they trust in vanity. 

' ProT. zxix. 11. A fool uttereth all his mind : but a 
wise man keepeth it in till afterwards. 

■ 1 Sam. xxii. 9. 10. Then answered Boeg the Edomite, 
which was set over the seryants of Saul, and said, I saw 
the son of Jesse coming to Nob, to Ahimelech the son of 
Ahitub. And he inquired of the Lord for him, and gave 
him — the sword of Goliath the Philistine. Psa. lii. 1. 
V^hy boastest thou thyself in mischief, mighty man? 

t Psa. Ivi. 6. Every day they wrest my words. Matt 
zzvi. 60, 61. — ^At the last came two false witnesses, and 
said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple 
of God, and to build it in three days. (Compare John 
it 19.) 

■ Gen. iii. 5. God doth know, that in the day ye eat 
thereof, then your eyes shall be opened ; and ye shall be 
as gods, knowing good and evil. Gen zzvi. 7, 9. 

^ Isa. lix. 13. Conceiving and uttering from the heart 
words of falsehood. , 

^ Col. iii. 9. Lie not one to another, seeing that ye 
have put off the old man with his deeds. Lev. xix. 11. 

* Psa. 1. 20. Thou sittest and speakest against thy 
brother : thou slanderest thine own mother's son. 

7 Psa. XV. 8. He that backbiteth not with his tongue. 
Rom. i. 80. Backbiters, haters of God. 

* James iv. 11. Speak not evil one of another, brethren. 
Tit. iii. 2. To speak evil of no man. Jer. xxxviii. 4. 

* Lev. xix. 16. Thou shalt not go up and down as m 
tale-bearer among thy people. 

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7BE IaARQVBL OAXMOBmiL 815 

ing,* scofiBng, • reviling,* rash/ harsh,* 
and partial censuring ; ' misconstruing in* 
tentions, words, and actions;^ flattering,^ 
vain glorious boasting,^ thinking or speak* 
ing too highly or too meanly of our* 
selves or others ; ^ denying the gifts and 

^ Rom. i. 29. Fall of— deceit, malignity ; whisperers. 
ProT. XYi. 28. 

« Isa. xxviii. 22. Now therefore be ye not mockers, 
lest your bands be made strong. Gen. jud. 9. Gal. It. 
29. 

* 1 Cor. Ti. 10. Nor drunkards, nor reyilers, — shall 
inherit the kingdom of God. 

e Matt Tii. 1. Judge not, that ye be not judged. 

f James ii. 18. He shall have judgement without 
mercy, that hath showed no mercy. Acts xxviii. 4. 

ff John Tii. 24. Judge not according to the appear- 
ance, but judge righteous judgment. — Rom. ii. 1. Gen. 
xxxTlii. 24. 

k Rom. lii. 8. And not rather, (as we be slanderously 
reported, and as some aferm that we say) Let us do evil, 
that good may come ? whose damnation is just. Psa. 
IxLX. 10. When I wept and chastened my soul with fast- 
ing, that was to my reproach. 1 Sam. i. 18, 14, 15. 2 
Sam. X. 8. Neh. yi. 6, 7, 8. 

i Psa. xii. 2, 8. With flattering lips, and with a dou- 
ble heart do they speak. The Lord shall out off all flat- 
tering lips. 

J 2 Tim. iii. 2. For men shall be lovers of their own 
selves, — boasters. 

k Luke xviii. 11. The Pharisee stood and prayed 
thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not 
as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or 
even as this publican. Gal. v. 26. Let us not be de- 
sirous of vain-glory, provoking one another, envying 
one another. Ex. iv. 10, 14. And Moses said unto the 
Lord, my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither hereto- 
fore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant : but 



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816 THX XABGIB OATXCHISM. 

graces of God ; ^ aggravating smaller faults ; * 
hiding, excusing, or extenuating of sins, when 
called to a free confession ; '^ unnecessarily 
discovering of infirmities;*^ raising false ru- 
mours ;p receiving and countenancing evil 
reports,^ and stopping our ears against just 
defence ; ' evil suspicion ; ■ envying or griev- 

I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. — And the 
anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses. Acts 
zii. 22. 

* Job xxvii. 6, 6. God forbid that I should justify 
you : tiU I die I will not remoye mine integrity from me. 
My righteousness I hold fast, and will not let it go : my 
heart shall not reproach me so long as I liye. 

" Isa. xxix. 20, 21. All that watch for iniquity are 
cut off; that make a man an offender for a word. Matt 
vii. 3. 

> Gen. iii. 12, 18. And the man said, The womaQi 
whom thou gayest to be with me, she gaye me of the tree, 
and I did eat. — And the woman said. The serpent be- 
guiled me, and I did eat. Proy. zxyiii. 18. He that 
coyereth his sins shall not prosper. 2 Kings y. 25. Gen. 
iy. 9. 

Proy. xxy. 9. Debate thy cause with thy neigh- 
bour himself ; and disooyer not a secret to another. Gen. 
iz.22. 

P Ex. xxiii. 1. Thou shalt not raise a false report 

4 Jer. XX. 10. I heard the defaming of many, — Report, 
say they, and we will report ii. All my familiars watched 
for my halting, saying, Peradyenture he will be enticed, 
and we shall preyail against him, and we shall take our 
revenge on him. Proy. xxix. 12. 

' Acts yii. 67. Then they cried out with a loud yoice, 
and stopped their ears. Job xxxi. 13, 14. If I did des- 
pise the cause of my man-seryant, or of my maid-servant, 
when they contended with me ; what then shall I do when 
God riseth up ? and when he visiteth, what shall I an- 
swer him ? 

* 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 6. Chariti* — thinketh no evil. 1 Tinu 
vL4. 

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THX LABCrXB 0ATS0HI8S. 817 

ing at the deserved credit of any ; * endearour- 
iBg or desiring to impair it, ^ rejoicing in their 
disgrace and infamy ; ^ scornful contempt, ^ 
fond admiration ; * breach of lawful promises ;^^ 
neglecting such things as are of good report ; ' 
and practising or not avoiding ourselves, or not 
hindering what we can in others, such things as 
procure an ill name. * 

< Matt. xxi. 15. And when the chief priests and scribes 
fl&w the wonderful things that he did, and the children 
crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the son of 
Dayid, they were sore displeased. Num. xi. 29. 

Dan. vi. 8, 4. Then this Daniel was preferred above 
the presidents and princes. — Then the presidents and 
princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning 
the kingdom. Ezra iv. 12, 13. 

▼ Jer. xlyiii. 27. For was not Israel a derision unto 
thee ? was he found among thieyes ? for since thou spa- 
kest of him, thou skippedst for joy. 

w Matt, xxyii. 28, 29. And they stripped him, and put 
on him a scarlet robe. And when they had platted a 
crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in 
his right hand ; and they bowed the knee before him, and 
mocked him, saying, HaU, King of the Jews I Psa. zzxy. 
16, 16. 

' 1 Cor. iii. 21. Let no man glory in men Jude 16. 

Having men's persons in admiration because of advantage. 
^Acts xii. 22. 

f Rom. i. 81. Without understanding, covenant-break* 
ers. 2 Tim. iii. 8. 

* 2 Sam. xii. 14. Thou hast given great occasion to 
the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme. 1 Sam. ii. 24. 

» Phil. iii. 18, 19. For many walk, of whom I have 
told ^ou often, and now tell you even weeping, that they 
are the enemies of the cross of Christ : whose end is de- 
struction, whose god is their belly, and i^hose glory is in 
their sham 6, who mind earthly things. 2 Pet. ii. 2. And 
many shall follow their pernicious ways ; by reason of 
27* 

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818 THE LASaSR 0ATX0HI8M. 

Q. 146, Which is the tenth eominandment f 

A, The tenth commandment is, Thou shalt 
not covet thy neighbour's house^ thou shatt 
not covet thy neighbour's wife^ nor his mar^ 
servant^ nor his maidservant^ nor his ox, nor 
his asSy nor any thing that is thy neigh* 
hours, ^ 

Q. 147. What are the duties required m 
the tenth commandment f 

A, The duties required in the tenth com- 
mandment are, such a full contentment with 
our own condition, ** and such a charitable 
frame of the whole soul towards our neighbour, 
as that all our inward motions and affections 
touching him, tend unto and further all that 
good which is his. ^ 

Q. 148. What are the sins forbidden in the 
tenth commanjiment f 

A. The sins forbidden in the tenth com- 
mandment are, discontentment with our own 
estate;* envying,' and grieving at the good 

whom the way of truth be evil spoken of. 2 Sam. xii. 18. 

b Ex. XX. 17. 

c Heb. xiii. 5. Let your conyersation be without cov- 
etousness ; and be content with such things as ye 
haye : for he hath said, I will neyer leaye thee. 1 Tim. yi. 6. 

A Rom. xii. 16. Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and 
weep with them that weep. Phil. ii. 4. Look not every 
man on his own things, but eyery man also on the t))ing8 
of others. Job xxxi 29. 1 Tim. i. 6. 

• 1 Cor. X. 10. Neither murmur ye, as some of them 
also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer. 
1 Kings xxi. 4. 

' Gal. Y. 26. Let us not be desirous of Tain glory. 

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THB LABOXR OATBOHISBi: 81d 

of our neighbour, * together with all inordinate 
motions and affections to any thing that is his. ^ 

Q. 149. Is any man able perfectly to keep 
the commandments of God? 

A. No man is able, either of himself, * or by 
any grace received in this life, perfectly i;o keep 
the commandments of God ; ^ but doth daily 
break them in thought, ^ word, and deed. * 

provoking one another, envying one another. James iii. 
14, 16. But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your 
hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth. For 
vhere envying and strife is, there is confusion, and 
every evil work. 

t Psa. cxii. 9, 10. His horn shall be exalted witli 
honour. The wicked shall see it, and be grieved. Neh. 
ii. 10. 

•» Rom. vii. 7. I had not known sin, but by the law ; 
for 1 had not known lust, except the law had said, Thofli 
Shalt not covet. Deut. v. 21. Neither shalt thou desire 
thy neighbour's wife, neither shalt thou covet thy neigh- 
bour's house, his field, or his man-servant, or his maid- 
servant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neigh- 
bour's. Col. iii. .6. Mortify — inordinate affection, evil 
concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry. Rom. 
ziii. 9. 

i James iii. 2. In many things we offend all. Job xv, 
14, What is man, that he should be clean ? and he which 
is born of a woman, that he should be righteous ? John 
XV. 6. — Without me ye can do nothing. 

i Eccl. vii. 20. There is not a just man upon earth, 
that doeth good and sinneth not. 1 Kings viii. 46. For 
there is no man that sinneth not. 1 John i. 8. If we say 
that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth 
is not in us. 

k Gen. viii. 21. The imagination of man's heart is 
evil from his youth. James i. 14 — Every man is tempted, 
when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. 
Gen. vi. 6. See letter (;'), above. 

I f sa. xix. 12. Who can understand his errors ? cleanse 



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829 THX LAROKR GATEOHIBM. 

Q. 160. Are all transgressions of the law 
of Gfod equally heinous in themselves^ and in 
the sight of Qod f 

A. All transgressions of the law of God are 
not equally heinous ; but some sins in them- 
eelves, and by reason of several aggravations, 
are more heinous in the' sight of God than 
others. "* 

Q. 151. What are those aggravations that 
make some sins more heinous than others ? 

A, Sins receive their aggravations, 
1. From the persons offending:'' If 
thej.be of riper age,* greater experience, 
or grace ; ^ eminent for profession, * 

thou me from secret faults. Rom. iii. 9, 19. — We haye 
before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all 
under sin — Every mouth may be stopped, and all the 
world may become guilty before God. James iii. 2, 8. 
In many things we o£fend all. — The tongue can no man 
tame ; it is an unruly evil, full of deadly poison. 

» Heb. ii. 2, 8. If the word spoken by angels was 
{Steadfast, and eyery transgression and disobedience re- 
oeiyed a just recompense of reward : how shall we escape, 
if we neglect so great salvation ; which at the first began 
to be spoken by the Lord ? Ezra ix. 14. Psa. Ixxviii. 
17, 82, 56. 

B Jer. ii. 8. The priests said not, Where is the Lord ? 
and they that handle the law knew me not : the pastors 
also transgressed against me, and. the prophets prophe- 
sied by Baal. 

« Job zxxii. 9. Great men are not always wise : nei- 
ther do the aged understand judgment. Ecol. iv. 13. 

p 1 Kings xi. 9. And the Lord was angry with Solo- 
mon, because his heart was turned from the Lord God of 
Israel, which had appeared unto him twice. 

4 2 Sam. xii. 14. By this deed thou hast giyen 



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THE LABQSa GATlOHISBf. 821 

gifts, ' place, ' office, * guides to others, * and 
whose example is likely to *be followed bj 
others. ^ 

2. From the -parties offended : ^ If im- 
mediately against God, ' his attri* 



great occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blasphe 

1 Cor. V. 1. 
' James iy. 17. To him that knoweth to do good, and 

doeth it not, to him it is sin. Luke zii. 47. — That servant 
which knew his Lord's will, and prepared not himself, 
neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with 
many stripes. 

■ John iii. 10. Jesus answered and said unto him, Art 
thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things t 
Jer. ▼. 4, 6. 

< 2 Sam. xii. 7, 8, 9. And Nathan said to Dayid, Thoa 
art the man. Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, I an- 
nointed thee king over Israel, — and I gave thee thy mas* 
ter^s house : — wherefore hast thou despised the command* 
ment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight ? £zek. Tiii 
11, 12. 

« Bom. ii. 21, 22, 24. Thou therefore that teachest 
another, teachest thou not thyself? Thou that preachest| 
a man should not steal, dost thou steal ? Thou that say- 
est a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit 
adultery ? — For the name of God is blasphemed among 
the Gentiles, through you. 

V Gal. ii. 14. But when I saw that they walked not 
uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said 
unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest 
after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why 
compellest thou the Gentiles to liye as do the Jews? 

2 Pet. ii. 2. 

^ 1 John Y 10. He that believeth on the Son of God 
hath the witness in himself: he that believeth not God, 
hath made him a liar ; because he belieyeth not the record 
that God gave of his Son. Matt. xxi. 88, 89. 

< 1 Sum. ii. 25. If one man sin against another, the 
judge shall judge him ; but if a man sin against the Lord^ 



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623 IfiB LAKGfeB OATBOEISai. 

bates, ' and worship * against Christ, and 
his grace ; * the Holy Spirit, ^ his witness, • 
and workings ; * against superiors, men of 
eminency, • and such as we stand especially 
related and engaged unto ; ' against any of 

who shftU entreat for him ? Acts t. 4. Thou hast not 
lied unto men, but unto God. 

y Rom. ii. 4. Or despisest thou the riches of his good- 
ness, and forbearance, and long-suflFering ; not knowing 
that the goodness of God leadeUi thee to repentance ? 

* Mai. i. 14. Cursed be the deceiver, which hath in 
his flock a male, and yoweth, and sacrificeth unto the 
liord a corrupt thing. 1 Cor. x. 21, 22. — Ye cannot be 
^rtakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils, 
bo we provoke the Lord to jealousy ? are we stronger 
than he ? 

*■ John iii. 18, 86. He that believeth not is condemned 
Already, because he hath not believed in the name of the 
only begotten Son of God — He that believeth not the Son 
ehall not see life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him. 
fieb. xii. 25. 

^ Heb. X. 29. Of how much sorer punishment, suppose 
)re, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under 
foot the Son of God, — and hath done despite unto the 
Spirit of grace ? Matt. xii. 81, 82. 

e 'Eph. iv. 30. And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, 
whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption. 

^ Heb. vi. 4, 6, 6. For it is impossible for those who 
^ere once enlightened — and were made partakers of the 
Holy Ghost; — if they shall fall away, to renew them 
agtdn unto repentance. 

• Num. xii. 8. Wherefore then were ye not afraid 
to speak against my servant Moses ? — Jude 8. Isa. iii. 6. 

' Prov. XXX. 17. The eye that mocketh at his father, 
and despiseth to obey his mother, the ravens of the valley 
shall pick it out, and the young eagles shall eat it. Psa. 
x\i' 9. Tea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, 
which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against 
me. Psa. It. 12 to 14. 



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THE LABOEB (U7B0HI8K. 828 

the saints, * particularly weak brethren, ^ the 
Bonis of them or any other ; ^ and the common 
good of -^11 or many. ^ 

3. From the nature and quality of the of* 
fence ; ^ if it be against the express letter of 
the law, ^ break many commandments, con- 
tain in it many sins : " if not only conceived 
in the heart, but break forth in words and 
actions, "" scandalize others, ^ and admit 

( Zech. ii. 8. He that toucheth you toucheth the ap- 
ple of his eye. 

^ 1 Cor. yiii. 11, 12. And through thy knowledge shall 
the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died ? But 
when ye sin so against the brethren, and wound their 
weak conscience, ye sin against Christ. Bom. xiy. 13, 
16, 21. 

i Ezek. xiii. 19. And will ye pollute me among my 
people for handfuls of barley, and for pieces of bread, to 
slay the soals that should not die ? 

i 1 Thess. ii. 15, 16. Who both killed the Lord Jesus, 
and their own prophets, and have persecuted us — to fill 
up their sins alway : for the wrath is come upon them to 
the utmost. Matt, xxiii. 34 — 38. 

k Isa. iii. 9. They declare their sin as Sodom, they 
hide it not. Prov. vi. 30 to 33. 

1 Ezek. XX. 12, 13. I gave them my Sabbaths, to be a 
sign between me and them — ^and my Sabbaths they greatly 
polluted. 

■* Col. iii. 5. Mortify therefore your members which 
are upon the earth : fornication, uncleanness, inordinate 
affection, evil concupiscence, and oovetousness, which is 
idolatry. 1 Tim. vi. 10. 

■ Mic. ii. 1, 2. Woe to them that devise iniquity, and 
work evil upon their beds I when the morning is light, 
they practise it because it is in the power of their hand. 
And they covet fields, and take them by violence. 

• Rom. ii. 28, 24. Thou that makest thy boast of the 
law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God ? 



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824 THS ULBOBB GATECHtSft. 

of no reparation : ' if against means, ^ 
mercies, ' judgments, ■ light of nature, ^ 
conviction of conscience,* puWic or 
private admonition, ^ censures of the 

For the name of God is blasphemed among the (}entile8 
through you, as it is written. Matt, xviii. 7. 

p Prov. vi. 82, 83, 84, 85. But whoso committeth adul- 
tery with a woman — a wound and dishonour shall he get ; 
and his reproach shall not be wiped away. For jealousy 
is the rage of a man ; therefore he will not spare in the 
day of yengeance. He will not regard any ransom. 
Matt. xvi. 26. — What is a man profited, if he gain the 
whole world and lose his own soul ? or what shall a man 
give in exchange for his soul ? 

q Matt. xi. 21, 22, 23, 24. Woe unto thee, Chorazin I 
woe unto thee, Bethsaida 1 For if the mighty works which 
were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they 
would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 
But I say unto you it shall be more tolerable for Tyre 
and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you, &C 
John XY. 22. 

«• Deut. xxxii. 6. Do ye thus requite the Lord, fool- 
ish people and unwise ? Is not he tby father, that hath 
bought thee? hath he not made thee, and established 
thee ? Isa. i. 2, 3. Ezra ix. 13, 14. 

■ Jer. V. 3. Lord, are not thine eyes upon the 
truth ? thou hast stricken them, but they have not grieved ; 
thou hast consumed them, but they have refused to re- 
ceive correction: they have made their faces harder than 
Ik rock; they have refused to return. Amos i v. 8 — 11. 

* Rom. i. 20, 21. For the invisible things of him from 
the creation of the world are clearly seen, being under- 
stood by the things that are made, even his eternal power 
and Godhead ; so that they are without excuse, &c. 

« Rom. i. 32. Who, knowing the judgment of God, 
that they which commit such things are worthy of death ; 
not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do 
them. Dan. v. 22. 

^ Prov. xxix. 1. He that, being often reproved, hard* 



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TBM LABGXB 0ATI0HI8M 

ehurcli,^ civil ponishmeBts ; ' and our 
prayers, purposes, promises, ^ vows, • cove- 
nants; * 'and engagements to God or men : ^ 
if done deliberately, • wilfully, ^ presumptu- 

eneth his neck, shall suddenly be destroyed, and that 
vithout remedy. 

^ Matt. xTiii. 17. If he neglect to hear the chnrch, 
let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. 
Tit. iii. 10. 

* Proy. zxyii. 22. Though thou shouldest bray a fool 
in a mortar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his 
foolishness depart from him. 

y Psa. IxxTiii. 84, 86, 87. When he ^slew them, then 
they sought him ; and they returned, and inquired early 
after God. — ^Nevertheless they did flatter him with their 
mouth, and they lied unto him with their tongues. — 
For their heart was not right with him, neither were 
they steadfast in his ooyenant. Jer. xlii. 6, 6, 20, 21, 
22. 

* Eocl. T. 5. Better is it that thou shouldest not tow, 
than that thou shouldest tow and not pay. Proy. xx. 2& 
It is a snare to the man who deyoureth that which is holy, 
and after yows, to make inquiry. 

•■ Ley. xxyi. 25. And I will bring a sword upon yon, 
that shaU ayenge the quarrel of my coyenant. Jer. 
zxxi. 82. 

b Proy. il. 17. Which forsaketh the guide of her youth, 
and forgetteth the coyenant of her God. Ezek. xyii. 18. 
Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the coyenant, 
when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done all these 
things, he shall not escape. 

Psa. xxxyi. 4. He deviseth mischief upon his bed ; 
he setteth himself in a way that is not good ; he abhor- 
reth not evil. 

d Jer. yi. 16. Thus saith the Lord, Stand ye in the 
ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the 
good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for 
your souls. But they said. We w^ll not walk therein. 
28 



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824 TaS LABGBB CATS0H7SM. 

ously,* impudently,' boastingly,' ipalicious- 
ly, ^ frequently,* obstinately, ^ with de- 
light, * continuance, ^ or relapsing after re- 
pentance. ™ 

• Num. XY. 80. But the soul that doeth aught pre- 
sumptuously, whether he be bom in the land, or a eftranger^ 
the same reproacheth the Lord ; and that soul shall b« 
cut off from among his people. Ex. xxi. 14. 

' Jer. vi»16. Were they ashamed when they had com- 
mitted abomination ? nay, they were not at all ashamed, 
neither could they blush ; therefore they shall fall among 
them that fall. Prov. yii. 13. 

s Psa. lii. 1. Why boastest thou thyself in mischief^ 

mighty man ? 

^ £zek. xxxY. 6, 6. Because thou hast had a perpetual 
hatred, and hast shed the blood of the children of Israel 
by the force of the sword in the time of their calamity, 
in the time that their iniquity had an end : therefore, as 

1 liye, saith the Lord God, I will prepare thee unto blood. 
8 John 10. 

* Num. xiy. 22. Have tempted me now these ten times, 
and have not hearkened to my voice. 

J Zech. yii. 11, 12. But they refused to hearken, and 
pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that 
they should not hear. Tea, they made their hearts as an 
adamant stone. 

^ ProY. ii. 14. Who rejoice to do CYil, and delight in 
the frowardness of the wicked. 

» Jer. ix. 3, 6. They proceed from evil to cyII, and 
they know not me, saith the Lord. — And weary themselYCB 
to commit iniquity. Isa. Ivii. 17. 

» 2 Pet. ii; 20, 21. For if, after they haYe escaped 
the pollutions of the world, through the knowledge of 
the Lord and Sayiour Jesus Christ, they are again entan- 
gled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with 
them than the beginning. For it had been better for 
them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, 
after they have known it, to turn from the holy command- 
ment deliyered unto them. Heb. yI. 4, 6. 



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Sm ItABaXE CiLTKOHISM. 827 

4. From circnmstaDces of time, * and place : • 
if on the Lord's day, ^ or other times of di- 
vine worship ; ** or immediately before, ' or after 
these, ■ or other helps to prevent or remedy 
auch miscarriages : Mf in public, or in the 

° Isa. xxii. 12, 13, 14. And in that day did the Lord 
God of hosts call to weeping, and .to mourning, and to 
baldness, and to girding with sackcloth : and behold joy 
and gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eating flesh 
and drinking wine. — Surely this iniquity shall not be 
purged from you, till ye die, saith the Lord Qod of hosts. 
2 Kings y. 26. 

• Jer. vii. 10, 11. And come and stand before me in this 
house, which is called by my name, and say, We are de- 
liyered to do all these abominations ? Is this house, 
which is called by my name, become a den of robbers ii| 
your eyes ? 

p Ezek. xxiii. 88. They have defiled my sanctuary in 
the same day, and have profaned my Sabbaths. 

4 Isa. Mii. 8, 4. Behold, in the day of your fast ye 
find pleasure, and exact all your labours. Behold, ye 
fast for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of 
wickedness. 

' 1 Cor. xi. 20, 21. When ye come together therefore 
in one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper. For in 
toting every one taketh before other his own supper : and 
one is hungry, and anther is drunken. Jer. vii. 9, 10. 
Will ye steal, murder — and come and stand before me in 
this house ? 

■ Prov. vii. 14, 15. I have peace- ofFerings with me ; 
this day have I paid my vows : therefore came I forth to 
meet thee, diligently to seek thy face ; and I have found 
thee. V 

* Neh. ix. 18, 14, 15, 16. Thou earnest down also upon 
mount Sinai— and madest known unto them thy holy Sab- 
bath — and gavest them bread from heaven for their hun- 
ger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock 
for their thirst^but they and our fathers dealt proudly, 
and hardened their necks, and hearkened not to my com- 
nandments. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 15, 16. 



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828 THE UIBQEB CATECHISM. 

presence of others, who are thereby likely to 
be provoked or defiled. ' 

Q. 152. What doth every Bin deserve at the 
hands of God ? 

A. Every sin, even the least, being against 
the sovereignty, ^ goodness, '^ and holiness 
of God, ' an^ against his righteous 
law, ^ deserveth his wrath and curse,' 
both in this life, * and that which is to 

■ Isa. iii. 9. They declare their sin as Sodom, they 
hide it not. Woe unto their soul ! for they have rewarded 
evil unto themaelTes. 1 Sam. u. 22, 28, 24. 

T James ii. 10, 11. Whosoever shall keep the whole 
law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. For 
he tiiat said, Do not commit adultery ; said also, Do not 
kill. 

^ Deut. ;cz^i. 6. Do ye thus requite the Lord, 
foolish people and unwise ? Is not he thy father t^t 
hath bought thee ? hath he not made thee and established 
theeT 

* Hab. i. 18. Thou art of purer eyes than to behold 
eyil, and canst not look on iniquity^: wherefore lookesl 
thou upon them that deal treacherously ? 1 Pet. L 15, 
16. — As he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy 
in all manner of conversation : b^ause it is written, B« 
ye holy, for I am holy. Lev. zi. 45. 

T 1 John iii. 4. Whosoever committeth sin transgres- 
seth also the law : for sin is the transgression of the law. 
Bom. vii. 12. — The law is holy, and the commandment 
holy, and just, and good. 

« Gal. iii. 10. For as many as are of the worka of the 
law, are under the curse : for it is written. Cursed 
is every one that continueth not in all things which 
are written in the book of the law to do them. Eph. 
▼. 6. ' 

A Deut. zzviii. 15, to the end. But it shall come to 

. pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the Lord 

thy God, to observe to do aU his commandments and his 



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THE LABQEK CA.TECHISM. 82S 

come;* and cannot be expiated but by the 
blood of Christ. » 

Q. 153. What doth God require of uSy that 
we may escape his wrath and curse due to us 
hy reason of the transgression of the law ? 

A, That we may escape the wrath and 
curse of God due to us by reason of the trans* 
gression of the law, he requireth of us repent- 
ance towards God, and faith towards our Lord 
Jesus Christ, ^ and the diligent use of the 
outward means whereby Christ communicates 
to us the benefits of his mediation. * 

Btatates, which I command thee this day ; that all these 
curses shall come upon thee, and oyertake thee, &o. 
Prov. xiii. 21. 

b Matt xxy. 41. Depart^ from me, ye cursed, into 
eyerlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angQls.— 
Bom. y\. 21, '23. — The end of those things is death. The 
wages of sin is death. 

c Heb. ix. 22. And almost all things are by the law 
purged with blood; and without shedding of blood 
IS no remission. 1 John i. 7. — And the blood of Jesus 
Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. 1 Pet. i. 18, 
19. 

* Acts XX. 21. Testifying both to the Jews, and also 
to the Greeks, repentance toward God, and faith toward 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Mark i. 15. — Repent ye, and be- 
lieve the gospel. John iii. 18. He that believeth on him, 
is not condemned ; but he that believeth not, is con- 
demned already, because he hath not believed on the name 
of the only begotten Son of God. 

• Prov. viii. 33, 34, 35. Hear instruction, and be wise, 
and refuse it not. Blessed is the man that heareth me, 
watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my 
doors. For whoso findeth me, findeth life, and shall ob- 
tain favour of the Lord. Luke xiii. 24. Strive to enter 
in at the strait gate ; for many, I say unto you, will seek 
to enter in, and shall not be able. 

?8« 

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830 THE LARGER GATECHI8M 

Q. 154. What are the outward mean$ 
whereby Christ communicates to us the beneJUs 
of his mediation f 

A. The outward and ordinary means, where- 
by Christ communicates to his church the bene* 
fits of his mediation, are all his ordinances ; 
especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; 
all which are made effectual to the elect for 
their salvation. ' 

Q. 155. How is the word made effectual to 
salvation f 

A. The Spirit of God maketh the reading, 
but especially the preaching of the word, an 
effectual means of enlightening, * convinc- 
ing and humbling sinners, ^ of driving them out 

f Matt xxviii. 19, 20. Go ye, therefore, and teach all 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; teaching them to ob- 
serve all things whatsoever I have commanded you : and 
lo I am with you always, even unto the end of &e world. 
Acts ii. 42, 46. And they continued steadfastly in the 
apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of 
bread, and in prayers. — And they, continuing daily with 
one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house 
to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness 
of heart. 1 Tim. iv. 16. 1 Cor. i. 21. Eph. t. 19, 20, 
and vi. 17, 18. 

c Psa. ziz. 8. The commandment of the Lord is pure, 
enlightening the eyes. Acts xxvl. 18. To open their 
eyes, and to turn them ttom darkness to light, and from 
the power of Satan unto God. 

h Jer. xxiii. 28, 29. And he that hath my word, let 
him speak my word faithfully. Is not my word like as a 
fire t saitb the Lord ; and like a hammer that breaketh 
the rook in pieces ? Heb. iv. 12. The word of God is 
quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged 

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THS liAROBB OATBOHISM. 831 

of themselves, and drawing them unto Christ ; ' 
of conforming them to his image, ^ and sub* 
duing them to his will;^ of strengtheninff 
them against temptations and corruptions ;^ 
of building them up in grace, " and establish- 

fiword, piercing even to the diyiding asunder of eoul and 
apirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a dis* 
cerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. Bom. 
Tiii. 16. 

i Acts ii. 87, 41. Now when they heard this, they 
were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter, and to 
the rest of the apostles, Men, and brethren, what shaU we 
do? — Then they that gladly received his word, were bap- 
tized: and the same day there were added unto them 
about three thousand souls. Acts yiii. 27 to 88. 

i 2 Cor. iii.' 18. But we all, with open face beholding 
as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the 
same image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of 
the Lord. Col. i. 27. 

k 2 Cor. X. 4, 6. (For the weapons of our warfare are 
not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down 
of strongholds ;) casting down imaginations, and every 
high thing that exalte th itself against the knowledge of 
God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obo- , 
dience of Christ. Bom. vi. 17. 

1 Psa. xix. 11. Moreover, by them is thy servant warned. 
Col. i. 28. Whom we preach, warning every man. Eph. 
vi. 16, 17. Above all, taking the shield of faith, where- 
with ye shall be able to quench aU the fiery darts of tha 
wicked. And take the helmet of salvation, and the 
sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Matt iv. 
7, 10. 

"> Eph. iv. 11, 12. And he gave some, apostles — and 
some, pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the 
eaints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of 
the body of Christ, &o. Acts xx. 82. And now, breth 
ran, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace» 
which is able «o build you up. 2 Tim. iii. 15, 16. 1 Cor. 
ML 9, 10, 11. 

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THE LABaXR OATBOHIBM. 

ing their hearts in holiness and comfort through 
faith unto salvation. ^ 

Q. 156. /« the word of. God to he read by 
all? 

A. Although all are not permittted to read 
the word publicly to the congregation,* yet 
all sorts of people are bound to read it apart 
by themselves, ^ and with their families : ' to 

Rom. xvi. 25. Now, to him that is of power to stab- 
lish you accordiog to my gospel, and the preaching o| 
Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, 
which was kept secret since the world began. 1 Thess. 
iii. 2, 13. And sent Timotheus, our brother, and minister 
of God, and our fellow-labourer in the gospel of Christ, 
to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith, 
&c. Rom. X. 14 te 17. 

Deut. xxxi. 9, 12, 13. And Moses wrote this law, 
and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi — and 
finto all the elders of Israel. — Gather the people together, 
men, and women, and children, and thy stranger that is 
within thy gates, — that they may learn, and fear the 
Lord your God, and observe to do all the words of this 
law, &c. 

p Deut. xvii. 18, 19. And it shall be, when he sitteth 
npon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him 
a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before 
the priests the Levites : and it shall be with him, and he 
«hall read therein all the days of his life. — Isa. xxxiv. 
16. Seek ye out of the book of the Lord, and read. — 
John V. 39. Search the Scriptures. — Rev. i. 8. Bles- 
sed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of 
this prophecy, and keep those things which are written 
therein. 

4 Deut. vi. 6, 7. And these words which I command 
thee this day, shall be in thy heart: and thou shalt teach 
them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of 
them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thon 
Walkcst by the way, and when thou liest down, and vhe» 



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THS LARGER CATECHISlf. 88t 

which end, the holy Scriptures are to be tranflp 
lated out of the original into vulgar lan- 
guages. ' 

Q. 167. How is the word of God to be 
read? 

A. The holy Scriptures are to be read with 
an high and reverent esteem of them ; ' with 
a firm persuasion that they are the very word 
of 6od, * and that he only can enable us to 
understand them ;' with desire to know, believe, 
and obey, the will of God revealed in them ; ^ 

thou risest up. Psa. Ixxviii. 5, 6. For he established a 
testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which 
he commanded our fathers, that they should make them 
known to their children : that the generation to come 
might know them, even the children which should ba 
born ; who should arise and declare them to their children. 
» 1 Cor. ^v. 2 to 29.--ver. 18, 19. I thank my God, 
I Bpeak with tongues more than ye all ; yet in the church 
I had rather speak five words with my understanding, 
that by my voice I might tekch others also, than ten thou* 
.sand words in an unknown tongue. 

• Psa. cxix. 97. Oh how I love thy law I— Neh. viii. 
6. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the 
people — and when he opened it all the people stood up. 
— Isa. Ixvi. 2. — But to this man will I look, even to him 
that is poor, and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my 
word. 

* 2 Pet. i. 21. Holy men of God spake as they were 
moved by the Holy Ghost. 1 Thess. ii. 18. 

■ Psa. oxix. 18. Open thou mine eyes, that I may 
behold wondrous things out of thy law. Luke xxiv. 
45. 

V Junes i. 21, 22. Receive with meekness the in- 
grafted word, which is able to save your souls. But be 
ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving 
;oiir owa telves. 1 Pet. ii. 2. As new-born babes desire 

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834 THS LARGER CATECHISM. 

with diligence, ^ and attention to the matter 
and scope of them ; * with meditation, '^ appli- 
cation, ■ self-denial, • and prayer. * 

Q. 158. By whom is the word of Q-od to he 
freached f 

A. The word of God is to be preached only 
by such as are sufficiently gifted, ^ and also 
duly approved and called to that office. * 

the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thei^by. 
Mark iy. 20. 

^ Acts xvii. 11. These [Bereans] were more noble 
than those in Thessalonica, in that they receiyed the word 
with all readiness of mind, and searched the Scriptures 
daily, whether those things were so. Dent. xi. 13. 

* Acts yiii. 30, 34. And Philip— said, TJnderstandest 
thou what thon readest? — and the ennnch answered 
Philip, — Of whom speaketh the prophet this ? of himself^ 
or of some other man ? Matt. xiii. 28. 

3^ Psa. 1. 2. But his delight is in the law of the Lord ; 
lind in his law doth he meditate day and night. Psa. 
cxix. 97. how loye I thy law ! it is my mentation all 
the day. 

» Acts ii. 88, 89. Repent, and be baptized eyery one 
of you — ^for the promise is unto you, and to your child- 
ren. 2 Sam. xii. 7. 2 Chron. xxxiy. 21. 

» Gal. i. 15, 16. But when it pleased God — to reyeal 
his Son in me, that I might preach him among the hea- 
then ; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood. 
Proy. iii. 6. 

»» Neh. yiii. 6, 8, See letter («), page 338. 

c 1 Tim. iii. 2 — ^. A bishop — must be blameless — apt 
to teach — not a noyice. 2 Tim. ii. 2. And the things 
thaf thou hast heard of me, among many witnesses, the 
Bame commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to 
teach others also. Mai. ii. 7. 

d Eom. X. 16. And how shall they preach, except 
they be sent? Heb. y. 4. And no man taketh this 
honour unto bimself, but he that is called of God, as wae 
Aaron. 1 Tim. It. 14. Neglect not the gift that is in 



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THS LARQBB CATE0HI8M. 835 

Q. 159. How is the word of Q-od to he 
preached by those that are called thereunto ? 

A, They that are called to labour in the 
ministry of the word are to preacji sound doc- 
trine, * diligently, ' in season, and out of 
season ; « plainly, ^ not in the enticing words 
of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the 
Spirit, and of power ; * faithfully, J making 
known the whole counsel of God;*' wise- 
ly,^ applying themselves to the necessities 

thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying 
an of the hands of the presbytery. 

• Tit. ii. 1, 8. But speak thou the things which be^ 
eome sound doctrine ; — sound speech that cannot be con- 
demned. 

' Acts xviii. 25. Being ferTcnt in the spirit, he spake 
•nd taught diligently the things of the Lord. 

K 2 Tim. iy. 2. Preach the word : be instant in season, 
out of season. 

i» 1 Cor. xiv. 9. Except ye utter by the tongue words 
easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is 
spoken ? for ye shall speak into the air. 

i 1 Cor. ii. 4. And my speech, and my preaching was^ 
not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demon- 
stration of the Spirit, and of power. 

i Jer. xxiii. 28. He that hath my word, let him speak 
my word faithfully. 1 Cor. iy. 1, 2. Let a man so ao- 
count of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards 
of the mysteries of God. Moreover, it is required in 
stewards, that a man be found f&ithful. Matt. xxiy. 45, 
46, 47. 

k Acts XX. 27. For I have not shunned to declare unto 
yon all the counsel of God. 

* Col. i. 28. Whom we preach, warning every man, 
and teaching every man in all wisdom. 2 Tim. ii. 16.' 
Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman 
that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word 
ef truth. 



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886 THE LABQEB OATBCHISIL 

and capacities of the hearers;* zealously,* 
with fervent love to God, * and the souls of 
his people ; ' sincerely, ' aiming at his glory, * 
and their copversion, ' edification, * an,d salva- 
tion. » ^ 

^ 1 Cor.'iiL 2. I haye fed you with milk, and not with 
meat : for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither 
yet now are ye able. Heb. v. 12, 18, 14. 1 Thess. it 7. 
Luke xii. 42. 

» Acts xviii. 26. ' This man was instructed in the way 
of the Lord ; and, being fervent in the spirit, he spake 
and taught diligently the things of the Lord, knowing 
only the baptism of John. 2 Tim. iv. 5. 

2 Cor. V. 18, 14. For whether we be beside ourselyes, 
It is to God ; or whether we be sober, it is for your cause. 
For the love of Christ constraineth us ; because we thus 
judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead. Phil, 
i. 16, 16. 17. 

P 2 Cor. xii. 16. And I will very gladly spend and be 
spent for you ; though the more abundantly I Ioto you, 
the less I be loved. X, Thess. iii. 12. 

q 2 Cur. iv. 2. But having renounced the hidden things 
of dishonest^ ; not walking in craftiness, nor handling 
the word of God deceitfully ; but, by manifestation of the 
truth, commending ourselves to every man's conscience 
in the sight of God. 2 Cor. ii. 17. 

r John vii. 18. He that speaketh of himself, seeketh 
his own glory : but he that seeketh his glory that sent 
him, the same is true, and uo unrighteousness is in him. 
1 Thess. ii. 4, 6, 6. 

• 1 Cor. ix. 19, 20, 21, 22. For though I be free from 
all men, yet have I made myself servant unto all, that I 
might gain the more. And unto the Jews I became as a 
Jew, that I might gain the Jews ; to them that are under 
the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that 
are under the law, &c. — I am made all things to all men, 
that I might by all means save some. 

t 2 Cor. xii. 19. But we do all things, dearly beloTed, 
for your edifying. £ph. iv. 12. 

■ 1 Tim. iv. 16. Take heed unto thyself, and onto 



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XSB ULBOBR CATICHISV. M7 

Q. 139. What i» required of those that hear 
^ word preached ? 

A, It' is required of those that hear the 
word preached, that thej* attend upon it with 
diligence, ^ preparation, ^ and prayer, * ex- 
amine what they hear by the Scriptures;' 
receive the truth with faith, ■ love, • meek- 
neBS, ^ and readiness of mind, ^ as the word 

the doctrine ; contintie in them : for in doing this, th^u 
shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee. 2 Tim. 
ii. 10. Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake, 
that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ 
Jesus with eternal glory. Acts xxvi. 16 — 18. 

^ Psa. Ixxxiv. 1, 2, 4. How amiable are thy taberna- 
cles, Lord of hosts I My soul longeth, yea, even faint- 
•th, for the courts of the Lord. — Blessed are they that 
dwell in thy house : they will be still praising thee. Psa. 
xxvii. 4. Prov. viii. 84. 

w Luke viir. 18. Take heed, therefore, how ye hear. 
1 Pet. ii. 1, 2. Wherefore, laying aside all malice, and 
all guile, and hypocrisies, and envies, and all evil speak- 
itogs, as new-born babes, desire the sincere milk of the 
word, that ye may grow thereby. James i. 21. 

X Psa. cxix. 18. Open thou mine eyes, that I may be- 
hold wondrous things out of thy law. Eph. vi. 18, 19. 

r Acts xvii. 11. AnS searched the Scriptures daily, 
whether those things were so. 

« Heb. iv. 2. For unto us was the goUpel preached, 
as well as unto them : but the word preached did not 

Srofit them, not being mixed with faith in them that 
eard it. 

» 2 Thess. ii. 10.— They received not the love of the 
truth, that they might be saved. 

* James i. 21. Receive with meekness the ingrafted 
word. Psa. xxr. 9. 

« Acts xvii. 11. These were more noble than those in 
Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all rea- 
diness of mind. Acts ii. 41. 
29 

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888' THV lA&OKa OATEOHTBK. 

of God ; * meditate, • and confer of it ; ' Hie 
it in their hearts, « and bring forth the fruit 
of it in their lives. ^ 

Q. 161. Sow do the sacramenta become ff-* 
feetual means of salvation f 

A. The sacraments bt^ciome effectaal means 
of salvation, not by any power in themselves, 
or any virtue derived from the piety or inten* 
tion of him by whom th(»y are administered ; 
but only by the working of the Holy Ghost, 
and the blessing of Christ by whom they are 
instituted. ^ 

d 1 Thess. ii. 18. For this cause also thank we God, 
without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of 
God, which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word 
of men, (but, as it is in truth,) the word of God. 

• Heb. ii. 1. Therefore we ought to give the nore 
earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at 
any time we should let them slip. 

f Deut. vi. 6, 7. And these words, which I command 
thee this day, shall be in thine teart; and thou shalt 
teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of 
them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 
walkest by the way, and when thou liest do^ n, and when 
thou risest up. 

s Psa. cxix. 11. Thy word havje I hid ii mine heart, 
that I might not sin against thee. Prov. ii. 1 

It Luke viii. 16. But that on the good ground are thej. 
which, in an honest. and good heart, having heard th« 
word, keep it, ai&d bring forth fruit with patience. James 
1. 26. 

• 1 Pet. iii. 21. The like figure wherepnto, even bap- 
tism doth also now save us, (not the putting away of the 
filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience 
towards God) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ Acts 
viii. 18. Then Simon himself believed also : and when 
he was baptized he continued with Philip, and won^ 
dered, beholding the miracles and signs which were 

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THX I<ABOSB GA1XGHI81C. 889 

Q« 162. What is a merament f 

A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance insti- 
tuted by Christ in his church, J to signify, 
seal, and exhibit ^ unto those that are within 
the covenant of grace/ the benefits of his 
mediation ; ^ to strengthen and increase their 

done. [His baptism, notwithstanding, was ineffectual to 
any saving purpose, for Peter said to him] ver. 23, — I 
perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in 
the bond of iniquity. 1 Cor. iii. 7. So, then, neither is 
he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth ; but 
God that giveth the increase. 1 Cor. vi. 11. — But ye 
are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in 
the name of the Lord Jesas, and by the Spirit of our 
God. 

i Matt, zzviii. 19. Oo ye, therefore, and teach all na- 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Matt xxvi. 26, 27. And 
ae they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and 
brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat ; 
this is my body. 

k Bom. iv. 11. And he [Abraham] received the sign 
of circumcision, a eeal of the righteousness of the faith 
irhich he had, yet being uncircumcised ; that he might 
l>e the father of all them that believe, though they be not 
eircumcised ; that righteousness might be imputed unto 
them also. 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25. 

1 Rom. ix. 8. The ohilden of the promise are counted 
for the seed. Gal. iv. 28. Now we, brethren, as Isaac 
was, are the children of promise, ^om. xv. 8, 9. 

» Acts ii. 88. Then Peter said unto them. Repent 
and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus 
Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the 
gift of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of bless- 
lug which we bless, is it not the communion of the 
blood of Christ t The bread which we break, is it 
not the oommonion of the body of Christ? Acts 
XzU. 16. 



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840 VHB LiJtGfiB OATBCmSK. 

faith and all other graces ;* to oblige tliem to 
obedience ; • to testify and cherish their Ioto 
and communion one with another, * and to 
distinguish them from those that arer with- 
out, ^ 

Q. 163. What are the parts of a saera* 
ment? 

A. The parts of a sacrament are two ; the 
one, an outward and sensible sign used accord- 
ing to Christ's own appointment ; the other, 
an inward and spiritual grace thereby sig- 
nified. ' 

> Rom. XT. 8, 9. Now I say that Jesus Christ was a miiH 
iflter of the oircumoision for the truth of God» to confirm 
the promises made unto the fathers : and that the Qentilef 
might glorify God for his meroy. GaL iii. 27. 

o Rom. Yi. 4. Therefore we are buried with him loff 
baptism into death ; that like as Christ was raised up 
from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also 
should walk in newness of life. 1 Cor. x. 21. Ye csn- 
not drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of deviUi : y* 
cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table 
of devils. 

p 1 Cor. xii. 18. For by one Spirit are we all baptised 
into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether 
we be bond or free ; and hare been all made to drink into 
one Spirit. 1 Cor. x. 17. — We, being many, are one bread, 
and one body : fur we are all partakers of that one bread. 
Eph. iv. 3, 4, 6. 

q Eph. ii. 19. Now, t|;ierefore, ye are no more stran* 
gers, and foreigners, but fellow- citizens with the saintg, 
and of the household of God. Gen. xxxiv. 14. 

' Matt. iii. 11^ I indeed baptize you with water unto 
repentance : but he that cometh after me is mightier tham. 
I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear : he shall baptiM 
you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire. 1 Pet. iii. 21« 



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THE LABOEB OATSOHISM. 841 

. Q. 164. Bow many sacraments huth Christ 
instituted under the New Testament f 

A. Under the New Testament Christ hath 
instituted in his church only two sacraments, 
baptism, and thb Lord's supper. ' 

Q. 165. What is baptism f 

A, Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testa- 
ment^ wherein Christ hath ordained the wash- 
ing with water in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, * to be a 
sign and seal of ingrafting into himself, ^ of 
remission of sins by his blood, ^ and regene- 
ration by his Spirit ; ^ of adoption, "^ and 
resurrection unto everlasting life : ^ and where- 
by the parties baptized are solemnly admitted 

• 1 Cor. xi. 23. See letter (/), page 839. 

t Matt. zxTiii. 19. Go ye, therefore, ancf teach all na- 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

« Gal. iii. 27. For as many of you as have been bap • 
tised into Christ have pat on Christ. Rom. vi. 8. 

V Acts xxii. 16. Arise, and be baptized, and wash 
away thy sins. Mark i. 4. John did baptize in the wU« 
derness, and preach the baptism of repentance, for the 
remission of sins. Rev. i. 5. 

* John iii. 5. Except a man be bom of water, and of 
the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. — 
Tit. iii. 5. — According to his mercy he saved us, by the 
washing of regeneration, and renewhig of the Holy 
Ghost. 

« Gal. iii. 26, 27. For ye are all the children of God 
by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have 
been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. 

1 1 Cor. XV. 29. Else what shall they do which are 
baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all ? why are 
they then baptized for the dead ? 
29* 

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843 ¥HE LABQEB OATECfilBlf. 

into the visible church, ■ and enter into an open 
and professed engagement to be wholly and 
only the Lord's. * 

Q. 166. Unto whom is baptism to be ad- 
ministered ? * 

A. Baptism is not to be administered to any 
that are out of the visible church, and so 
strangers from the covenant of promise, till 
they profess their faith in Christ, and obedi- 
ence to him ; ^ but infants descending from pa* 
rents, either both or but one of them, profess- 
ing faith in Christ, and obedience to him, are, 
in that respect, within the covenant, and ard 
to be baptized. * 

X 1 Cor. xii. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized 
into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles ; whether 
we be bond, or free : and have been all made to drink 
into one Spirit. 

» Rom. vi. 4. Therefore we are burled with him by 
baptism into death ; that like as Christ was raised up 
from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so w« 
also should walk in newness of life. 

b Acts viii. 36, 37. And the eunuch said, See, here la 
water : what doth hinder me to be baptized ? And Philip 
said, If thou belieyest with all thine heart, thou mayest. 
And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ ia 
£he Son of God. Acts ii. 41. Then they that gladly re- 
ceived his word, were baptized. 

c Acts ii. 38, 39. Then Peter said unto them, Repent, 
and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesua 
Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the 
— Holy Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and to your 
childrcD, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the 
Lord our God shall call. Luke xviii. 16. But Jesua 
called them unto him, and said. Suffer little children to 
oome unto me, and forbid them not ; for of such is the 
kingdom of God. 1 Cor. vii. 14. The unbelieving hua* 

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THB LAROMl CATBCHIBM. SIS 

Q. 167. Mow is our baptism to he improv^ 
hy us f 

A. The needful but much neglected duty of 
improving our baptism, is to be performed by 
US all our life long, especially in the time of 
temptation, and when we are present at the 
administration of it to others, ** by serious and 
thankful consideration of the nature of it, and 
of the ends for which Christ instituted it, the 
privileges and benefits conferred and sealed 
thereby, and our solemn vow made therein ; • 
by being humbled for our sinful defilement, 
our falling short of, and walking contrary to, 
the grace of baptism and our engagements ; ' 
by growing up to assurance of pardon of sin, 
and of all other blessings sealed to us in that 
sacrament;' by drawing strength from the 

band is sanctified by the wife ; and the unbelieving wife 
is sanctified by the husband : else were your children 
vnclean : but now are they holy. Rom. xi. 16. Gen. 
ZTii. 7 to 9, compared with Gal. iii. 9 to 14, and CoL ii. 
11, 12. 

< Psa. xxii. 10, 11. I was cast upon thee from the 
womb : thou art my God from my mother's belly. Be 
not far from me ; for trouble is near. 

• Rom. Ti. 8, 4, 5. 

f Rom. vi. 2, 8. God forbid. How shall we that are 
dead to sin, Uto any longer therein ? Enow ye not, that 
60 many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were 
baptized into his death? 1 Cor. i. 11, 12, 13. Gal. 
iii. 1. 

f Phil. iii. 7 to 10, 11. But what things were gain 
to me, those I counted loss for Christ : — That I may 
know him, and the power o^ his resurrection, and the 
fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto 
Ids death; if by any means I might attain unto the 

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844 THE IiABaSB CATE0HI8M, 

death and resurrection of Christ, into whom 
we are baptized, for the mortifying of sin, and 
quickening of grace ; ^ and by endeavouring to 
live by faith, * to have our conversation in hoK* 
ness and righteousness, J as those that have 
therein given up their names to Christ, ^ and 
to walk in brotherly love, as being baptized by 
the same Spirit into one body. ^ 

Q. 168. What is the Lord's supper f 
A. The Lord's supper is a sacrament of 
the New Testament, ™ wherein by giving and 

resurrection of the dead, &c. Bom. iv. 11, 12. 1 Pet. 
iU. 21. . 

b Bom. Ti. 2, 8, 4. How shaU we, that are dead to 
irin, lire any longer therein ? Enow ye not, that bo many 
of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized 
into his death ? Therefore we are buried with him by 
baptism into death ; that like as Christ was raised up from 
the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we alfio 
should walk in newness of life. 

i Gal. iii. 26, 27. For ye are all the children of Qod 
by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have 
been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. 

J Bom. yi. 22. But now, being made free from sin, and 
become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, 
and the end everlasting life. 

k Acts ii. 88. Be baptized every one of yon in the 
name of Jesus Christ. 

1 1 Cor. xii. 18 to 26, 26. For by one Spirit are we 
all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gen< 
tiles, whether we be bond or free ; — that there should be 
no schism in the body ; but that the members should have 
the ^me care one for another. And whether one member 
suffer, all the members suffer with it ; or one member be 
honoured, all the members rejoice with it. 

» Luke xxii. 20. Likewise also the cup after supper, 
saying, This cup is the NeW Testament in my blood, whicli 
Is shed for you. 

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THE LAROEB OATSOHISM. 845 

reeeiving bread and wine according to the ap^ 
pointment of Jesus Christ, his death is showed 
forth ; and they that worthily communieate, 
feed upon his body and blood to their spiritual 
nourishment and growth in grace, ' have their 
linion and communion with him confirmed;** 
testify and renew their thankfulnes ^ and en** 
gagement'to God ^ and their mutual love and 
fellowship each with other, as members of the 
same mystical body. ' 

Q. 169. Sow hath Christ appointed bread 
and wine to be given and received in the aacm^ 
fnent of the Lord's supper f 

A. Christ, hath appointed the ministers of 
Iiis word, in the administration of this sacra* 

• Matt zxYii. 26, 27. And said, Take, eat ; this is my 
body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gav« 
it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it. John vi. 55, 66.— 
My flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 
He thikt eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth 
in me, and I in him. 1 Cor. xi. 28 to 27. 

o 1 Cor. X. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, it 
it not the communion of the blood of Christ ? The bread 
which we break, is it not the communion of the body of 
Christ? 

p 1 Cor. xi. ^25. This cup is the New Testament in my 
blood : this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance 
of me. 

q 1 Cor. X. 16 to 21. The cup of blessing which we 
bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? 
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of th^ 
body of Christ ? Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, 
and the cup of devils : ye cannot be partakers of the 
Lord's table, and the taWe of devils. 

r 1 Cor. X. -17. For we, being many, are one bread, 
and one body : for we are all partakers of tiiat one bread* 



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846 THE LABti£& CATKOHISM. 

ment of the Lord's supper, to set apart the 
bread and wine from common use by the word 
of institution, thanksgiving, and prayer; to 
take and break the bread, and to give both the 
bread and the wine to the communicants ; who 
are by the same appointment to take and eat 
the bread, and to drink the wme ; in thankful 
remembrance that the body of Christ was bro- 
ken and given, and his blood shed for them. ■ 

Q. 170. Sow do they that worthily commu- 
nicate in the Lord^s supper feed upon the body 
and blood of Christ th^ein f 

A. As the body and blood of Christ are not 
corporally or carnally present in, with, or un- 
der the bread and wine in the Lord's supper ; * 
and yet are spfiritually present to the faith of 
the receiver, no less truly and really than the 
elements themselves are to their outward 
senses ; ^ so they that worthily communicate 
in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, do 
therein feed upon the body and blood of 
Christ, not after a corporal or carnal, but in 
a spiritual manner ; yet truly and really, ^ 

• Mark xiv. 22, 23, 24. And as they did eat, Jesua 
took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them 
and said — This is my body. And he took the cup, and 
irhen he had given thanks, he gave it to them ; and they 
all drank of it. 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24. Matt. xxvi. 26 to 28. 
Eph. ii. li; 18. 

t Acts iii. 21. Whom the heaven must receive untU the 
times of restitution of all things. 

« Gal. iii. 1. foolish Galatians — before whose eyes 
Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, omoified 
among you. Heb. xi. 1. 

* John vi. 61 to ^3. I am the living bread, which eaaxm 

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THE LARaSE CATB0HI8M. 347 

while by faith they receive and apply unto 
themselves Christ crucified, and all the bene- 
fits of his death. ^ 

Q. 171. How are they that receive thesacror 
ment of the Lord* 8 supper to prepare themselves 
before they come unto it f 

A, They that receive the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper, are, before they come, to pre- 
pare themselves thereunto, by examining them« 
selves,* of their being in Christ,^ of their 
Bins and wants;' of the truth and measure 
of their knowledge, • faith, ^ repentance, • love 

down from heuven. If anj man eat of this bread he 
shall live for ever ;^ and the bread that I will give is my 
flesh, wbieh I will give for the life of the world. — Except 
ye eat of the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, 
ye hare no life in yon. 

^ 1 Cor. X. 16. See letter (o), page 346. 

' 1 Cor. xi 28. Bnt let a man examine himself, and so 
let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. 

1 2 Cor. xiii. 5. Examine yourselves, whether ye be 
in the faith ; prove your own selves. Enow ye not your 
own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be 
reprobates ? 

« 1 Cor. V. 7. Purge out therefore the old leaven, that 
ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even 
Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. Compared with 
£z. xii. 15. 

» 1 Cor. xi. 29. For he that eatcth and drinketh un- 
worthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not 
discerning the Lord's body. 

b 2 Cor. xiii. 6. See letter (y), above. 

e Zech. xii. 10. And I will pour upon the house of 
David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit 
of grace and of supplications ; and they shall look upon 
me whom they have pierced ; and they shall mourn for 
him as one moumeth for his only son ; and shall be in 
bitterneee for him, aa one that is iv bitterness for hit 

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848 THE LABQISR 0ATSCH18M. 

to God and the brethren, * charity to all men, • 
forgiving those that have done them wrong, ' 
of their desires after Christ, * and of their new 
obedience ; ^ and by renewing the exercise of 
. these graces, * by serious meditation, ^ and fer- 
vent prayer. ^ 

Q. 172. May one who douhteth of his being 
in Christ, or of his due preparation^ come to 
the Lord's supper f 

first-bom. 1 Cor. xi. 31. For if we would judge our- 
selves, we should not be judged. 

<» 1 Cor. X. 17. For we, being many, are "one bread, 
and one body ; for we are all partakers of that one 
]t)read. • , 

• 1 Cor. y. 8. Therefore let us keep the feast, not with 
old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wicked- 
ness ; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and 
truth ? 1 Cor. xi. 18, 20. 

f Matt. V. 23, 24. Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to 
the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath 
aught against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, 
iEind go thy way ; first be reconciled to thy brother, and 
then come and offer thy gift. 

c John viL 87. Jesus stood and cried, saying. If any 
man thirst, let him come unto me and drink. Luke i. 53. 
He hath filled the hungry with good things. Isa. Iv. 1. 

h 1 Cor. V. 8. Therefore let us keep the feast, not with 
old leaven — ^but with the unleavened bread of sincerity 
and truth. 

1 Heb. X. 21, 22, 24. And having an high-priest over 
the house of God ; let us draw near with a true heart, in 
full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from 
an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure 
water. — ^^And let us consider one another, to provoke unto 
love, and to good works. Psa. xxvi. 6. 

i 1 Cor. xi, 24. This do, in remembrance of me. 

^ Matt. xxvi. 26. Jesus took bread, and blessed it 
2 Chron. xxx. 18, 19. 



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THS LAKQER CATECHISM. 849 

A. One who doubteth of his being in Christ, 
or of his due preparation to the sacrament 
of the Lord's supper, may have .true interest 
in Christ, though he be not yet assured there- 
of; ^ and in God's account hath it, if he be 
duly affected with the apprehension of the want 
of It, "^ and unfeignedly desirous to be found 
in Christ, "" and to depart from iniquity ; * 
in which case (because promises are made, and 
this sacrament is appointed, for the relief even 

1 Isa. 1. 10. Who is among you that feareth the Lord, 
that obejeth the voice of his servant, that walketh in 
darkness, and hath no light ? let him trust in the name 
of the Lord, and stay upon his God. 1 John v. 13. These 
things have I written unto you that believe on the name 
of the Son of God ; that ye may know that ye have eter- 
nal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son 
o( God. 

" Isa. liv. 7, 8, 10. For a small moment have I for- 
saken thee ; but with great mercies will I gather thee. 
In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment ; 
but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, 
saith the Lord, thy Redeemer. — For the mountains shall 
depart, and the hills be removed ; but my kindness shall 
not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my 
peace be removed, saith the Lord that hath mercy on thee. 
Matt. V. 8, 4. Psa. xxxi. 22. 

" Psa. xlii. 11. Why art thou cast down, my soul; 
and why art thou disquieted within me ? hope thou in 
God ; for I shall yet praise him, who is the health of my 
countenance, and my God. 

o 2 Tim. ii. 19. Nevertheless the foundation of God 
Btandeth sure, having this seaF, The Lord knoweth them 
that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name 
of CHrist, depart from iniquity. Rom. vii. 24, 25. 
wretched man that I am I who shall deliver me from the 
body of this death ? I thank God, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. 
80 

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S50 THE LABOER OATECHISlT. 

of weak and doubting Christians) ' he is to be- 
wail his unbelief, ^ and labour to have his 
doubts resolved ; ' and so doing, he may and 
ought to come to the Lord's supper, that he 
may be further strengthened. ■ 

Q. 173. May any who profe^B the faith^ ^nd 
desire to come to the Lord's supper^ be kept 
from it f 

A. Such as are found to be ignorant or 
scandalous, notwithstanding their profession of 
the faith, and desire to come to the Lord's sup- 
per, may and ought to be kept from that sacra- 
ment by the power which Christ hath left in 
his church, * until they receive instruction, and 
manifest their reformation. * 

p Matt. xxTi. 28. For this is my blood of the new 
testament, which is shed for many, for the remission of 
sins. Matt. zi. 28. Come unto me, all ye that labour 
and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Isa. zJ. 
11, 29, 81. 

4 Mark iz. 24. And said with tears, Lord, I belieTe ; 
help thou mine unbelief. 

r Acts zTi. 80. And brought them out, and said, Sirs, 
what must I do to be saved ? Acts iz. 6. 

* 7 Cor. zi. 28. But let a man ezamine himself, and 
so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. Matt. 
zL 28. 

* 1 Cor. zi. 29. For he that eateth and drinketh un- 
worthily, eateth and drinketh damnation [judgment^ to 
himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 1 Cor. t. 11. 
But now I have written unto you not to keep company, 
if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or 
coTetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an 
eztortioner ; with such an one, no, not to eat. Matt. vii. 
6. Jude 23. 

> Gal. vi. 1. Brethren, if a man be OTertaken in a 
fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in tbo 

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THS LABOUR OATECHISM. 861 

Q. 174. What is required of them that r«- 
ceive the sacrament of the Lord's supper^ in the 
time of the administration of it ? 

A. It is required of them that receive the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper, that during the 
time of the administration of it, with all holy 
reverence and attention, they wait upon God 
in that ordinance ; ^ diligently observe the sac- 
ramental elements and actions ; ^ heedfully dis- 
cern the Lord's body, * and affectionately 
meditate on his death and sufferings,^ and 
thereby stir up themselves to a vigorous exer- 
cise of their graces ; ■ in judging themselves ' 
and sorrowing for sin ; * in earnest hungering 

Bpirit of meekness ; consideriDg thyself, lest thou also bo 
tempted. 

▼ Heb. xii. 28. Wherefore, we receiving a kingdom 
which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we 
may wrr^ God acceptably, with reverence and godly fear. 
Lev. X. 3. 

▼ Gal. iii. 1. Before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been 
evidently set forth, crucified among you. 

z 1 Cor. xi. 29. For he thtkt eateth and drinketh un- 
worthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not 
discerning the Lord's body. 

y Luke xxil. 19. And he took bread, and gave thanks, 
and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body 
which is given for you ; this do in remembrance of me. 

■ Eph. iii. 17, 18, 19. That ye, being rooted and grounded 
in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what 
is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height ; and to 
know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that 
ye might be filled with all the fulness of God. 

a 1 Cor. xi. 31. For if we would judge ourselves we 
should not be judged 

b Zech. xii. 10. And they shall look upon me whom 
they have pierced, and they shall mourn. 

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352 THB LARGER OATECHISM. 

and thirsting after Christ, • feeding on him by 
faith, * receiving of his fulness ; • trusting in 
his merits, ' rejoicing in his love, * giving 
thanks for his grace ; ^ in renewing of their 
covenant with God, ' and love to all the 
saints. ^ , ' ^ 

' Q. 176. What is the duty of Ohristiangy 
after they have received the sacrament of the 
Lord* 8 supper f 

A. The duty of Christians, after they have 
received the sacrament of the Lord's supper, 
is seriously to consider how they have behaved 

c Rot. xxii. 17. And tlie Spirit and the bride say. 
Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let 
him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him 
take the water of life freely. 

* Gal. ii. 20. And the life which I now live in th« 
flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, 
and gave himself for me. John vi. 85. 

• John i. 16. And of his fulness have aU we received, 
and grace for grace. Col. i. 19. 

' Phil. iii. d. And be found in him, not having mine 
own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is 
through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is 
of God by faith. 

r 1 Pet. i. 8. Whom having not seen, ye love : in 
whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye re- 
joice with joy unspeakable and full of glory. 2 Chron. 
XXX. 21. 

i^ Psa. xxii. 26. The nieek shall eat and be satisfied ; 
they shall praise the Lord that seek him: your heart 
shall live for ever. 

i Jer. I. 5. Come, and let us join ourselves to the Lord 
in a perpetual covenant that shall not be forgotten. 
Psa. 1. 6. 

J 1 Cor. X. 17. For wo, being many, are one bread, 
and one body . for we are all partakers of that one bread. 
Aots u. 42. 

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TH£ LARa£R OATSGUISM. ftSS 

thenaselves therein/ and with what success ; ^ 
if they find quickening and comfort, to bleaa 
God fofr it, * beg the continuance of it, ■ 
watch against relapse, ^ fulfil their vows, • 
and encourage themselves to a frequent at- 
tendance on that ordinance : ^ but if they find 
no present benefit, more exactly to review their 
preparation to, and carriage at the sacra^* 
ment;*i i^ ^Qt^ ^hich if they can approve 
themselves to God and their own consciences, 
they are to wait for the fruit of it in due 
time ; ' but if they see that they have failed in 

k 1 Cor. xi. 17, 80, 31. Psa. Ixxiii. 28. 

1 2 Cor. ii. 14. Now thanks be unto God, which al- 
ways causeth us to triumph in Christ. Acts ii. 42, 46, 
47. 

■» Bom. XV. 13. Now, the God of hope fill you with 
all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in 
hope, through the poVf er of the Holy Ghost. Psa. xxxvi. 
10. 

■ 1 Cor. X. 12. Wherefore, let him that think- 
eth he standeth take heed lest he fall. Rom. xi. 
20. 

o Pea. 1. 14. Offer unto God thanksgiving ; and pay 
thy vows unto the Most High. 

p 1 Cor. xi. 26, 26. Psa. xxvii. 4. Acts ii. 42. 

<i Psa. Ixxvii. 6. I commune with mine own heart; 
and my spirit made diligent search. Psa. cxxxix. 23, 24. 
Search me, O God, and know my heart, try me, and 
know my thoughts ; and see if there be any wicked way 
in me, and lead me in the way everlasting. 

»■ Psa. cxxiii. 1, 2. Unto thee lift I up mine eyes, 
thou that dwellest in the heavens. Behold, as the eyes 
of servants look unto the hand of their masters, and as 
the eyes of a maiden unto the hand of her mistress : so 
our eyes wait upon the Lord our God, until that he hav« 
meroy upon us. Isa. viii. 17. 
80* 

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854 THE LABaEB CATEOHISM. 

either, they are to be humbled, ' and to attend 
upon it afterward with more care and dili- 
gence. * 

Q. 176. Wherein do the sacraments of bajh 
tism and the Lord's supper agree f 

A. The sacraments of, baptism and the 
Lord's supper agree, in that the author of both 
is God ; "^ the spiritual part of both is Christ 
and his benefits ; ^ both are seals of the same 
covenant,^ are to be dispensed by ministers 

• Ho8. xiv. 2. Take with yoa words, and tarn to the 
Lord ; say unto him, Take away all iniquity, and receive 
us graciously ; so will we render the calves of our lips. 
Hoeea yi. 1, 2. 

* 2 Cor. Tii. 11. For, behold, this self-same thing, 
that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it 
wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, 
what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement 
desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge ! In all things 
ye have approved yourselves td be clear in this matter. 
1 Chron. xv. 12 to 14. 

^ Matt, xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all na- 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I 
have received of the Lord, that which also I delivered 
unto you. That the Lord Jesus, the same night in which 
he was betrayed, took bread. 

▼ Bom. vi. 3, 4. Enow ye not, that so many of us aa 
were baptized into Jesus Christ, wiere baptized into his 
death ? Therefore we are buried with him by baptism 
into death : that like as Christ was raised up from the 
dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should 
walk in newness of life. 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of bless- 
ing, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood 
of Christ ?. The bread which we break, is it not the com- 
munion of the body of Christ ? 

^ Col. ii. 11, 12. In whom also ye are circumcised 
with the circumcision made without hands, in putting 

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THE LABOXB OATBCHIBM* 85S 

of the gospel and by none other ; ' and to be 
continued in the church of Christ until his 
second coming. ^ 

Q. 177. Wherein do the sacraments of bap- 
tism and the Lord's supper differ t 

A, The sacraments of baptism and the Lord's 
sapper differ, in that baptism is to be adminis-* 
tered but once, with water, to be a sign and 
seal of our regeneration and ingrafting into 
Christ,* and that even to infants;* whereas 

off the body of the sios of the flesh by the oireumcision 
of Christ; baried with him in baptism wherein also ye are 
risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, 
who hath raised him from the .dead. Compared with 
Rom. iv. 11. Matt. xxvi. 27,28. And he took the cap 
and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye 
all of it ; for this is my blood of the New Testament^ 
which is shed for many for the remission of sins. 

X Matt, xxviii. 19. Go ye, therefore, and teach all na« 
tions, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.. 1 Cor. xi. 28. For I 
have received of the Lord, that which I also delivered 
unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in whioh 
he was betrayed, took bread. 1 Cor. iv. 1. Let a maa 
so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stew- 
ards of the mysteries of God. Heb. v. 4. 

y Matt, xxviii. 20. Teaching them [&11 nations] to ob«. 
serve all things whatsoever I have commanded you : and, 
lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. 
1 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink 
tbi8 cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. 

> Matt. iii. 11. I indeed baptize you with water vnto 
repentance : but he that cometh after me is mightier than 
I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear : he- shall b&ptistt 
you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire. Gal. iii. 27. 
For as many of you as have been baptised into Christ 
have put on Christ Titus iii. 6. 

• Acts ii. 38, 39. Bep^t» and be baptised evfliy out 

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856 THB liABQiai GATSCHISaf. 

the Lord's supper is to be administered often, 
in the elements of bread and wine, to repre- 
sent and exhibit Christ as spiritual nourishment 
to the soul/ and to confirm our continuance 
and growth in him/ and that only to such 
as are of years and ability to examine them- 
eelves. * 

Q. 178. What is prayer? 

A, Prayer is an offering up of our desires 
unto God, * in the name of Christ, ' by the 
help of his Spirit ; * with confession of our 

of you. — ^for the promise is unto you and to your child- 
ren. 1 Oor. vii. 14. — The unbelieving wife is sanctified 
by the husband : else were your children unclean ; but 
BOW are they holy. — See letter (c), page 842. ^ 

b 1 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as ye eat this bread, and 
drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. ' 
Col. ii. 19. — Not holding the head, from which all the 
body by joints and bands having nourishment minis- 
tered, and knit together, increaseth with the increase of 
God. 

e 1 Cor. X. 16. The cup of blessing which we bless, is 
it not the communion of the blood of Christ ? The bread 
which we break, is it not the communion of the body of 
Christ ? Eph. iv. 16, 16. 

^ 1 Cor. xi. 28. But let a man examine himself, and 
00 let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. 

e Psa. Ixii. 8. Trust in him at all times ; ye peo- 
ple, pour out your heart before him ; God is a refuge 
toT us. 

t John xTi. 28, 24. Whatsoeyer ye shall ask the Father 
in my name, he will give it you. Hitherto have ye asked 
nothing in my name ; ask, and ye s&all receive, that your 
joy may be full. 

t Bom. viii. 26. Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our 
infirmities ; for we know not what we should pray for as 
we ought ; but the Spirit itself maJLeth intercession for 
US with groanings which cannot be uttered. 

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TnS LABQSB 0ATB0HI8M. 857 

sins, ^ and thankful acknowledgment of hig 
mercies. * 

Q. 179. Are we to pray unto Grod only f 
A. ' God only being able to search the 
hearty ^ hear the requests, ^ pardon the 
sins, ^ and fulfil the desires of all, ^ and 
only to be believed in,'' and worshipped 
with religious worship ; ^ prayer, which is a 



b Dan. ix. 4. And I prayed unto the Lord my God, and 
made my confession. Psa. xxxii. 5, 6.^ — I said, I will con- 
fess my transgressions unto the Lord ; and thou forgavest 
the iniquity of my sin. Selah. For this shall every one 
that is godly pray unto thee, in a time when thou mayest 
be found. 

* Phil. iv. 6. In every thing by prayer and supplicft- 
tiod, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made kiiown 
nnto God. 

i 1 Kings viii. 89. Thou, even thou only, knowest the 
hearts of all the children of men Acts i. 24. And they 
prayed, and said. Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts 
of all men, show whether of these two thou hast chosen* 
Bom. viii. 27. 

k Psa. Ixv. 2. thou that hearest prayer, unto thee 
shall all flesh come. 

I Micah vii. 18. Who is a God like unto thee, thatpar- 
doneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the 
remnant of his heritage ? 

B Psa. cxlv. 16, 19. Thou openest thine hand, and sat* 
isfiest the desire of every living thing. — He will fulfil the 
desire of them that fear him. 

B 2 Sam. xxii. 82. For who is God, save the Lord? 
and who is a rock save our God ? John xiv. 1. Let not 
your heart be troubled : ye believe in God. 

• Matt. iv. 10. Then saith Jesus unto him, Get 
thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt wor* 
ihip the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. 



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958 THE LA&GSR GATE0HI8M. 

gpecial part thereof, ^ ia to be made by all to 
Tiim alone, ^ and to none other. ' 

Q. 180. What 18 it to pray in the name of 
Christ? 

A, To pray in the name of Christ, is, in obe» 
dience to his command, and in confidence ob 
his promises, to ask mercy for his sake : ■ not 
by bare mentioning of hig name ; * but by 
drawing our encouragement to pray, and our 
boldness, strength, and hope of acceptance in 
prayer, from Christ and his mediation. ^ 

P 1 Cor. i. 2. Unto the church of God, which is at Cor- 
inth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to 
be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name 
of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours. 

4 Isa. xlii. 8. I am the Lord ; that is my name : and 
my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to 
graven images. Luke iv. 8. Psa. 1. 15. 

r Jer. iii. 23. Truly in vain is salvation hoped for from 
the hills, and from the multitude of mountains : truly in 
the Lord our God is the salvation of Israel. Jer. xiv. 22. 
Bom. X. 14. 

• John xiv. 18, 14. And whatsoever ye shall ask in mj 
name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in 
the Son. If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do 
it. Dan. ix. 17. 

t Luke vi. 46. And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, &nd 
do not the things which I say ? Matt vii. 21. 

* Heb. iv. 14, 15, 16. Seeing then that we have a great 
high-priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the 
Bon of God, let us hold fast our profession. For we have 
not an high' priest which cannot be touched with the feel- 
ing of our infirmities ; but was in all points tempted like 
as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore come boldly 
nnto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and 
find grace to help in time of need. 1 John v. 18, 
14, 15. 



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THS LARGER 0ATBCBI8M. 850 

Q. 181. ITky are we to 'pray in the nam0 
of Christ? 

A. The sinfulness of man, and his distance 
from God by reason thereof, being so great, as 
that we can have no Access into his presence 
withoat a mediator, ^ and there being none in 
heaven or earth appointed to, or fit for, that 
glorious work but Christ alone, ^ we are to pray 
in no other name but his only. * 

Q. 182. Sow doth the Spirit help m to 
pray? 
. A. We not knowing what to pray for, as we 
ought, the Spirit helpeth our infirmities, by 
enabling us to understand both for whom, and 
what.* and how prayer is to be made ; and by 
•working and quickening in our hearts, (although 

▼ John xiv. 6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, 
and the truth, and the life : no man cometh unto the 
Father but by me. Eph. iii. 12. In whom we have bold- 
ness and access with confidence by the faith of him. 

* Heb. Tii. 25, 26, 27. Wherefore he is able also to 
sare them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, 
seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. Foi^ 
such an high-priest became us, who is holy, harmless, un- 
defiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the 
heavens ; who needeth not daily, as those high-priests, to 
offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for 
the people's : for this he did once, when he offered up 
himself. 1 Tim. ii. 5. For there is one God, and one 
mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus. 
John vi. 27. 

« Col. iii. 17. And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, 
do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to 
God and the Father by him. Heb. xiii. 16. By him^ 
therefore, let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God cor 
tinually, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thank? 
kis nanra. 

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860 THS IiABGEB CATECHISM/ 

not in all persons, nor at all times in ihh same 
measure) those apprehensions, affections, and 
graces, which are requisite for the right per- 
formance of that duty. ^ 

Q. 183. For whom are we to pray f 
A, We are to pray for the whole church of 
Christ upon earth, ■ for magistrates, * and 
ministers, ^ for ourselves, • our brethren, * 
yea, our enemies, * and for all sorts of men 
living, ' or that shall live hereafter ; « but 

. 7 Bom. viii. 26. Likewise the Spirit also helpeth oiur 
infimrities : for we know not what we should pray for as 
we ought ; but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for 
us with groanings which cannot be uttered. Psa. Ixxx. 
18. — Quicken us, and we will call upon thy name.* Psa. 
X. 17. Zech. xii. 10. 

« Eph. vi. 18. Praying always with all prayer and 
supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with 
all perseverance, and supplication fer all saints. Psa. 
xxviii. 9. Save thy people, and bless thine inheritance; 
feed them also and lift them up for ever. 

• 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. I exhort therefore, that, first of all, 
supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, 
be made for all men ; for kings, and for all that are in 
authority. 

b 2 Thess. iii. 1. Finally, brethren, pray for as, that 
the word of the Lord may have free course, and be glori- 
fied, even as it is with you. Col. iv. 8. 

c Qen. xxzii. 11. Deliver me, I pray thee, from the 
hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau : for I fear 
him, lest be will come and smite me, and the mother with 
the children. 

< James v. 16. Pray one for another, that ye may be 
healed. 2 Thess. i. 11. 

• Matt. V. 44. Pray for them which despitefolly qm 
you, and persecute you. 

t 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. See letter (a), above. 

I John xvii. 20. Neither pray I for theae alone ; but 



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THE LARGER OATSCHISM. 861 

not for the dead, ^ nor for those that are known 
to have sinned the sin unto death. ^ 

Q. 184. For what things are we to pray f 

A. We are to pray for all things tending tp 
the glory of God, J the welfare of the church, * 
our own ^ or others' good ; "* but not for any 
thing that is unlawful. ^ 

Q. 185. How are we to pray f 

A. We are to pray with an awful apprehen- 
nion of the majesty of Grod, ^ and deep sense 

for them also which shall believe on me through their 
word. 2 Sam. vii. 29. 

k 2 Sam. xii. 28. But now he is dead, wherefore should 
I fast ? Can I bring him back again ? I shall go to him> 
but he shall not return to me. 

< 1 John y. 16. There is a sin unto death : I do not 
aay that he shall pray for it. 

i Matt. yI. 9. Our Father which art in heayen ; hal* 
lowed be thy name. 

k Psa. 11. 18. Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion; 
build thou the walls of Jerusalem. Psa. cxxii. 6. Pray 
for the peace of Jerusalem : they shall prosper that loye 
thee. 

> Matt yii. 11. If ye, then, being eyil, know how to 
giye good gifts unto your children, how much more shall 
your Father which is in heaven give good things to them 
that ask him ? 

* Psa. cxxv. 4. Do good, Lord, unto those that be 
good, and to them that are upright in their hearts. 1 
Thess. V. 23, and 2 Thess. iii. 16. 

B 1 John v. 14. And this is the confidence that we 
have in him, that if we ask any thing according to his 
wiU, he heareth us. James iv. 3. Ye ask and receive 
not, because ye ask amiss. 

« Psa. xxxiii. 8. Let all the earth fear the Lord : let 
all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him.-— 
Psa. xcv. 6. oome, let us worship and bow down \ let 
na kneel before the Lord our Maker. 

ai 

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862 THE LARGER CATECHISM. 

of our own un worthiness, "* necessities,' and 
sins ; ' with penitent, ■ thankful, * and enlarged 
hearts ; " with understanding, ^ faith, ^ sin- 
cerity, * fervency, ^ love, * and perseve- 

p Gen. zviii. 27. And Abraham answered and said. 
Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the 
Lord, which am but dust and ashes. Psa. oxliy. 3. 

4 Psa. Ixxxvi. 1. Bow down thine ear, O Lord, hear 
me : for I am poor and needy. Luke zv. 17, 18, 19. 

' Psa. cxxx. 8. If thou. Lord, shouldst marie imqni- 
ties, Lord, who shall stand ? Luke xviii. IS. And the 
publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as 
his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, sajiBg, 
God be merciful to me a sinner. 

• Psa. li. 17. The sacrifices of God are a broken 
fipirit : a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt 
not despise. Zech. xii. 10, &o. 

t Phil. iv. 6. In every thing by prayer and supplica- 
tion, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made Imowii 
unto God. 1 Thess. v. 16. 

V Psa. Ixxxi. 10. Open thy mouth wide, and I will fill 
it. £ph. iii. 20, 21. Now, unto him that is able to do 
exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, ac- 
cording to the power that worketh in us, unto him be 
glory in the church, &c. 

» 1 Cor. xiv. 16. What is it then? I will pray 
with the spirit, and I will pray with the imderstftnding 
also. 

^ Heb. X. 22. Let us draw near — in full assnranoe of 
faith, &c. James i. 6. But let him ask in faith, nothing 
-wavering. 

Tt Heb. X. 22. Let ns draw near with a true heart— 
Psa. 0x1 V. 18. The Lord is nigh unto all them that call 
upon him, — in truth. Psa. xvii. 1. John iv. 24. 

y James y. 16. The effectual fervent prayer ef a 
righteous man availeth much. 

» 1 Tim. ii. 8. I will therefore that men pray every- 
where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting. 
MaU. T. 23, 24. 



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THE LARGER CATECHISM. 

ranee, * waiting upon him ^ with humble sub* 
mission to his will. • 

' Q. 186. What rule hath God given for our 
direction in the duty of prayer f 

A. The whole word of God is of use to 
direct us in the duty of praying ; * but the spe- 
cial rule of direction is that form of prayer 
which our Saviour Christ taught his disciples, 
commonly called, The Lord' 9 Prayer, • 

Q. 187. How is the Lord'% prayer to be 
usedf 

A. The Lord's prayer is not only for direc- 
tion, as a pattern according to which we are to 
make other prayers ; but may be also used aa 
a prayer so that it be done with understanding, 
faith, reverence, and other graces necessary to 
the right performance of the duty of prayer. ' 

Q. 188. Of how many parts doth the Lord's 
prayer consist f 

* Bph. vi. 18. Praying always with all prayer and 
supplication in tiiie spirit, and watching thereunto with all 
perseverance. 

*» Mieah vii. 7. Therefore I will look unto the Lord ; 
I will wait for the God of my salvation: my God will 
hear me. 

e Matt. zxtI. 89. And he went a little further and fell 
on his face* and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be pos- 
sible, let this cup pass from me : nevertheless, not as I 
wiil» but as thou wilt 

* 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. All scripture is given by inspira- 
tion of God, and is profitable for doctrine, — that the man 
of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all 
good works. 1 John v. 14. 

* Matt vi. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Luke xi. 2, 8, 4. 

t Matt. vi. 9. After this manner, pray ye. — ^Luke xL 
2. — When ye pray, say, Our Father, &o. 



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864 THE LABGEB 0ATXCHI8M. 

A. The Lord's prayer consists of three parts, 
% preface, petitions, and a conclusion. 

Q. 189. What doth the preface of the LotSb 
prayer teach U8 f 

A. The preface of the Lord's prayer (con- 
tained in these words, Our Father which art 
in heaven)^ teacheth us, when we pray, to 
draw near to God with confidence of his fatherly 
goodness, and our interest therein ; ^ with rev- 
erence, and all other childlike dispositions^^ 
heavenly affections,^ and due apprehensions 
of his sovereign power, majesty, and gracious 
condescension : ^ as also to pray with and for 
others. ^ 

Q. 190. Whai do we pray for in the firri 
petition f 

ff liatt. a. 9. 

^ Lake zi. 18. If ye, then, being e^il, know how to 
g^Ye good gifts unto your children ; how much more ehftll 
yenr heayenly Fatiier give the Holy Spirit to them that 
•Bk him. Rom. viii. 15. , # 

1 Psa. xcY. 6, 7. Let ub kneel before the Lord our M^ 
ker* For he is onr God ; and we are the people of his 
pasture, and the sheep of his hand. Isa. Iziy. 9. 

i Psa. oxxiii. 1. Unto thee lift I np mine eyes, thoa 
that dwellest in the heavens. Lam. iii. 41. Let as lift 
up oar heart, with oar hands unto God in the heavens. 

^ Psa. ciy. 1, 2. Bless the Lord my soul. Lord 
my God, thou art very great ; thou art clothed with hon- 
bar and majesty. Isa. Ixiii. 16. Look down from heaven, 
and behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy 
glory : where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding 
of thy bowels, and of thy mercies towards me ? are they 
restrained ? Psa. oxiii. 4, 6, 6. 

1 Acts xii. 6. Peter therefore was kept in prison ; bat 
prayer was made without ceasing of the ohoroh onto God 
for him. Zeoh. viU. 21 

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THX LAKGSE CATXCHI8M. 365 

A. In the first petition, (which is, Hallowed 
be thy name)^ acknowledging the utter in- 
ability and indisposition that is in ourselves 
and all men to honour God aright ; " we pray^ 
that God would'by his grace enable and incline 
us and others to know, to acknowledge, and 
highly to esteem him, ^ his titles, ^ attributes, ^ 
ordinances, word,' works, and whatsoever 
he is pleased to make himself known by ; * 
and to glorify him in thought, word,* and 

» Matt. Ti. 9. 

» 2 Cor. iii. 6. Kot that we are sufficient of onrseWes 
to think any thing as of ourseWes : but our sufficiency is 
of God. Psa. li. 15. Lord, open thou my lips ; and 
my mouth shaU show forth thy praise. 

* Psa. Ixvii. 2, 3. That thy way may be known upon 
earth, thy saving health among all nations. Let the peo- 
ple praise thee, God ; let all the people praise thee. 
Psa. Izzii. 19. — Let the whole earth be filled with hia 
glory. Eph. iii. 20, 21. 

P Psa. Ixxziil. 18. That men may know that thott, 
whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the Most High over 
all the earth. 

4 Psa. czlv. 6, 7, 8. And men shall speak of the might 
of thy terrible acts ; and I will declare thy greatness. 
They shall abundantly utter the memory of thy great 
goodness, and shall sing of thy righteousness. The Lord 
is gracious, and full of compassion ; slow to anger, and 
of great mercy. Psa. Ixxxvi. 10, 16. 

r 2 Thess. iii. 1. Finally, brethren, pray for us, that 
the word of the Lord may have free courHO, and be glori- 
fied, even as it is with you. Psa. cvii. 32. Let theia 
exalt him also in the congregation of the people, and 
praise him in the assembly of the elders. 2 Cor. ii. 14; 

* Psa. viii. and cxlv. throughout. 

* Psa. xix. 14. Let the words of my mouth, and the 
meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, 
Lord, my strength and my redeemer. 

«!♦ 

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866 tHS LABQEB CATECHISM 

deed;* that he would prevent and re- 
move atheism, " ignorance, ^ idolatry, * pro- 
faneness, ^ and whatsoever is dishonourable 
to him ; " and by his overruling providencM, 
direct and dispose of all things to his own 
glory. • 

Q. 191. What do we pray for in the second 
petition f 

A. In the second petition, (which is, TTtff 
kingdom come) * acknowledging ourselves 
and all mankind to be by nature under the 

« PhU. i. 11. BeiDg fiUed with the ftnits of righi- 
eonsneM, which are hj Jesus Christ, unto the glory and 
praise of God. 

▼ Psa. Ixzix. 10. Wherefore should the heathen saj, 
Where is their God ? Let him be known among the hta* 
then in our sight Psa. Ixvii. 1 — 1. 

w Bph. i. 17, 19. That the God of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit 
of wisdom and reYelation in the knowledge of him : the 
^es of your understanding being enlightened ; &o, 

« Psa. xcvii. 7. Confounded be all they that aerre 
graYen images, that boast themselyes of idols : worship 
him, all ye gods. 

f Psa. Ixxiv. 18. 22. Remember this, that the enemy 
hath reproached, Lord, and that the foolish people haTt 
blasphemed thy name. — Arise, God, plead thine own 
cause ; remember how the foolish man reproacheth thee 
daily. 

* Jer. xiv. 21. For thy name's sake ; do not disgraoe 
the throne of thy glory. 2 Kings xix. 16. 

* Isa. Ixiv. 1, 2. O that thou wouldst rend the hear- 
ens, that thou wouldst oome down, that the mountaint 
might flow down at thy presence, — to make thy name 
known to thine adversaries, that the nations may tremble 
at thy presence I 2 Chron. xx. 6, 10, 11, 12. 

k Matt. ri. 10. 



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THE LAROEB 0ATE0HI8M. 867 

dominion of sin and Satan,* we pray that 
the kingdom of sin and Satan may be destroy- 
ed, * the gospel propagated throughout the 
"#Orid, • the Jews called, ' the fulness of the 
Gentiles brought in ; * the church furnished 
with all gospel-officers and ordinances,"* purg- 
ed from corruption, * countenanced and main- 
tained by the civil magistrate:^ that the 

e Eph. ii. 2, 8. Wherein in time past ye walked ao^ 
cording to the course of this world, according to the 
prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now work- 
eth in the children of disobedience : among whom alsa 
we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our 
flesh, fulfiling the desi^s of the flesh and of the mind i 
fOid were by nature the children of wrath, even as others* 

* Psa. Ixviii. 1. Let God arise, let his enemies be scat- 
tered : let them also that hate him flee before him. BeT, 
xii. 9. 

* 2 Thess. iii. 1. Finally, brethren, pray for us, that 
the word of the. Lord may have f^ee course, and be glori- 
fied, even as it is with you. Psa. Ixvii. 2. 

' Rom. X. 1. Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer 
to Ood for Israel is, that they might be sayed. 

s Bom. xi. 25. For I would not, brethren, that ye 
should be ignorant of this mystery, that blindness in part 
is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be 
eome in. Psa. Ixvii. 1, &c. 

b Matt. ix. 88. Pray ye therefore the Lord of the hai^ 
▼est, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest. 

* Eph. Y. 26, 27. That he might sanctify and cleanse 
it with the washing of water by the word ; that he mi^ht 
present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, 
or wrinkle, or any such thing ; but that it should be holy 
ftnd without blemish. Mai. i. 11. 

J 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. I exhort therefore, that first of all, 
supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, 
be made for all men ; for kings, and for all that are ia 
authority ; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life 
in all godliness and honesty. Isa. zlix. 23. 

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368 Tax LAXGKB OATSOHISM. 

ordinances of Christ may be purely dispenseclj 
and made effectual to the converting of those 
that are yet in their sins, and the confirming, 
comforting, and building up of those that are 
already converted : ^ that Christ would rule in 
our hearts here, ^ and hasten the time of his 
second coming, and our reigning with him for 
ever ; " and that he would be pleased so to ex- 
ercise the kingdom of his power in all the 
world, as may best conduce to these ends. ^ 

Q. 192. What do we pray for in the third 
petition f 

A. In the third petition, (which is. Thy tviU 
be done on earth as it is in heaven) " acknow- 
ledging that by nature we and all men are 
not only utterly unable and unwilling to 

k 2 Got. It. 2. Not handling the word of God deceit- 
fully; but, by manifestation of the truth, commendinf^ 
ourselves to every man's conscienoe in tlie sight of God. 
Acts zxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn them from 
darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, 
that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance 
among them which are sanctified. 2 Thess. ii. 16, 17. 
Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God, even our 
Father, — comfort your hearts, and establish you in every 
good word and work. 

1 Eph. iii. 14, 17. For this cause I bow my knees unto 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, — that Christ may 
dwell in your hearts by faith. 

» Rev. xxii. 20. He which testifieth these things saith, 
Burely I come quickly ; Amen. Even so, come. Lord 
Jesus. 2 Tim. ii. 12. If we sufifer, we shall also reign 
with him. 

■ Psa. xlv. 8, 4. Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, Otnost 
mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty, &o. See letter 
(a), page 866. 

• Matt. Yi. 10. 

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THX LAEGXB OATIOHISM. 

know and do the will of Gt)d, » but prone to 
rebel against hi^word, ^ to repine and murmur 
against his providence, ' and wholly inclined to 
do the will of the flesh, and of the devil:' 
we pray that GqA would by his Spirit take 
away from ourselves and others all blindness, * 
weakness, ^ indisposedness, ^ and perversenesa 
of hearjb, ^ and by his grace make us able and 

p 1 Cor. ii. 14. The natural man reometh not the* 
tilings of the Spirit of God ; for they are foolishness onto 
him ; neither can he know them, because they are spirit- 
ually discerned. Bom. yIU. 6, 8. 

4 Bom. Yiii. 7. Because the carnal mind is enmity 
against God ; for it is not subject to the law of God, nei- 
ther indeed can be. 

' Matt. zz. 11, 12. And when they had received it» 
tbey murmured against the good man of the house, say<* 
ing, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast 
made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden 
and heat of the day. Psa. Izziii. 8. — I was envious at 
the foolish, when I saw Uie prosperity of ^e wicked. 

• Tit. iii. 8. For we ourselves also were sometimes 
foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and 
pleasures, &c. Eph. ii. 2, 8. See letter (e), page 867. 

< Eph. i. 17, 18. That the God of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit 
of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him ; the 
eyes of your understanding being enlightened ; &o. 

■ Eph. iii. 16. That he would grant you according to 
the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by 
his Spirit in the inner man. 

▼ Matt. xxvi. 40, 41. And he cometh unto thd disci- 
ples, and fiDdeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What I 
eould ye not watch with me one hour ? Watch and pray, 
that ye enter not into temptation : the spirit indeed iv 
willing, but the flesh is weak. Rom. vii. 24, 26. 

« Ezek. xi. 19. And I will take the stony heart out' 
of their flesh, and will g^ve them a heart of flesh. Jcx. 



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870. THE LABQER CATECHISM. 

"willing to know, do, and submit, to his will 
in all things, * with the like humility, ^ cheer- 
fulness, * faithfulness, * diligence, * zeal, • sin- 
cerity, ^ and constancy, * as the angels do in 
heaven. ' 

zxxl. 18. Thou hast ohastised me, and I was chastised, 
as a buUook unaccastomed to the yoke : tarn thoo ine, 
and I shaU be turned : for thou art ^e Lord my God. 

X Psa. cxix. 86. Make me to go in the path of thj 
commandments ; for therein do I delight. Aots xzi, iL 
And when he would not be persuaded, we ceased, sayings 
The will of the Lord be done. 1 Sam. iii. 18. 

7 Psa. cxxiii. 2. Behold, as the eyes of serrants look 
onto the hand of their masters, and as the eyes of a 
maiden unto the hand of her mistress ; so our eyes wait 
upon the Lord our God. . Psa cxxxi. 2. Mich. yi. 8. 

* Psa. c. 2. Serre the Lord with gladness ; come be- 
fore his presence with singing. 

a Isa. xxxTiii. 8. Remember now, Lord, I beseeoh 
thee, how I have walked before thee in truth, and 
with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good 
in thy sight. £ph. Ti. 6. Doing the will of God from 
the heart 

* Psa. cxix. 4. 

' Rom. xii. 11. Kot slothful in business ; ferrent in 
spirit ; serving the Lord. 

<i 2 Cor. i. 12. Our rejoicing is this, the testimony of 
our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not 
with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have 
had our conversation in the world. 

* Psa. cxix. 112. I have inclined my heart to perform 
thy statutes always, even unto the end. Rom. ii. 7. To 
them who by patient continuance in well-doing, seek for 
glory, and honour, and immortality ; eternal life. 

f Psa. ciii. 20, 21, 22. Bless the Lord, ye his angels, 
that excel in strength, that do his commandments, heark> 
ening unto the voice of his word. Bless ye the Lord, all 
ye his hosts ; ye ministers of his, that do his pleasures- 
Bless the Lor€^ my soul. Ban. vii. 10. 



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THE LARGER CATXOHISflf. 371 

Q. 198. What do we pray for in the fourth 
petition f 

A: In the fourth petition, (which is, Qive U9 
this day our daily bread) ^ acknowledging 
that in Adam^ and by our own sin, we have 
forfeited our right to all the outward blessings 
of this life, and deserve to be wholly deprived 
of them by God, and to have them cursed to 
us in the use of them ; ^ and that neither they 
of themselves are able to sustain us, * nor we 
to merit, J or by our own industry to procure 
them, ^ but prone to desire, ^ get, "* and use 
them unlawfully : ^ we pray for ourselves 
and others, that both they and we, waiting 

f Matt. Ti. 11. 

^ Gen. iiL 17. And unto Adam he said, — Onrsed is 
the ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it 
all the days of thy life. Lam. iii. 22. It is of the 
Lord's mercies that we are not consumed, because his 
compassions fail not. Deut. zxyiii. 15, to tiie end. 

i Beut. yiii. 8. And he humbled thee, and suffered 
thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, — that he might 
make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but 
by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the 
Lord, doth man live. 

J Gen. zxxii. 10. I am not worthy of the least of all 
the mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast showed 
unto thy servant. 

k Deut. viii. 18. But thou shalt remember the Lord 
thy God ; for it is he that giveth thee power to get wealth. 
Prov. X. 22. 

1 Luke xii. 16. Take heed, and beware of covetousness. 
Jer. vi. 13. 

* Hos. xii. 7. He is a merchant, the balances of deceit 
are in his hand : he loveth to oppress. 

B James iv. 8. Ye ask, and receive not, because ye adk 
amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts. 

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872 THS LABQEB 0ATS0HI81C. 

upon the providence of God from day to day 
in the use of lawful means, may of his free 
gift, and as to his fatherly wisdom shall seem 
best, enjoy a competent portion of them,* 
and have the same continued and blessed unto 
us in our holy and comfortable use of them, ' 
and contentment in them ; ^ and be kept from 
all things that are contrary to our temporal 
support and comfort. ' 

Q. 194. What do we pray for in the fifth 
petition f 

A. In the fifth petition, (which is, Forgive 
U9 our debtSy as toe forgive our debtors) • ac- 
knowledging that we and all others are guilty 

o Gen. xxYiii. 20, 21. And Jacob vowed a tow, saying, 
If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that 
I go, and will giye me bread to eat, and raiment to pat 
on, — then shall the Lord be my God. James iv. 13, 16. 
Go to now, ye that say. To-day, or to-morrow, we will go 
into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and 
Bell, and get gain ; — for that ye ought to say. If the Lord 
will, we shall live, and do this, or that Psa. zo. 17. And 
let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us ; and es- 
tablish thou the work of our hands upon us ; yea, the 
work of our hands establish thou it. Psa. cxliv. 12 to 16. 

P 1 Tim. iv. 4, 6. Every creature of God is good, and 
nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiv- 
ing ; for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. 
Prov. X. 22. 

^ 1 Tim. vi. 6, 8. Godliness with contentment is great 
gain. — And having food and raiment, let us be therewith 
content. 

r Prov. XXX. 8, 9. Remove far from me vanity and liee 
— ^feed me with food convenient for me : lest I be full, and 
deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord ? or lest I be poor, 
and steal, and take the name of my God in vain. 

• Matt. vL 12. 

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TSE ui«sB unefiisK. 878 

I 

b<Ddi of original and actual Bin^ and thereby 
beeoin^ debtors to the justice of God, and that 
neither we nor any other creature can make 
the least satisfaction for that debt : * we pray 
for onrselvee and others^ that Opd of his free 
grace would, through the obedience and satis- 
faction of Christ apprehended and applied by 
faith, acquit us both from the guilt and pun^ 
ishment of sin, ^ accept ns in his Beloved, ^ 
Goatinue his favour and grace to us, ^ pardon 
Ojor daily failings, * and fill us with peace and 

' Matt. ZTiii. 24. And irhen he had begum to reckon, 
one was brought unto him which owed him ten thoifsand 
talents. Bom. t. 19. — By one man's disobedience many 
were made sinners. Bom. iii. 9 to 19. — We have before 
proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under 
sin; that erevy mouth may be stopped, and all the world 
mi^ become guilty before God. Psa. cxxx. 8. If thou, 
Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, Lord, who shall stand ? 
Micah vi. 6, 1 

« Rom. T. 19. By the obedience of one shall many be 
made righteous. Bom. iii; 24, 26. Being justified freely 
by bis grace, through the redemption that is in Christ 
Jesns ; whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation, 
throng faitb in his blood ; to declare his righteousness 
for the remission of sins that are past, through the for- 
bearance of God. Acts ziii. 89. 

▼ £ph. i. 6. To the praise of the glory of his grace, 
wherein he hath made us accepted in the Belored. 

^ 2 Pet. i. 2. Grace and peace be multiplied unto 
yon through the knowledge of God, and of Jesus our 
Lerd. 

> Hos. ziT. 2. Take with you words, and turn to the 
Lord : say unto him, Take away all iniquity, and receive 
u» graciously. Psa. exliii. 2. — Enter not into judgment 
with thy serrant ; for in thy sight ehaU no man U^ng be 
jiuitifiedL Psa. ezzx. 8. 



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874 T9X LAiOJER CATECHISM. 

jojj in gmn^ us daily more and more 
ranee of forgiveness, ^ which we are the rather 
emboldened to ask, and encouraged to expect, 
when we have this testimony in ourselves, 
that we from the heart forgive others their 
offences. ' 

Q. 195. What do toe pray for in the $ixth 
petition f 

A. In the sixth petition, (which is, And lead 
U9 not into temptation^ hiU deliver u% from 
evil)*' acknowledging that the most wise, 
righteous, and gracious God, for divers holy 
and just ends, may so order things that we 
may be assaulted, foiled, and for a time led 
captive by temptations ; * that Satan, • the 
world, ^ and the flesh, are ready powerfully 

T Rom. ZY. 18. Now the God of hope fill you with «U 
Joy and peace in belieyiDg, that ye may abound in hope, 
through the power of the Holy Qhost. Bom. ▼. 1, 2.^ 
Paa. li. 7 to 12. 

s Luke zi. 4. And forgiye us our sins : for we also 

forgive every one that is indebted to us. Matt zviii. 86. 

. So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, 

if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother 

their trespasses. Matt. vi. 14, 15. 

» Matt. vi. 18. 

k 2 Chron. zzxii. 81. God left him, to try him, that 
he might know all that was in his heart. Job it. 6. And 
the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, he is in thine hand; 
but save his life. 

• 1 Pet. V. 8. Be sober, be vigilant ; because your ad- 
versary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about» seek* 
ing whom he may devour. Job ii. 2. 

i Luke xzi 84. And take heed to yourselves, lest at 
any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and 
drunkenness, and cares of this life, and to that day come 
upon you' unawares. Mark iv. 19. 

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TttX LAEGSB OATKCHIBM. 875 

to draw us aside and ensnare us ; * and that 
we, even after the pardon of our sins, by rea- 
son of- our corruption, ' weakness, and want 
of watchfulness, * are not only subject to be 
tempted, and forward to expose ourselves unto 
temptations^ ^ but also of ourselves unable 
and unwilling to resist them, to recover out of 
them, and to improve them ; ^ and worthy to 
be left under the power of them;^ we pray, 
that God would so overrule the world and all 

• James i. 14. Etot j man is tempted when he is drawn 
away of his own lust, and enticed. 

f GaL y. 17. For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit^ 
and the Spirit against the flesh : and these are contrary, 
the one to the other ; so that ye cannot do the things that 
ye would. Rom. yii. 18. 

V Matt. xxYi. 41. Watch and pray, that ye enter not 
into temptation : the spirit indeed is wiUing, but the flesh 
is weak. 

i» Eccl. iz. 12. Man also knoweth not his tiime : as the 
fishes that are taken in an eTil net, and as the birds that 
.are caught in the snare ; so are the sons of men snaret 
in an evil time, when it falleth suddenly upon them. 
1 Tim. fi. 9. They that will be rich, fall into temptation, 
and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts. 
Prov. vii. 22. 

i Eph. yi. 11, 12. Put on the whole armour of God, 
that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the 
devil. For we wrestle not against* flesh and blood, but 
against principalities, against powers, against the rulers 
of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wicked- 
ness in high places. 1 Ghron. xxi. 1, 2, 8, 4. 2 Ghron. 
xvi. 7, 8, 9, 10. 

J Psa. Izxxi. 11, 12. But my people would not hearken 
to my Yoioe ; and Israel would none of me. So I gave 
them up unto their own heart's lust ; and they walked 
In their own counsels. 



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S76 vfin iiAXttBR oikraoHWif. 

iBit, ^ subdue the flesh/ and restrain Sfr- 
-tan^"^ order all things, * bestow and bless aH 
means of grace, '^ and quicken us to watok- 
'fulness in the use of them, that we and aH 
his people may by his providence be kept 
"from being tempted to sin;' or,- if tempted, 
tiiat by his Spirit we may be powerfully sap* 
ported and enabled to stand in the hour of 
•temptation ; ^ , or, when fallen, raised again 
iaad recovered out ' of it, ' and have a sancti- 

k John vfli 15. I pny not tfast flioa ih^uldett tekt 
them oat of the world, but that tho« rii<raldeBt keep tfaeai 
from the evil. Eom. viii. 28. 

1 Pea. H. 10. Create in me a eleaa heart, Qod ; md 
iwmum alight spirit within me. Psa. ozix. 188.— -Let not 
•ny iniquity have dominion over me. 

-» Beb. ii. IS. For in that he himself hath aaffered, 
Jbeinftempted, he ie able to raceour them that are temptad, 
1 Cor. X. 18. — Gk>d ie faithful, who mil not suifer you 
"to be tempted above that ye are able. 2 Cor. zii. 8. 

» Rom. viii. 28. And we know that all things woik 
together for good to them tiiat love God, to them who ai« 
the called according to his purpose. 

• Heb. ziii. 20, 21. Now the Qod of peace,— make you 
fierfeot in e^ery good work, to do his will, working in yon 
that which is well pleasing in his sight, tiirou{^ Jesus 
CiiriBt. Eph. iv. 11, 12. 

p Matt. xxvi. 41. Watch and pray, that ye enter not 
into temptation. Psa. six. 18. Keep back thy serrant 
also firom presumptuous sins; let them not haye dominion 
over me. 

« 1 Cor. X. 18. Ood is faithful, wh6 will not suffer 
you to be tempted above that ye are able ; but wiU with 
the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may 
be able to bear it. Eph. iii. 14, 15, 16. 

V Psa. li. 12. Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation ; ' 
tad uphold me with thy firee Spirit. 



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m itABasB cAnoHOH. . 877 

fied use ftnd improyeraent thereof ; ' that oir 
sanctification and salvation may be perfected, * 
Satan trodden under our feet, * and we fully 
freed from sin, temptation, and all evil for 
wer. ^ 

Q. 196. What doth the canelutian of the 
Lard's prajfer teach U9 f 

A. The conclusion of the Lord's prayer, 
(which is, F<yr thine is the kingdom^ and the 
pawer^ and the ghry^ for ever. Amen.)^ 
teacheth us to enforce our petitions with argu- 
ments, ' which are to be taken, not from any 

• 1 Pet. y. 10. But the God of all grace, who hath 
called us unto his eterual glorj by Christ Jesus, after 
that ye have suffered awhile, make you perfect, stablisb,- 
Btrengthen, settle you. 1 Pet. i. 6, 7. Wherein ye greatly 
rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in 
heaviness through manifold temptations ; that the trial 
of your faith, being much more precious than of gold 
that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be 
found unto praise, and honour, and gloiy, at the appear* 
ing of Jesus Christ. 

< 1 Thess. iii. 18. To the end he may stablish your 
hearts unblamable in holiness before God, even our 
Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with aU 
his saints. » 

« Rom. zvi. 20. And the God of peace shaU bruise 
Satan under your feet shortly. 

▼ 1 Thess. V. 28. And the very God of peace sanctify 
you wholly : and I pray God your whole spirit, and soul, 
and body» be preserved blameless unto the coming of ooz 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

^ Matt. vi. 18. 

' Job xxiii. 8, 4, that I knew where I might find 
bim 1 that I might come even to his seat I I would order 
my cause before him, and fill my mouth with arguments. 
Jer. xiv. 20, 21. 
82* 

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•irortkmess in oorselves, or in anj other otet* 
ture, but from 6od:^ and with oor prayess 
to join praises, ' ascribing to God alone eter- 
nal sovereignty, omnipotenoy, and glorious et- 
cellency ; • in regard whereof, as he is able 
and willing ifi help ns, ^ so we by faith are em- 

7 Dan. is. 4, 7, 8, 9, 16, 19. And I prayed unto the 
Lord my God, and made my confession, and said, Lord, 
the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and 
mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his 
- eommandmeuts ; O Lord, righteousness belongeth unto 
thee ; but ufito us confusion of faces, as at this day ;— 
O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our kings, 
to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned 
Against thee. To the Lord our God belong mercies 
and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him ; 
&o. 

• Phil. iv. 6. In every thing by prayer and suppUea- 
tion, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known 
vnto God. 

» 1 Chron. zxix. 10, 11, 12, 18. And David said. 
Blessed be thou. Lord God of Israel our father, for erer 
-and ever. Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, 
and the glory and the victory, and the majesty ; for aU 
that is in the heaven a^^d in the earth is thine ; thine is 
the kingdom, O Lord, and thou art exalted as head above 
all. Both riches and honour come of thee, and thoa 
reignest over all : and in thy hand is power and might ; 
and in thy hand it is to make great, and to give strength 
unto all. Now therefore, our God, we thank thee, mad 
praise thy glorious name. 

b £ph. iii. 20, 21. Now unto him that is able to do 
•exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, ae* 
cording to the power that worketh in us, unto him be 
glory in the church by Christ Jesus throun^out all ages, 
world without end. Amen. Luke zi. 13. If ye then, 
being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your child- 
•ffea ; how maoh more shall your heavenly Father ^ve the 
Holy Spirit to them that ask him ? Psa; Ixxziv. 11. 

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THE LABQEB OATEOHISM. 87d 

boldened to plead with him that he would, * 
and quietly to rely upon him that he will, fulfil 
our requests. ^ And to testify our desires and 
assurance, we say, Amen. * 

• Eph. ill. 12. In whom we haye boldness and aooess 
with confidenoe by the faith of him. Heb. x. 19, 20, 21, 
22. Having, therefore, brethren, boldnes to enter into 
the holiest bj the blood of Jesus, by a new and living 
way, which he hath consecrated for us through the veil, 
that is to say, his flesh ; and having an high-priest over 
the house of God ; let us draw near with a true heart, in 
full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from 
an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure 
water. 

' 1 John. T. 14. And this is the confidence that we 
have in him, that, if we ask any thing according to hia 
will, he heareth us. Rom. viii. 32. He that GJJ^ared not 
bis own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall 
he not with him also freely give us all things ? 

• 1 Cor. xiv. 16. Else, when thou shalt bless with the 
spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the un- 
learned say Amen, at thy giving of thanks, seeing he 
understandeth not what thou sayest ? Rev. x^i. 20, 21. He 
which testifieth these things, saith. Surely I come quickly ; 
Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus. The grace of our 
Lord Jesus Christ be with you alL Amen. 



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THB 

SHORTER CATECHISM.* 

BATIflSD AND ADOPTED BT THX 

ajNOD OF NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA. 

In May, 17B8. 



Q. 1. What is the chief 4nd of man t 

A. Man's chief end is to glorify God, and 
to ei^oy him for «ver. 

. Q. 2. What rule hath God given to direet 
u$ how we may glorify ^^^ enjoy him f 

A. The word of God, which is contained in 
the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, 
is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify 
and enjoy him. 

Q. 8. What do the' Scriptures jprineipaUff 
teach f 

A. The Scriptures principally teach, what 

*The Shorter Catechism is, simply, an abridgmtnt 
of the Larger ; so that the proof of both must be the 
same. The reader, therefore, who desires to see the 
Scripture authorities for any doctrine taught in this eate- 
ebism, will turn to that doctrine in the Larger Catechism, 
which may very easily be done, and there he will find 
the necessary texts fully referred to, or inserted. It was 
jmdgMl unneeessary to print the very same texts twios 

(881) 

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882 THB SHORTER CATECHISM. 

man is to Believe concerning God, and what 
duty God requires of man. 

Q. 4. What is GOD f 

A. God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal, and nn- 
changeable, in his being, wisdom, power, holi- 
ness, justice, goodness, and truth. 

Q. 6. Are there more Grods than one ? 

A. There is but one only, the living and true 
God. 

Q. 6. How many persons are there in iiie 
Q-odhead f 

A. There are three persons in the Godhead ; 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; and 
these three are one God, the same in substancOi 
equal in power and glory. 

Q. 7. What are the decrees of <}odf 

A, The decrees of God are his eternal pur- 
pose according to the counsel of his will, where- 
by, for his own glory, he hath fore-ordained 
whatsoever comes to pass. 

Q. 8. How doth Chd execute his de- 
crees f 

A. God executeth his decrees in the works 
of creation and providence. 

Q. 9. What is the work of creation f 

A. The work of creation is God's making 
all things of nothing, by the word of his power, 
in the space of six days, and all very good. 

Q. 10. How did God create man? 

A. God created man male and female, after 
his own image, in knowledge, righteousness, 
and holiness, with dominion over the creatures. 

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TBB BBOETIB CATIOHISM. ^ 888 

Q. 11. WluU are Ghtts works of pran- 
dencef 

A, God's Tforks of providence are his most 
holy, wise, and powerful preserving and govenh 
ing all his creatures, and all their actions. 

Q. 12, What special act of providence did 
Ghd exercise toward man, in the estate wherein 
he was created f 

A, When God had created man, he entered 
imto a covenant of life with him, upon condition 
of perfect obedience ; forbidding him to eat of 
the tree of knowledge of good and evil,. upon 
pain of death. 

Q. ] 3. ])id our first parents continue in the 
estate wherein they were created f 

A. Our first parents, being left to the free- 
dom of their own will, fell from the estate where- 
in they were created, by sinning against God* 

Q. 14. What is sin? 

A. Sin is any want of conformity unto^ or 
transgression of, the law of God. 

Q. 15. What was the sin whereby our first 
parents fell from the estate wherein they were 
created f 

A. The sin whereby our first parents fell 
from the estate wherein they were created, was 
their eating the forbidden fruit. 

Q. 16. Vid all mankind fall in Adam's first 
transgression f 

■ A, The covenant being made with Adam, 
not only for himself, but for his posterity, all 
loaiikind descending from him by ordinary gen- 

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8t4 TU HMarrsR oA'omifm. 

MfttioB) ^ned in him, and fdl wkh him^ in Ufl 
first transgression. 

Q« 17. .&»eo eerAoe estate did the faU brbig 
mankind f 

A. The fall brought mankind into an estate 
oi sin and misery. 

Q. 18. Wherein consists the sinfulness ef 
that estate whereinto man fell f 

A. The sinfulness of that estate vhereiiito 
man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam*s first 
sin, the want of original righteousness, and th» 
oorruption of his whole nature, whieh is con^ 
monly called original sin ; together with aU 
actual transgressions which proceed from it* 

Q. 19. What is the misery of thai estate 
whereinto man fell f 

A. All mankind by their fall lost commnnioir 
with God, are under his wrath and curse, and 
80 made liable to all the miseries in this life, to 
death itself, and to the pains of hell for ev«r. 

Q. 20. Bid Q-od leave all mankind to perish 
in the estate of sin and misery f 

A* 6od, having out of his mere good plea- 
sure, from all eternity, elected some to everlast^ 
ing life, did enter into a covenant of grace, to 
deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, 
and to bring them into an estate of salvation 
by a Redeemer. 

Q. 21. Who is the Redeemer of Chds eleetf 

A* The only Redeemer of God's elect is the 
Lord Jesus Christ, who being the eternal So» 
of God became man, and so nas, aaid eonliiH 

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jam momxMBL cxnmamK. StS^ 

vm&i to lie, G^ and man, in two diBtmct na- 
tures, and one person for ever. 

Q. 22. Sow did Ohruty being the Son ef 
G-ody become man f 

A. CSiriet, the Son of €k>d, became man, by 
taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable 
sonl, being eonceived by the power of the 
Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, 
and born of her, yet without sin. 

Q. 28. What offices doth Christ execute as 
our Redeemer P 

A. Christ, as our Redeemer, executeth the 
offices of a prophet, of a priest, and of a king, 
both in his estate of humiliation and exalta- 
tion. 

Q. 24. Sow doth Christ execute the office of 
a prophet f 

A. Christ ezeeuteth the office of a prophet^ 
in revealing to us by his word and Spirit, the 
will of God for our salvation. 

Q. 25. How doth Christ execvte the office of 
a priest f 

A. Christ executeth the office of a priest, in 
his once offering up of himself a sacrifice to 
satisfy divine justice, and reconcile us to God, 
and in making continual intercession for us. 

Q. 26. How doth Christ execute the office of 
a king? 

A» Christ executeth the office of a king, in 
subduing us to himself, in ruling and defending 
US, and in restraining and conquering all his 
and our enemies. 
88 

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86S TBS fi&oETxa OAnemtti. 

Q. 27. Wherein did OhriH's huniaiation 
consist f 

A. Christ's humiliation consisted in his being 
bom, and that in a low condition, made under 
the law, undergoing the miseries of this life, 
the wrath of God, and the cursed death of the 
cross ; in being buried, and continuing under 
the power of death for a time. 

Q. 28. Wherein eansisteth Ohrist^s exatta- 
Hanf 

A. Christ's exaltation consisteth in his rising 
again from the dead on the third day, in as- 
cending up into heaven, in sitting at the right- 
hand of God the Father, and in coming to judge 
the world at the last day. 

Q. 29. Soto are Hoe made partakers of (he 
redemption purchased by Christ f 

A. We are made partakers of the redemp- 
tion purchased by Christ, by the effectual appli- 
^ cation of it to us by his Holy Spirit. 

Q. 80. How doth the Spirit apply to us the 
redemption purchased by Christ f 

A. The Spirit applieth to us the redemption 
purchased by Christ, by working faith in us, 
and .thereby uniting us to Christ in our effectual 
calling. 

Q. 31. What is e^ectual calling f 

A, Effectual calling is the work of God*s 
Spirit, whereby, convincing us of our sin and 
misery, enlightening our minds in the know- 
ledge of Christ, and renewing our wUls, he doth 
persuade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ, 
freely offered to us in the gospeL 

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JOS 8H0ETEE CATWOTMU. ^ 887 

Q. 32, What benpfit.» do they that are effec" 
tually called partake of in this life, 

A. They that are effeotuallj called do in this 
life partake of justification, adoption, aanctifi* 
cation, and the several benefits which, in this 
life, do either accompany or flow from them. 

Q. 83. What is justification f 

A. Justification is an act of Ood's free grace, 
wherein he pardpneth all our sins, and accept- 
eth lis as righteous in his sight, only for the 
righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and re- 
ceived by faith alone. 

Q. 84. What is adoption? 

A. Adoption is an act of Ood's free gracs, 
whereby we are received into the number, and 
have a right to alL the privileges, of the sons 
of God. 

Q. 35. What is sanctifieation f 

A. S&nctification is the work of Ood's free 

grace, whereby we are renewed in the whole 

.man after the image of God, and are enabled 

more and more to die unto sin, and live unto 

righteousness. 

Q. 36. What are the benefits which in this 
life do accompany or flow from justification^ 
adoption^ and sanctifieation ? 

A. The benefits which in this life do accom- 
pany or flow from justification, adoption, and 
sanctifieation, are, assurance of God's love, 
peace of conscience, joy in the Holy Ghost, 
increase of grace, and perseverance therein to 
the end* 



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3ffi «BS mOBTBa OAXMraflM. 

Q. 87. What benefit do leliever% reeehe 
from Christ at death f 

A. The souls of believers are, at their death, 
made perfect in holiness, and do immediately 
pass into glory ; and their bodies, being still 
united to Christ, do rest in their graves till tiie 
resurrection. 

Q. 38« What benefits d& believers reeeive 
from Christ at the resurrection f 

A. At the resurrection, believers being 
raised up in glory, shdil be openly admow- 
ledged and acquitted in the day of judgment, 
and made perfectly blessed in the full enjoying 
txf Ood to all eternity. 

Q. 89. What is the duty whieh CM r^ 
^udreth of man f 

A. The duty which God requireth of maa, 
is obedience to his revealed will. 

Q. 40. What did &od at first reveal to num 
for the rule of his obedience f 

A. The rule which Ood at first revealed to 
nan, for his obedience, was the moral law* 

Q. 41. Wherein is the moral law sum^ 
marUjf comprehended f 

A. The moral law is summarily compre- 
hended in the ten commandments. 

Q. 42. What is the sum of the ten oosn- 
mandments f 

A. The sum of the ten commandments is, 
to love the Lord our God with all our heart, with 
all our soul, with all our strength, and with 
all our mind \ and our neighbour as ourselves. 

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THl iraORTEB 0ATX0HI8M. t9i 

Q. 48. What is the preface to the ten eom^ 
mandmente f 

A* The preface to the ten commandments 
is ia these words : 1 am the Lord thy Ghd^ 
which brought thee out of the land of Egypt^ 
out qf the houae of bondage. 

Q. 44. What doth the preface to the ten 
commandments teach us f 

A. The preface to the ten commandments 
teaoheth us, that because God is the Lord, and 
our God, and Redeemer, therefore we are 
bound to keep all his commandments* 

Q. 46. Which is the first commandment f 

A. The first commandment is, Thou shalt 
have no other gods before me. 

Q. 46. What is required in the first eonh 
mandment f 

A, The first commandment requireth us to 
.know and acknowledge God, to be the only 
true God, and our God ; and to worship and 
glorify him accordingly. 

Q. 47. What is forbidden in the first com- 
mandment f 

A. The first commandment forbiddeth the 
denying, or not worshipping and glorifying the 
true God, as God, and our God ; and the giving 
that worship and glory to any other, which is 
due to him alone. 

Q. 48. What are we specially taught by 
these wordsj ^'before me," in the first com* 
mandment f 

A. These words, ^' before me^' in the first 

88* 

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coiiiii»nd«ient) teach us, thftt God, who seeth 
all things, taketh notice of, and is much dis- 
pkased with, the sin of having any other God. 

Q. 49. Whickia the second commandment f 

A, The second commandment is, Thou 9hah 
net make unto thee any graven imagej or any 
Hkene%8 of any thing that is in heaven above^ 
or that 18 in the earth beneath^ or that it in 
the water under the earth ; thou %halt not bow 
down thyself to them^ nor serve them ; for I 
the Lord thy God am a jealous Crod^ visiting 
tlie iniquity of the fathers upon the children^ 
unto the third and fourth generation of tiiem 
that hate me, and showing mercy umto thoitr 
sands of them that love me and keep my canh 
mandments. 

Q. 50. What is required in the second com- 
mandment t 

A. The second commandment reqnireth the 
receiving, observing, and keeping pore and en* 
tire, all such religious worship and ordinances, 
as God hath appointed in hie word. 

Q. 51. What is forbidden in the second 
commandment f 

A. The second commandment forbiddeth 
the worshipping of God by images, or any 
other way not appointed in his word. 

Q. 52. What are the reasons annexed to the 
second commandment f 

A. The reasons annexed to the second com- 
mandment are, God's sovereignty over us, his 
propriety in us, and the zeal he hath to hia 
own worship. 

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THE SHORTER OATBOHIStf. Wi 

Q. 58. Which is the third commandment f 

A. The third commandment is, Thou »AAft 
not take the name of the Lord thy Ghd in vain^ 
for the Lord wiU not hold him guiltless that 
taketh his name in vain. 

Q.' 64. What is required in the third com- 
mandmentf 

A. The third commandment requireth the 
holy and reverent use of God's names, tided, 
sttribates, ordinances, word, and works. 

Q. 55. What is forbidden in the third com* 
maTidment f 

A. The third commandment forbiddeth all 
profaning or abasing of any thing whereby 
God maketh himself known. 

Q. 56. What is the reason annexed to the 
third commandment f 

A. The reason annexed to the third com- 
mandment is, that however the breakers, of 
this commandment may escape punishment 
from men, yet the Lord our God will not eoffer 
them to escape his righteous judgment. 

Q. 57. Which is the fourth command- 
fnent f 

A. The fourth commandment is, Remember 
the Sabbath-day to keep it holy. Six days 
shatt thou labour^ and do all thy work : but 
the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord 
thy Q-od : in it thou shaJt not do any workj 
thou^ nor thy son^ nor thy daughter^ thy 
-man-servant^ nor thy maid-servant^ nor thy 
wfttUf nor thy stranger that is within thy 

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JM2 TBIR SHORTER OATJEOHKIC 

ffoies; for in $ix day9 the Lord made heaven 
and earth, the sea, and all that in them i»^ 
and rested the seventh .dat/ : wherefore the 
Lord blessed the Sabbath-day and hallowed it. 

Q. 68. What is required in the fourth 
jeommandment ? 

A, The fourth commandment requiretk tb« 
keeping holy to God, such set tim^s as he hath 
appointed in his word ; expressly one whole day 
in seven, to be a holy Sabbath to himself. 

Q. 69. Which day of the seven hath Q-od 
appointed to be the weekly Sabbath f 

A. From the beginning of the world 'to the 
resurrection of Christ, God appointed the 
seventh day of the week to be the weekly 
Sabbath ; and the first day of .the week, ei^er 
since, to continue to the end of the world, 
which is the Christian Sabbath. 

Q. 60. How is th^Sabbath to be sanctified f 

A. The Sabbath is to be sanctified by a holy 
resting all that day, even from such worldly 
employments and recreations as are lawful on 
other days ; and spending the whole time in 
the public and private exercises of God's wor- 
ship, except so much as is to be taken up in 
the works of necessity and mercy. 

Q. 61. What is forbidden in the f&uHh 
commandment ? 

A. The fourth commandment forbiddeth the 
omission, or careless performance^ of the duties 
required, and the profaning the day by idleness, 
or doing that which is in itself sinfal| or by un* 

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seeessary thoughts, words, or works, about our 
worldly employments and recreations. 

' Q. 62. What are the reasons annexed to 
the fourth commandment t 

A. The reasons annexed to the fourth eom- 
mandment are, God's allowing us siit days of 
the week for our own employments, his chal- 
lenging a special propriety in the seventh, his 
own example, and his blessing the Sabbath- 
day. 

Q. 63. Which is the ffth eomrttanJbmewt f 

A. The fifth eommandment is, Honour thy 
father and thy mother : that thy days may 
he long wpon the land which the Lord thy 
€hd yiveth thee. 

Q. 64. What is required in the ffth com* 
mandmentf 

A. The fifth commandment requireth the 
preserving the honour of, and performing the 
duties, belonging to every one in their several 
places and relations, as superiors, inferiors, or 
equals. 

Q. 65. What is forbidden in the fifth cotfh 
mandmentf 

A. The fifth commandment forbiddeth the 
neglecting of, or doing any thing against, the 
honour and duty which belongeth to every one 
in their several places and relations. 

Q. 66. What is the reason annexed to the 
fifth eommandment f 

A. The reason annexed to the fifth com- 
mandment is, a promise of long life and pros- 
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;894 WBX SHOBTBR OAVBOHCIM. 

. perity (as far as it shall serve for God's glory, 
and their own good) to all sach as keep tius 
commandment. 

Q. 67. Which is the sixth commandment f 

A. The . sixth commandment is, Thou shalt 
not kilh 

Q. 68. What is required in the sixth eom^ 
mandment ? 

A. The sixth commandment requireth all 
lawful endeavours to preserve our own life, 
and the life of others. 

Q. 69. What is forbidden in the tixth eomr 
mandment f 

A. The sixth commandment forbiddefih tke 
taking aw;ay of our own life, or the life of our 
neighbour unjustly, or whatsoever tendeth 
thereunto. 

Q. 70. Which is the seventh eommand- 
mentf 

A. The seventh commandment is, .2%Mi 
shalt not commit adultery, 

Q. 71. What is required in the ieventh 
. commandment f 

A. The seventh commandment requireth tke 
preservation of our own and our neighbour's 
chastity, in heart, speech, and behaviour. 

Q. 72. What is forbidden in the seventh 
commandment ? 

A. The seventh commandment forbiddeth 
all unchaste thoughts, words, and actions. 

Q. 73. Which is the eighth*eommandmentt 

A. The eighth commandment ia. Thou shaU 
not steal. ^ 

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TBI 8H0BTEB CATB0HI8M. 895 

Q. 74. What i$ required in the eighth eon^ 
fnandment ? 

A. The eighth oommandment requireth the 
lawful proouriDg and furthering the wealth and 
outward estate of ourselves and others. 

Q. 75. What %% forbidden in the eighth com" 
fnandment f 

A. The eighth commandment forbiddeth 
whatsoever doth, or may, unjustly hinder our 
own, or our neighbour's wealth or outward 
estate. 

Q. 76. Which is the ninth commandment f 

A. The ninth commandment is, Thou shaU 
not bearfahe witness against thy neighbour? 

Q. .77. What is required in the ninth com^ 
fnandment f 

A. The ninth commandment requireth the 
maintaining and promoting of truth between 
man and man, and of our own and our neigh« 
bonr's good name, especially in witness-bearing. 

Q. 78. What is forbidden in the ninth com^ 
fnandment ? 

A. The ninth commandment forbiddeth 
whatsoever is prejudicial to truth, or injurious 
to our own, or our neighbour's good name. 

Q. 79. Which is the tenth commandment f 

A. The tenth commandment is, Thou thalt 
ftot covet thy neighbour s house^ thou shalt not 
covet thy rmghbour^s wife^ nor his man-ser* 
vantj nor his maidservant^ ncr his oa?, nor his 
ass^ nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. 

Q. 80« What is required in the tenth cofn^ 
fnandment f 

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BC THX BHSOilTKa OITIOSISIL 

Ju The tenth commandment reqnireth fiiR 
contentment with our own condition, with a 
right and charitable frame of spirit toward omr 
aei^hbour, and all that is hie. 

Q. 81. What is forbidden in the tenth eon^ 
mandment f 
\ A. The tenth commandment forbiddeth all 
discontentment with our own estate, envyins 
or grieving at the good of our neighbour, sma 
all inordinate motions or affections to anything 
that is his. 

Q. 82. J» any man able perfeeUy to keep 
the eommandmenta of Qod f 

A, No mere man, since the fall, is able, in 
this life, perfectly to keep the commandments of 
God ; but doth daily break them, in thought^ 
word, and deed. 

Q. 88. Are all transffreeeians of the law 
equally heinouef 

A. Some sins in themselves, and by reason 
of several aggravations, are more heinous in 
the sight of God than others. 

Q. 84. What doth every sin deserve f 

A. Every sin deserveth God's wrath and 
curse, both in this life and that which is to 
come. 

Q. 85. What dqth Q-od require of im, that 
we may escape his wrath and curse, due to us 
for sin f 

A* To escape the wrath and curse of God, 
due to us for sin, God requireth of us faith in 
Jesus Christ, repentance unto life, with the 

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THB SHORTER 0ATK0HI8M. 897 

ffiigent use of all the outward means irliereby 
Christ eommanicateth to us the benefits of re« 
demption. 

Q. 86. What is faith in JemB CfhriH f 

A. Faith in Jeans Christ is a saving graee, 
whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for 
salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel. 

Q. 87. What is repentance unto life ? 

A. Repentance unto life is a saving grace, 
whereby a sinner, out of a true sense of his 
sin, and apprehension of the mercy of God in 
Christ, doth, with grief and hatred of his sin, 
turn from it unto God, with full purpose of, 
and endeavour after, new obedience. 

Q. 88. What are the outward and ordinary 
means whereby Christ communicateth to us the 
benefits of redemption ? 

A. The outward and ordinary means where- 
by Christ communicateth to us the benefits of 
redemption, are, his ordinances, especially the 
word, sacraments, and prayer ; all which are 
made effectual to the elect for salvation. 

Q. 89. How is the word made effectual to 
salvation f 

A, The Spirit of God maketh the reading, 
but especially the preaching of the word, an 
effectual means of convincing and converting 
sinners, and of building them up in holiness 
and comfort through faith unto salvation. 

Q. 90. How is the word to be read an4 
heardy that it may become effectual to salva 

tionf 

84 

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Sgg THE SHORTER CATSOHTSM. 

A. That the word may become effectual to 
salvation, we roust attend thereunto with dili- 
gence, preparation, and prayer; receive it wiA 
faith and love, lay it up in our hearts, and 
practise it in our lives. 

Q. 91. Sow do the sacraments become effee^ 
tual means of salvation f 

A. The sacraments become effectual means 
of salvation, not from any virtue in them, or in 
him that doth administer them, but only by the 
blessing of Christ, and the working of his Spirit 
in them that by faith receive them. 

Q. 92. What is a sacrament f 

A. A sacrament is a holy ordinance institii- 
ted by Christ; wherein, by sensible signs, 
Christ and the benefits of the new covenant are 
represented, sealed, and applied to believers. 

Q. 93. Which are the sacraments of the 
New Testament? 

A. The sacraments of the New Testament 
are baptism and the Lord's supper. 

Q. 94. What is baptism f 

A. Baptism is a sacrament, wherein the 
washing with water, in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, doth 
signify and seal our ingrafting into Christ and 
partaking of the benefits of the covenant of 
grace, and our engagement to be the Lord's. 

Q. 95. To whom is baptism to be adminis^ 
teredf 

A, Baptism is not to be administered to any 
that are out of the visible church, till they pro* 

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XHE SHOaTXE OATBOHISM. 999 

fess thei]* faith in Christ, and obedience to him ; 
but the infants of such as are members of the 
visible church, are to be baptized. 

Q, 96. What is the Lord's supper? 

A. The Lord's supper is a sacrament, where- 
^j by giving and receiving bread and wine, 
according to Christ's appointment, his death is 
showed forth, and the worthy receivers are, not 
after a corporal and carnal manner, but by 
faith, made partakers of his body and blood, 
with all his benefits, to their spiritual nourish- 
ment and growth in grace. 

Q. 97. What is required to the worthy re- 
eeivin^ of the Lord's supper ? 

A. It is required of them that would worthily 
partake of the Lord's supper, that they examine 
themselves of their knowledge to discern the 
Lord's body, of their faith to feed upon him, 
of their repentance, love, and new obedience ; 
lest coming unworthily, they eat and drink 
judgment to themselves. 

Q. 98. What is prayer ? 

A. Prayer is an offering up of our desires 
onto God, for things agreeable to his will, in 
the name of Christ, with confession of our sins, 
and thankful acknowledgment of his mercies. 

Q. 99. What rule hath Grod given for our 
direction in prayer ? 

A, The whole word of God is of use to di- 
rect us in prayer, but the special rule of direc- 
tion is that form of prayer which Christ taught 
his disciples, commonly called, The Lord's 
prayer. 

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40d <ns sHOftTER oATiemfiii. 

Q. 100. What doth the preface of the LotJPb 
prayer teach us f 

A. The preface of the Lord's prayer, whiek 
is, " Our Father which art in heaven^** teachlsth 
us to draw near to God with all holy reverence 
and confideHce, as children to a father, able 
and ready to help us ; and that we should pray 
with and for others. 

Q. 101. What do we pray for in the fir$st 
petition f 

A. In the first petition, which is, " Hall&wei 
he thy namcy* we pray that God would enable 
us and others to glorify him in all that whereby 
be maketh himself known, and that he^ronld 
dispose all things to his own glory. 

Q. 102. What do we pray for in the second 
petition f 

A, In the second petition, which is, ^^ THty 
kingdom eome^' we pray that Satan's kingdom 
may be destroyed, and that the kingdom of 
grace may be advanced, ourselves and others 
brought into it, and kept in it, and that the 
kingdom of glory may be hastened. 

Q. 103. What do we pray for in the third 
petition f 

A. In the third petition, which is, " Thy wM 
be done on earth as it is in heavenj* we pray 
that God by his grace would make us able and 
willing to know, obey, and submit to his will 
in all things, as the angels do in heaven. 

Q. 104. What do we pray for in the fourth 
petition f 

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ijBm auowasM oatiohibu. 401 

A. In the fourth petition, which is, " Oivs 
U9 this day our daily bread" we pray that of 
God's free gift we may receive a competent 
portion of the good things of this life, and 
enjoy his blessing with them. 

Q. 105, What do we fray for in the fftk 
petition ? 

A. In the fifth petition, which is, ^^ And for-' 
give u% our debts as we forgive our debtorSj^ 
we pray that God, for Christ's sake, would 
freely pardon all our sins ; which we are the 
rather encouraged to ask, because by his grace 
we are enabled from the heart to forgive others. 

Q.aIOG. Wha;t do we pray for in the sixth 
petition ? 

A, In the sixth petition, which is, " And lead 
us not into temptation^ but deliver us from evilj** 
we pray that God would either keep us from 
being tempted to sin, or support and deliver us 
when we are tempted. 

Q. 107. What doth the conclusion of the 
Lord's prayer teach us ? 

A, The conclusion of the Lord's prayer, 
which is, " For thine is the kingdom^ and the 
power and the glory for ever. Amen.'* teacheth 
us to take our encouragement in prayer from 
God only, and in our prayers to praise him ; 
ascribing kingdom, power, and glory to him ; 
and in testimony of our desire and assurance 
to be heard, we say, Amen. 
84* 



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'40fi tfHS SHORTER OATBOHISlf. 

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 

EXODUS ZX. 

God spake these words, saying, I am the 
Lord thy God, which have brought thee out 
of the land of Egypt, out of the^ house of 
bondage. 

I. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 

II. Thou shalt not make unto thee any 
graven image, or any likeness of any thing 
that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth 
beneath, or that is in the water under the 
earth: thou shalt not bow down thy^lf to 
them, lor serve them : for I the Lord thy God 
am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the' 
fathers upon the children unto the third and 
fourth generation of them that hate me : and 
showing mercy unto thousands of them that 
love me and keep my commandments. 

III. Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain : for the Lord will not 
hold him guiltless that taketh his name in 
vain. 

IV. Remember the Sabbath-day to keep it 
noly. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all 
thy work : but the seventh day is the Sabbath 
of the Lord thy God ; in it thou shalt not do 
any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, 
thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy 
cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates : 
for in six days the Lord made heaven and 

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9HB SHORTER OATECHISII. 40B 

earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and 
rested the seventh day; wherefore^ the Lord 
blessed the Sabbath-day, and hallowed it. 
' V. Honour thy father and thy mother ; that 
thy days may be long upon the land which the 
Lord thy God giveth thee. 

VI. Thou shalt not kill. 

VII. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

VIII. Thou shalt not steal. 

IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness 
Ugainst thy neighbour. 

X. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's 
house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's 
irife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, 
nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is 
thy neighbour's. 



THE LORD'S PRATER. 

MATTHEW VI. 

Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed 
be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will 
be done in earth as it is in heaven : give us 
this day our daily bread : and forgive us our 
debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us 
not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. 
For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and 
the glory, for ever. Amen. 



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404 THE SHORTUB OATSCHIBM. 



THE CREED. 

I BELIEVE in God the Father almighty, 
maker of heaven and earth; and in Jesua 
Christ his only Son, our Lord ; who was con- 
ceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin 
Mary ; suffered under Pontius Pilate, w^as cru- 
cified, dead, and buried ; he descended into 
hell :* the third day he rose again from the 
dead ; he ascended into heaven, and sitteth on 
the right hand of God the Father almighty ; 
from thence he shall come to judge the quick 
and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost ; 
the holy catholic church ; the communion of 
saints; the forgiveness of sins ; the resurrection 
of the body ; and the life everlasting. Amen. 

* i. e. Continued in the state of the dead, and under 
tbe power of death, until the third day. See the answef 
to the 60th question in the Larger Catechism, p. 200. 



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THE 

FORM OF GOVERNMENT 

AND 

FOKMS OF PROCESS 



PBSSBTTERIAK CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA; 

AB JJCBKSKD AND BATiriED BT THB OEffBBAL A88EMBLT9 

In May, 1821. 

BOOK I. 

OF GOVERNMENT. 

CHAPTER I. 

PRSLIMINART PRINCIPLES.* 

The Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America, in presenting to the Christian 
pnblio the system of union, and the form of 
government and discipline which they have 
Adopted, have thought proper to state, by way 
of introduction, a few of the general principles 
by which they have been governed in the 
formation of the plan. This, it is hoped, will, 

* NoTB. — This introdnotory chapter, with the exception 
of the first sentence, was first drawn up by the Synod of 
New Tork and Philadelphia, and prefixed to the Form 
of Gk)Yemment, &c., as published by that body in 1788. 
In tiiat year, after arranging the plan on which the Pres- 
byterian Church is now goyerned. the Synod was divided 
into four Synods, and gave place to the GeneraUAssem* 
bly. which met for the first time in 1789. 

(406) 



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406 70BM OF OOYEIINMXNT. 

in some measure, prevent those rash miscon- 
structions, and uncandid reflections, which 
usually proceed from an imperfect view of any 
subject ; as well as make the several parts of 
the system plain, and the whole perspicuous 
and fully understood. 

They are unanimously of opinion : 
I. That "God alone is Lord of the con- 
<< science ; and hath left it free from the doo- 
'' trine and commandments of men, which are 
" in any thing contrary to his word, or beside 
*** it in matters of faith or worship :" Therefore 
they consider the rights of private judgment^ in 
all matters that respect religion, as universal 
and unalienable : they do not even wish to see 
any religious constitution aided by the civil 
power, further than may be necessary for pro- 
tection and security, and, at the same timCi be 
equal and common to all others. 

IL That, in perfect consistency with the 
above principle of common right, every Chris- 
tian church, or union or association of particu- 
lar churches, is entitled to declare the terms of 
admission into its communion^ and the quali- 
fications of its ministers and members, as well 
as the whole system of its internal government 
which Christ hath appointed : that, in the ex- 
ercise of this right, they may, notwithstanding, 
err, in making the terms of communion either 
too lax or too narrow ; yet, even in this case, 
they do not infringe upon the liberty, or the 
rights of others, but only make an improper 
-qe of their own- 

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CH. I.] FORM OP GOVERNMENT. 407 

III. That bur blessed Saviour, for the edifi- 
cation of the visible church, which is his bodj, 
hath appointed officers, not only to preach the 
gospel and administer the sacraments; but 
also to exercise discipline, for the preservation 
both of truth and duty ; and, that it is incum- 
bent upon these officers^ and upon the whole 
church, in whose name they act, to censure or 
cast 6ut the erroneous and scandalous ; observ- 
ing, in all cases, the rules contained in the word 
of God. 

IV. That truth is in order to goodness ; and 
the great touchstone of truth, its tendency to 
promote holiness ; according to our Saviour's 
rule, "by their fruits ye shall know them." 
And that no opinion can be either more perni- 
cious or more absurd, than that which brings 
truth and falsehood upon a level, and repre- 
sents it as of no consequence what a man's 
opinions are. On the contrary, they are per- 
suaded that there -is an inseparable connection 
between faith and practice, truth and duty. 
Otherwise it would be of no consequence either 
to discover truth, or to embrace it. 

V. That while under the conviction of the 
above principle, they think it necessary to 
make effectual provision, that all who are ad- 
mitted as teachers, be sound in the faith ; they 
also believe that there are truths and forms, 
with respect to which men of good characteVa 
and principles may differ. And in all these 
they think it the duty, both of private Christiana 

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W9 VOEM or GOYEBKHBirr. 

ahd Bocieties, to exercise mutual forbearanco 
towards each other. 

YI. That though the character, qnalifica* 
tions, and authority of church officers, are laid 
down in the holy Scriptures, as well as the 
proper method of their investiture and institU'* 
tion ; yet the election of the persons to the 
exercise of this authority, in any particular 
society, is in that society. 

VII. That all church power, whether exer- 
cised by the body in general, or in the way of 
representation by delegated authority, is only 
ministerial and declarative ; that is to say^ 
that the Holy Scriptures are the only rule of 
faith and manners ; that no church judicatory 
ought to pretend to make laws, to bind the 
conscience in virtue of their own authority ; 
and that all their decisions should be founded 
upon the revealed will of God. Now though 
it will easily be admitted, that all synods and 
councils may err, through the frailty insepara- 
ble from humanity ; yet there is much greater 
danger from the usurped claim of making laws, 
than from the right of judging upon laws al- 
ready made, and common to all who profess 
the gospel ; although this right, as necessity 
requires in the present state, be lodged with 
fallible men. 

VIII. Lastly. That, if/ the preceding scrip- 
tural and rational principles be steadfastly ad- 
hered to, the vigour and strictness of its dis- 
cipline will contribute to the glory and 
happiness of any church. Since ecclesiastical 

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VOBM Of aOYEBNMSNT. 409 

discipline must be purely moral or spiritual in 
its object, and not attended with any civil 
effects, it can derive no force whatever, but 
from its own justice, the approbation of an ion 
partial public, and the countenance and blea^ 
sing of the great Head of the church universal* 



CHAPTER II. 

OF THB CHURCH. 

I. Jesxts Christ, who is now exalted far 
above all principality and power,* hath erected, 
in this world, a kingdom, which is his church.* 

II. The universal church consists of all those 
persons, in every nation, together with their 
children who make profession of the holy relir 
gion of Christ, and of submission to his laws.^ 

a Eph. i. 20« 21. When he raised him from the dead, 
and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, 
far above all principality, and power, and might, and do* 
minion, and every name that is named, not only in this 
world, but also in that which is to come. Psa. Ixviii. 18. 
Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity cap* 
tive : thou hast received gifts for men ; yea, for the rebel- 
tious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them. 

* Psa. ii. 6. Yet have I set my king upon my holy 
hill of Zion. Dan. vii. 14 — There was given him domin* 
ion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, 
and languages, should serve him ; his dominion is an ever* 
lasting dominion, whic^ shall not pass away, and his 
kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. Eph. i« 22, 
23. And hath put all things under his feet, and gav« 
him to be the head over aU things to the church, wMoh is 
liis body, tite fulness of him that fiUeth all in all. 

• Bev. ▼. 9. And hast redeemed us to Qod by thjr 

86 

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410 FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

III. As this immense multitude cannot meet 
together in one place, to hold communion, or 
to worship God, it is reasonable, and warranted 
by Scripture example, that they should be 
divided into many particular churches.* 
. IV. A particular church consists of a num- 
ber of professing Christians, with their offspring, 
voluntarily associated together, for divine wor- 
ship and godly living, agreeably to the Holy 
Scriptures ; • and submitting to a certain form 
of government.' 

blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and 
nation. Acts ii. 39. For the promise is unto yon, and 
to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many 
tm the Lord our God shall call. 1 Cor. i. 2, compared 
•with 2 Cor. ix. 13. 

< Gal. i. 21, 22. Afterwards I came into the re^ona 
of Syria and Cilicia : and was unknown by face unto the 
ehurches of Judea which were in Christ. Rey. i. 4, 20. 
John to the seven churches which are in Asia : Grace be 
unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, 
and which is to come : and ftrom the seven spirits which 
are before his throne. — The mystery of the seven stars 
which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden 
candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven 
churches ; and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest 
are the seven churches. See also Rev. ii. 1. 

• Acts ii. 41, 47. Then they that gladly received his 
word were baptized ; and the same day there were added 
unto them about three thousand souls. Praising God, 
find having favour with all the people. And the Lord 
added to the church daily such as should be saved. 1 
Cor. vii. 14. For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by 
the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the 
husband ; else were your children unclean ; but now are 
they holy. Acts ii. 89. Mark z. 14, compared with Matt, 
six. 18, 14, and Luke xviii. 16, 16. 

' Heb. viU. 6. Who serve unto the example and 

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woau or ootesnmekt. 411 

CHAPTER III. 

OF THE OFFICERS OF THE CHURCH. 

I. Our blessed Lord at first collected hit 
church out of different nations,^ and formed 
it into one body,** by the mission of men en- 
dued with miraculous gifts, which have long 
since ceased.* 

II. The ordinary and perpetual officers in 
the ^church are Bishops, or Pastors ; ^ the 

shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of 
God when he was about to make the tabernacle ; for, Sett 
(saith he) that thoa make all things according to the pat^ 
tern showed to thee in the mount. Qal. vi. 16. And a8 
many as walk according to this rule, peace be on them, 
ftnd mercy, and upon the Israel of Qt»d. 

ff Psa. ii. 8. Ask of me, and I shall give thee the hea» 
then for thine inheritance^ and the uttermost parts of the 
earth for thy possession. Bey. vii. 9. After this, I be** 
held, and lo, a great multitude, which no man oould num*. 
ber, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongueiv 
stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed 
with white robes, and palms in their hands. 

h 1 Cor. X. 17. For we, being many, are one breads 
and one body : for we are all partakers of that one bread. 
See also £ph. iy. 16. Col. ii. 19. 

i Matt. z. 1, 8. And when he had called unto him his 
twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spi- 
rits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness, 
and all manner of disease, &o. 

J 1 Tim. iii. 1. If a man desire the o£Boe of a bishop, 
he desireth a good work. £ph. iy. 11, 12. And he gave 
some, apostles ; and some, prophets ; and some, evange- 
lists ; and some, pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting 
of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edify« 
Sng of the body of Christ 



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412 FORM 0¥ QOYEBNMSNT. 

representatives of the people, usually styled 
Buling Elders ; ^ and Deacons.^ 



CHAPTER IV. 

OF BISHOPS OB FAST0B8. 

The pastoral office is the first in the church, 
both for dignity and usefulness.™ The person 
'who fills this office, hath, in Scripture, obtainecj 
different names expressive of his various duties. 
As he has the oversight of the flock of Christ, 
he is termed bishop.* ** As he feeds them 
with spiritual food, he is termed pastor.* As 
he serves Christ in his church, he is termed 

minister.' As it is his duty to be grave and 
p ' . I . ■ I ■ ■■ I II I ..I . ,1 II.. I ...^ 

k 1 Tim. Y. 17. Let the elders that nile well, iM' 
counted worthy of doable honour. 

1 Phil. i. 1. To all the saints in Christ Jesas whidi 
are at Philippi, with the bishops and deaoons. 
. , » Rom. xi. 18. 

■ Acts zx. 28. Take heed therefore, unto yourselves, 
and to all the flock over the which the Holy Ghost hath 
made you OTorseers, [bishops] to feed the church of God, 
which he hath purchased with his own blood. 

o Jer. iii. 16. And I will give you pastors according 
to mine heart, which shall feed you with knowledge and 
understanding. 1 Pet. v. 2, 8, 4. 

p 1 Cor. iv. 1. Let a man so account of us, as of 
the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of 

* As the office and character of the gospel minister la 
particularly and fully described in the Holy Scriptures!, 
under the title of bishop ; and as this term is peculiarly 
expressive of his duty as an overseer of the flock, it ought 
not to be rejected. 

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9M1I OV QOVBRNMEKT. 41t 

prudent, and an example of the flock, and to 
govern well in the house and kingdom of 
Christ, he is termed presbyter or elder. * Aa 
he is the messenger of God, he is termed the 
angel of the church. ' As he is sent to declare 
the will of God to sinners, and to beseech them 
to be reconciled to God through Christ, he id 
termed ambassador. ' And^ as he dispenses the 
manifold grace of God, and the ordinances in- 
stituted by Christ, he is termed steward of the 
mysteries of God. * 



CHAPTER V. 

OF RULING ELDERS. 

Ruling elders are properly the representa* 

God. 2 Cor. iii. 6. Who also hath made us able minia* 
te^s of the New TestameDt 

q 1 Pet. y. 1. The elders which are among you I 
exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the suffer- 
ings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that 
shall be revealed. See also Tit. i. 6. 1 Tim. v. 1, 
17, 19. 

'- Key. IL 1 . Unto the angel of the church of Ephe- 
BUS write. Bey. i. 20. — The seven stars are the angels 
of the seven churches. See also Rev. iii. 1, 7. MaL 
iL7. 

• 2 Cor. v. 20. Now then we are ambassadors for 
Christ, as though God did beseech you by us ; we pray 
you, in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. £ph. 
yL20. 

t Luke xU. 42. Who then is that faithful and wise 
steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his house* 
bold to give them their portion of meat in due season t 
1 Cor. iv. 1, 2. — Moreover, it is required in stewards that 
a man be found faithful. 
«5* 

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414 VGBM or aOYERNMENT. 

tives of the people, chosen by them for the pnr^ 
poae of exercising government and discipline, 
in conjunction with pastors or ministers. • 
This office has been understood, by a great 
part of the Protestant Reformed Churches, to 
be designated in the holy Scriptures, by the 
title of governments; and of those who rule 
well, but do not labour in the word and doc- 
trine. ^ 



CHAPTER VI. 

OF DEACONS. 

The Scriptures clearly point out deacons 
as distinct offiqers in the church, ^ whose 
business it is to take care of the poor, and to 
distribute among them the collections which 
may be raised for their use. * To them 
also may be properly committed the mar 

m 1 Tim. y. 17. Let the elders that rule well be 
counted worthy of double honour, especially they who 
Ubour in the word and doctrine. Rom. xii. 7, 8. Acts 
XV. 26. 

V 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hatb set some in the 
church, first, apostles ; secondarily, prophets ; thirdly, 
teachers ; after that miracles ; then gifts of healings, 
helps, governments, diversities of tongues. See letter 
(u) above. 

w Phil. i. 1. 1 Tim. iii. 8 to 16. 

X Acts vi. 1, 2. And in those days, when the number 
•f the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murmuring 
of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because their wid« 
owe were neglected in the daily ministration. Then the 
twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, 
»nd said. It is not reason that we should leave the wbtd 
of God and serve tables. 

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WOBU OF aOYSRNM£NT. 415 

juigement of the temporal affairs of the 
church. ^ 



CHAPTER VII. 

OF ORDINANCES IN A PARTICULAR CHURCH. 

The ordinances established by Christ, the 
head, in a particular church, which is regu- 
larly constituted with its proper oflScers, ■ are 
prayer, • singing praises, * reading, • ex- 
pounding and preaching the word of God ; ' 

y Acts ▼!. 3, 5, 6. Wherefore, brethren, look ye ont 
among yoa seyen men of honest report, full of the Holy 
Ghost and -wisdom, whom -we may appoint over this 
business. — And the saying pleased the -whole multitude: 
and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the 
Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, 
and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nioolas, a proselyte of 
Antioch ; -whom they set before the apostles : and -when 
they had prayed, they laid their hands on them. 

* 1 Cor. xiv. 26, 83, 40. Let all things be done unto 
edifying. — For God is not the author of confusion, but 
of peace, as in all churches of the saints. — Let all things 
be done decently, and in order. 

» Acts vi. 4. But -we -will give ourselves continually to 
prayer, and to the ministry of the -word. 1 Tim. ii. 1. 

^ Col. ill. 16. Teaching and admonishing one another 
in psalms, and hymnS, and spiritual songs, singing with 
grace in your hearts to the Lord. Psa. ix. 11. £ph. v. 19. 
Also Col. iv. 16. 

c Acts xv. 21. Luke iv. 16, 17. 

<< Titus i. 9. Holding fast the faithfur word as he 
hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine 
both to exhort and convince the gainsayers. Acts x. 42. 
^-Ke commanded us to preach onto the people. See also 
Acts xxviii. 23. Luke xxiv. 47. 2 Tim. iT. 2. Aots 
'-- 20. 



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#16 FORM OV OOYBBNMINV* 

administering baptism and the Lord's snjH 
per ; ° public solemn fasting and thank»- 
giving, ' catechizing, * making collections 
for the poor and other pious purposes ; * 

• Matt. xxYiii. 19, 20. Go ye, therefore, and teach aU 
nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, &c. And Mark xti. 
16, 16. 1 Cor. xi. 23, 24, 26, 26. For I have received 
of the Lord, that which also I delivered unto you, that 
the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed^ 
took bread : and when he had given thanks, he brake it, 
and said, Take, e&t ; this is my 'body, which is biok«it 
for you : this do in remembrance of me. After the same 
manner also, he took the cup, when he had supped, saying. 
This cup is the New Testament in my blood : this do ye, 
AS oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often 
as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the 
Lord's death till he come. Compared with 1 Cor. x. 16. 

' Luke V. 86. But the days will come, when the 
bridegroom shall be taken away from them, l^nd then 
shall they fast in those days. Psa. 1. 14. Offer unto 
God thanksgiving : and pay thy vows unto the Most High. 
Phil. iv. 6. — In every thing, by prayer and supplication, 
with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known unto 
God. See 1 Tim. ii. 1. Psa. xcv. 2. 

f Heb. V. 12. For when for the time ye ought to be 
teachers, ye have need that one teach you again, which 
be the first principles of the oracles of God ; and are be- 
come such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. 

h 1 Cor. xvi. 1, 2, 8, 4. Now q^nceming the collec- 
tion for the saints, as I have given order to the churches 
of Galatia, even so do ye. Upon the first day of the 
week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God 
hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I 
oome. And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve 
by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality 
unto Jerusalem. And if it be meet that I go also, they 
shall go with me. Gal. ii. 10. Only they would that we 
should remember the poor ; the same whioh I also was 
forward to do. 



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JPOBM or OOYERNMSNT. 417 

^iercising diseipline;' and blessing the peo* 
pie. J 



CHAPTER VLII. 

Of CnUACH GOYERKMENT, AKD THX BBTIRAL KINDS OV 
JUDICATORIES. 

I. It is absolutely necessary that the govern- 
ment of the church be exercised under some 
certain and definite form. ^ And we hold it 
to be expedient, and agreeable to Scripture and 
the practice of the primitive Christians, that the 
church be governed by congregational, presby* 
terial, and synodical assemblies. In full con- 

I Heb. ziii. 17. Obey them that have the role over 
yoa, and submit yourseWes: for they watch for your 
Boals, as they that must give account ; that they may do 
it with joy, and not with grief : for that is unprofitable 
for you. 1 Thess. t. 12, 18. And we beseech you, 
brethren, to know them which hkbour among you, and are 
OTer you in the Lord, and admonish you ; and to esteem 
them very highly in love for their work's sake. And be 
at peace among yourseWes. 

i 2 Cor. ziii. 14. The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the Ioyc of God, and the communion of the Holy 
Ghost, be with you alV Amen. Eph. i. 2. Grace be to 
you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

k Ezek. zliii. 11, 12. Show them the form of the 
house, and the fashion thereof, and the goings-out there- 
of, and the comings-in thereof, and all £be forms thereof, 
and all the ordinances thereof, and all the forms thereof, 
and all the laws thereof: and write it in their sight 
that they may keep the whole form thereof, and all the 
ordinances thereof, and do them. This is the law of the 
house. 

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418 VOBM or GOyEBNMXNT. 

«st«ncy with this belief, we embrace, in the 
spirit of charity, those Christians who differ 
from us, in opinion and practice, on these sub- 
jects. * 

II. These Assemblies ought not to possess 
any civil jurisdiction, nor to inflict any cItiI 
penalties. ™ Their power is wholly moral or 
spiritual, and that only ministerial and declara- 
tive. * They possess the right- of requiring 
obedience to the laws of Christ; and of ex- 
cluding the disobedient and disorderly from the 
privileges of the church. To give efficiency, 
however, to this necessary and scriptural ao- 
thority, thejr possess the powers requisite for 
obtaining evidence and inflicting censure. 
They can call before them any offender against 
the order and government of the church ; they 
can require members of their own society to 
appear and give testimony in the cause ; but 
the highest punishment to which their authority 
extends, is to exclude the contumacious and 
impenitent from the congregation of believers. • 

I Acts ZT. 5, 6. But there rose up oertain of the sect 
of the Pharisees, which believed, saying, That it was 
needful to circumcise them, and ta||ommand them to keep 
the law of Moses. And the apostles and elders came to- 
gether for to consider of this matter. 

B Luke zii. 18, 14. And one of the company said unto 
him, Master, speak to my brother, that he dlyide the i»* 
heritance with me. And he said unto him, Man, who 
made me judge or a divider over you ? John zviii. S6.-» 
My kingdom is not of this world. 

B Acts XV. from the Ist to the d2d verse. 

«> Matt, xviii. 16, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. Moreover, if 
thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and t«U hui 

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rORM OV QOTERMHENT. 410 



CHAPTER IX. 

OF THE CHURCH SESSION. 

I. The Church session consists of the pastor 
or pastors, and ruling elders, of a particular 
congregation. ^ 

II. Of this judicatory, two elders, if there be 
as many in the congregation, with the pastor, 
shall be necessary to constitute a quorum. 

III. The pastor of the congregation shall 
always be the moderator of the session ; except 
when, for prudential reasons, it may appear 
advisable that some other minister should be 
invited to preside ; in which case the pastor 
may, with the concurrence of the session, in- 
vite such other minister as they may see meet, 
belonging to the same presbytery, to preside in 

his fault between tbee and him alone : if he shall hear 
thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he will not 
hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in 
the mouth of two or three witnesses erery word may be 
established. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell 
it unto the church : but if he neglect to hear the church, 
let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican. 
Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on 
earth, shall be bound in heaven : and whatsoever ye 
shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. 1 Cor. 
V. 4, 6. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye 
are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, to deliver such an one unto Satan, 
for the d^truction of the flesh, 'that the spirit may be 
saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. 

p 1 Cor. V. 4. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the 
power of oar Lord Jesus Christ. 



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4S0 FORM Of OOVEBNBJlEHirF. 

that ease. The same expedient may be adopted 
in case of the siokness or absence of the pastor. 

IV. It is expedient, at every meeting of the 
session, more especially when constituted for 
judicial business, that there be a presiding 
minister. When, therefore, a church is with- 
out a pastor, the moderator of tho session shall 
be, either the minister appointed for that pur- 
pose by the presbytery, or one invited by the 
session to preside on a particular occasion. But 
where it is impracticable, without great incon- 
venience, to procure the attendance of such a 
moderator, the session may proceed without it. 

V. Jn congregations where there are two or 
more pastors, they shall, when present, alter<« 
nately preside in the session. 

VI. The Church session is charged with 
maintaining the spiritual government of the 
congregation f* for which purpose, they have 
power to inquire into the Ijnowledge and 
Christian conduct of the members of the 
church ; ' to call before them offenders and 
witnesses, being members of their own congre- 
gation, and to introduce other witnesses, where 
it may be necessary to bring the process to 
issue, and when they can be procured to at- 
tend ; to receive members into the church ; to 

q Heb. xiii. 17. Obey them that have the role ov^r 
you, and submit yourselves : for they watoh for your 
souls, as they that must give aocount ; that they may do 
it with joy, and not with grief. 1 Thess. v. 12, 18, and 
1 Tim. V. 17. * 

' Exek. zzziv. 4. 

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CH. IX.] 9WX Of QoymiiiiirT* 0% 

admonish, to rebuke, to suspend, or exclnde 
from the sacraments, those who are found to 
deserve censure ; ' to concert the best measures 
for promoting the spiritual interests of the con- 
gregation; and to appoint delegates to the 
higher judicatories of the church,* 
^ VII. The pastor has power to convene the 
session when he may judge it requisite ; ^ and 
he shall always convene them when requested 
to do so by any two of the elders. The session 
shall also convene when directed so to do by 
the presbytery. 

VIII. Every session shall keep a fair record 
of its proceedings ; which record shall .be, at 
least once in every year, submitted to the in- 
spection of the presbytery. 

IX. It is important that every church ses- 
sion keep a fair register of marriages ; of bap- 
tisms, with the times of the birth of the indi- 
viduals baptized ; of persons admitted to the 
Lord'-s table, and of the deaths, and other re- 
movals of church members, 

• 1 Thess. ▼. 12, 18. And we beseech you, brethren, 
to know them which labour among you, and are over you 
in the Lord, and admonish yon ; and to esteem them very 
highly in love for their work's sake. And be at peace 
among yourselves. See also 2 Thess. ill. 6, 14, 15. 1 
Cor. xi. 27 to the end. 

* Acts XV. 2, 6. When therfore Paul and Barnabas 
had no small dissension and disputation with them, they 
determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of 
them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and 
elders, about this question. — And the apostles and eldera 
came together for to consider of this matter. 

, • Acts. XX. 17. 

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m FOBM OP aOYEEKBOSm; . 

CHAPTER !• 

OF* THE PRESBYTERT. 

I. The Church being divided into many 
separate congregations, these need mutual 
counsel and assistance, in order to preserve 
soundness of doctrine, and regularity of disci- 
pline, and to enter into common measures for 
promoting knowledge and religion, and for 
preventing infidelity, error, and immorality.^ 
Hence arise the importance and usefulness of 
presbyterial and synodical assemblies.^ 

II. A presbytery consists of all the minis- 
ters, and one ruling elder from each congrega- 
tion, within a certain district. 

III. Every congregation, which has a stated 

V The church of Jerusalem consisted of more than one, 
as is manifest both before and after the dispersion, from 
Acts yi. 1, 6. Acts ix. 81. Acts zxi. 20. Acts ii. 41, 
46, 47, and iy. 4. These congregations were under one 
presbyterial goyernment, proyed from Acts zy. 4. Acts 
xi. 22, 80. Acts xxi. 17, 18. Acts vi. That the church 
of Ephesus had more congregations than one, under a 
presbyterial goyernment, appears from Acts ziz. 18, 19, 
20. 1 Cor. xyi. 8, 9, 19, compared with Acts zviii. 19, 
24, 26. Acts XX. 17, 18, 25, 28, 30, 81, 86, 37. Rev. IL 
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 6. 

^ 1 Tim. iy. 14. Neglect not the gift that is in thee, 
irhich was giyen thee by prophecy, with the laying on of 
the hands of the presbytery. Acts xy. 2, 8, 4, 6, 22. — 
And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were re- 
ceiyed of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and 
they declared all things that God had done with them. — 
And the apostles and elders oame together for to consider 
of this matter. 

/ 



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FGMU or QOTEMSWeaXT. * 42t 

pastor has a right to be represented by on« 
elder ; and every collegiate church by two or 
more elders, in proportion to the number of its 
pastors. 

IV. Where two or more congregations are 
united under one pastor, all such congregations 
shall have but one elder to represent them. 

y. Every vacant congregation, which is reg- 
ularly organized, shall be entitled to be repre- 
sented by a ruling elder in presbytery. 

VI. Every elder not known to the presby- 
tery, shall produce a certificate of his regular 
appointment from the church which he repre- 
sents. * 

Vn. Any three ministers, and as many 
elders as may be present belonging to the pres- 
bytery, being met at the time and place ap- 
pointed, shall be a quorum competent to pro- 
ceed to business. ^ 

VIII. The presbytery has power to receive 

« Acts XV. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 6. 1 Cor. xiv. 26, 33, 40.— 
Let all things be done unto edifying ; — for God is not the 
ftuthor of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches 
0^ the saints. — Let all things be done decently and in 
order. 

7 Acts xiv. 26, 27. And thence sailed to Antioch, 
from whence they had been recommended to the grace of 
Qod for the work which they fulfilled. And when they 
were come, and had gathered the church together, they 
rehearsed all that God had done with them, and how he 
had opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles. Com- 
pared with Acts xi. 18. When they heard these things, 
they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then 
hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto 
life. 

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424 VOKM ov oovsEiritnT. 

•ad issue appeals from church sessions' and 
references brought before them in an orderly 
manner ; * to examine and license candidates 
for the holy ministry ; ** to ordain, instal, re- 
move, and judge ministers ; * to examine and 
approve or censure the records of church ses- 
sions ; to resolve questions of doctrine or dism- " 
pline seriously and reasonably proposed ; ^ to 

y s Acts XY. 5, 6, 19, 20. But there rose up cerUia of 
the sect of the Pharisees, which believed, saying, that it 
was ueedfol to circumcise them, and to command them to 
l^eep the law of Moses. And the apostles and elders eame 
together for to consider of this matter. — Wherefore my 
sentence is, that we trouble not them which from among 
the Gentiles are turned to God : but that we write unto 
them, tkat they abstain from pollutions of idols, and 
-from fornication, and from things strangled, and firom 
blood. 

« Acts xriii. 24, 27. And a certain Jew named ApoUos, 
bom at Alexandria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the 
Scriptures, came to Ephesus. — And when he was disposed 
to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the 
disciples to receive him. Compared with Acts xix. 1, 2. 
8, 4, 6, 6, 7. 

b 1 Tim. iv. 14. Neglect not the gift that is in thee 
which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of 
the hands of the presbytery. Acts xiii. 2, 3. As they 
ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost sai<C 
Separate me Barnabas and Saul, for the work whereonto 
I have called them. And when they had fasted and 
prayed, and laid their hands on them they sent them 
away. 

e Acts XT. 28. For it seemed good to the Holy Ghosti 
and to us, to lay upon you no greater burdens than these 
necessary things. 1 Cor. v. 8. 

<* Acts XT. 10. Now, therefore, why tempt ye God, to 
put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither 
our fathers nor we Were able to bear ? Compared with 
Gal. iL 4, 6. 



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CH. X.] WQSLU OV GOTNtNMSNT. 425 

eoBdemn erroneous opinions which injure the 
purity or peace of the church ; • to visit par- 
ticular churches, for the purpose of inquiring 
into their state, and redressing the evils that 
may have arisen in them ; ' to unite or divide 
congregations, at the request of the people, 
or to form or receive new congregations, and 
in general to order whatever pertains to the 
spiritual welfare of the churches under their 
care. • 

IX. It shall be the duty of the presbytery 
to keep a full and fair record of their proceed- 

• Acts XY. 22, 28, 24. Then pleased it the apostles and 
elderSy with the whole churoh, to send chosen men of their 
own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas ; namely, 
Judas sarnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among 
the brethren : and they wrote letters by them after this 
manner: The apostles, and elders, and brethren, send 
Igreeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in 
Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia : forasmuch as we have 
heard that certain which went out from us have troubled 
yon with words, subverting your souls, saying, Ve must 
be circumcised, and keep the law ; to whom we gave no 
Buch commandment. 

^ Acts XX. 17. And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, 
and called the elders of the church. Acts vi. 2. Then 
the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, 
and said. It is not reason that we should leave the word 
of God, and serve tables. Acts zv. 30. So when they 
were dismissed, they came to Antioch ; and when they 
had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the 
epistle. 

ff Eph. vi. 18. Praying always with all prayer and 
supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with 
aU perseverance and supplication for all saints. — Phil. iv. 
6. Be careful for nothing : but in every thing by prayer 
and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be 
made known unto God. 
86* 

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426 iKmit Of GOYERNMBBn*. 

ings, and to report to the synod, every year, 
licensures, ordinations, the receiving or dis- 
missing of members, the removal of members 
by death, the union or division of congrega- 
tions, or the formation of new ones ; and in 
general, all the important changes which may 
have taken place within their bounds in the 
course of the year. 

X. The presbytery shall meet on its own 
adjournment ; and when any emergency shall 
require a meeting sooner than the time to 
which it stands adjourned, the moderator, or, 
in case of his absence, death, or inability to 
act, the stated clerk, shall, with the concur- 
rence, or at the request of two ministers and 
two elders, the elders being of diflferent con- 
gregations, call a special meeting. For this 
purpose he shall send a circular letter, specify- 
ing the particular business of the intended 
meeting, to every minister belonging to the 
presbytery, and to the session of every vacant 
congregation, in due time previous to the 
meeting; which shall not be less than ten 
days. And nothing shall be transacted at 
such special meeting besides the particular 
business for which the judicatory has been thus 
convened. 

XI. At every meeting of presbytery, a SiBr- 
moii shall bie delivered, if convenient ; and 
every particular session shall be opened and 
closed with prayer. 

Xj;i. Ministers in good standing in other 

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l«glUC Of QOYBftNMBNT 4ST 

presbyteries, or in any- sister ehurches, who 
may happen to be present, may be invited to 
sit with the presbytery, as corresponding mem* 
bers. Sach members shall be entitled to de- 
liberate and advise, but not to vote ifl anj 
decisions of the presbytery. 



CHAPTER XL 

OF THB SYNOD.* 



I. As a presbytery IS a convention of the. 
bishops and elders within a certain district : 
so a synod is a convention of the bishops and 
elders within a larger district, including at least 
three presbyteries. The ratio of the repre- 
sentation of elders in the synod is the same as 
in the presbytery. 

II. Any seven ministers, belonging to the 
synod, who shall convene at the time and place 
of meeting, with as many elders as may be 
present, shall be a quorum to transact synodical 
business ; provided not more than three of the 
said ministers belong to one presbytery. 

III. The same rule, as to corresponding 
members, which was laid down with respect to 
the presbytery, shall apply to the synod, 

* As the proofs already adduced in faTour of a pres- 
byterial assembly in the government of the church, are 
eqaaUy valid in support of a synodical assembly, it is 
unnecessary to repeat the scriptures to which ref erenow 
kas been made under Chap. X., or to add any other. 

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49S VQBM Of QOVIOINBIWT. 

. IV. The synod has power to receive and 
issue all appeals regularly brought up from 
the presbyteries; to decide on all references 
made to them ; to review the records of pres- 
byteii^s, and approve or censure them ; to 
redress whatever has been done by presbyte- 
ries contrary to order ; to take effectual care 
that presbyteries observe the constitution of the 
^urch ; to erect new presbyteries, and unite 
or divide those which were before erected ; 
generally to take such order with respect to 
the presbyteries, sessions, and people under 
their care, as may be in conformity with the 
word of God and the established rules, and 
which tend to promote the edification of the 
church ; and, finally, to propose to the general 
assembly, for their adoption, such measures as 
may be of common advantage to the whole 
church. 

V. The synod shall convene at least once in 
each year ; at the opening of which a sermon 
shall be delivered by the moderator, or, in case 
of his absence, by some other member ; and 
every particular session shall be opened and 
closed with prayer. 

YI. It shall be the duty of the synod to keep 
full and fair records of its proceedings, to sub- 
mit them annually to the inspection of the 
General Assembly, and to report to the Assem^ 
bly the number of its presbyteries, and of the 
members and alterations of the presbyteries. ^ j 



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KMUi or ooyxBNHnNT. 420 

CHAPTER XII. 

Of THE GENERAL ASSBXBLT.* 

I. The General Assembly is the highebfc ju- 
dicatory of the Presbyterian Church. It shall 
represent, in one body, all the particular 
churehes of this denomination ; and shall bear 
the title of Thb General Assembly o» 
THE Presbyterian Church in the United 
States of America. 

IL The General Assembly shall consist of 
an equal delegation of bishops and elders from 
each presbytery, in the following proportion ; 
Tiz: each presbytery consisting of not more 
than twenty-four ministers, shall send one 
minister and one elder ; and each presbytery 
consisting of more than twenty-four ministers, 
shall send two ministers and two elders; and 

* The radical principles of Presbyterian church govern- 
ment and discipline are : — That the several different con- 
gregations of believers, taken collectively, constitute one 
ehurch of Christ, called emphatically the church ; — that ft 
larger part of the church, or a representation of it, should 
govern a smaller, or determine matters of controversy 
nrhich arise therein ; — that, in like manner, a representa- 
tion of the whole^ should govern and determine in regard 
to every part, and to all the parts united ; that is, that a 
majority shall govern : and consequently that appeals may 
be carried from lower to higher judicatories, till they be 
finally decided by the cojlected wisdom and united voice 
of the whole church. For these principles and this pro- 
cedure, the example of the apostles, and the practice of 
the primitive church, are considered as authority. See 
Acts XV. to the 29th verse ; and the proofs adduced nndec 
the laet three chapters. 

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4S0 FOEM OF aoy££NM£NT. 

in the like proportion for ♦every twenty-four 
ministers in any presbytery : and these dele- 
gates, so appointed, shall be styled, Commia- 
sioners to the General Assembly. 

III. Any fourteen or more of these commis* 
sioners, one half of whom shall be ministers, 
being met on the day, and at the place ap- 
pointed, shall be a quorum for the tranfiaction 
of business. 

rV. The General Assembly shall receive and 
issue all appeals and references which may be 
regularly brought before them from the inferior 
judicatories. They shall review the records of 
every synod, and approve or censure them : 
they shall give their .advice and instruction in 
all cases submitted to them in conformity with 
the constitution of the church ; and they shall 
constitute the bon^ of union, peace, correspond- 
ence, and mutual confidence, among all our 
churches. 

V. To the General Assembly also belongs the 
power of deciding in all controversies respect- 
ing doctrine and discipline ; of reproving, warn- 
ing, or bearing testimony against error in doc- 
trme, or immorality in practice, in any church, 
presbytery, or synod ; of erecting new synods 
when it may be judged necessary ; of superin- 
tending the concerns of the whole church ; of 
corresponding with foreigp churches, on such 
terms as may be agreed upon by the Assembly 
and the corresponding body ; of suppressing 
•chismatical contentions and disputations ; and. 



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im. xn.] itoftM or ootbrnmxnt. 481 

in general, of recommending and attemptin 
• reformation, of manners, and the promotion ol 
charity, truth, and holiness, through all the 
churches under their care. 

VI. Before any overtures or regulations pro- 
posed by the Assembly to be established as 
constitutional rules, shall be obligatory on the 
churches, it shall be necessary to transmit 
them to all the presbyteries, and to receive the 
returns of at least a majority of them, in wri- 
ting, approving thereof. 

Vn. The General Assembly shall meet at 
least once in every year. On the day appointed 
for that purpose, the moderator of the last As- 
sembly, if present, or in case of his absence, 
some- other minister, shall open the meeting 
with a sermon, and preside until a new mode- 
rator be chosen. No commissioner shall have 
a right to deliberate or vote in the Assembly, 
until his name shall have been enrolled by the 
clerk, and his commission examined, and filed 
among the papers of the Assembly. 

VIII. Each session of the Assembly shall be 
opened and closed with prayer. And the whole 
business of the Assembly being finished, and the 
vote taken for dissolving the present Assembly, 
the moderator shall say from the chair, — "By 
" virtue of the authority delegated to me, by 
" the church, let this General Assembly be dis- 
** solved, and I do hereby dissolve it, and re- 
" quire another General Assembly, chosen in 
" the same manner, to meet at 
"on the day of A. D. "— 

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f 32 FOBM OV OOTBBNMSm?. 

after which he shall pray aud retnro tl^aaks, 
and pronounce on those preaent the apostolic < 
benediction. 



' CHAPTER IIII. 

0? ELECTING AND ORDAINING RULING ELDERS AND 
DEACONS. 

I. Having defined the officers of the church, 
and the judicatories by which it shall be gov- 
erned, it is proper here to prescribe the mode 
in which ecclesiastical rulers should be ordained 
to their respective offices, as well as some of the 
principles by which they shall be regulated in 
discharging their several duties. 

II. Every congregation shall elect persons 
to the office of ruling elder, and to the office of 
deacon, or either of them, in the mode most 
approved and in use in that congregation."* 
But in all cases the persons elected must be 
male members in full communion in the church 
in which they are to exercise their office. 

III. When any person shall have been 
elected to either of these offices, and shall have 
declared his willingness to accept thereof, he 
shall be set apart in the following manner : 

IV. After sermon, the minister shall state, 
in a concise manner, the warrant and nature 

k 1 Cor. xiy. 40. Let all things be done decentlj, aad 
In order. 



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JtOSM OT GOySBNMEIfT. 48S 

of the office of mling elder or deacon, togetliei 
with the character proper to be sustained, and 
the duties to be fulfilled by the officer elect ; 
having done this, he shall propose io the can- 
didate, in the ^presence of the congregation, the 
following questions : — viz. \ 

1. Do you believe the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments to be the word of God, 
the only infallible rule of faith and practice ? 

2, Do you sincerely receive and adopt the 
confession of faith of this church, as containing 
the system of doctrine taught in the Holy 
Scriptures ? 

8. Do you approve of the government and 
discipline of the Presbyterian church in these 
United States ? 

4. Do you accept the office of ruling elder 
(or deacon, as the case may be) in this congre- 
gation, and promise faithfully to perform all the 
duties thereof ? 

6. Do you promise to study the peace, unity, 
and purity of the church ? 

The elder, or deacon elect, having answered 
t^ese- questions in the affirmative, the minister 
shall address to the members of the church the 
following question : — viz. 

Do you, the members of this church, acknow- 
ledge and receive this brother as a ruling elder, 
(or deacon) and do you promise to yield him all 
that honour, encouragement, and obedience, in 
the Lord, to which his office, according to the 
87 

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484 FORM OF 0OVJESMMXHT.. 

word of God, and tBie conafeitQta<m of this 
ohurch, entitles him ? 

The members of the church having answered 
this question in the a£Srmative, by holding up 
their right hands, the minister shall proceed to 
set apart the candidate, by prayer, to the office 
of ruling elder, (or deacon, as the * case may 
be) and shall give to him, and to the congrega- 
tion, an exhortation suited to the occasion. 

y. Where there is an existing session, it is 
proper that the members of that body, at the 
close of the service, and in the face of the con- 
gregation, take the newly ordained elder by the 
hand, saying in words to this purpose, — " We 
" give you the right hand of fellowship, to take 
"part of this office with us.'* 
. VI. The offices of ruling elder and deacon 
are both perpetual, and cannot be laid aside at 
pleasure. No person can be divested of either 
office but by deposition. Yet an elder or dea- 
con may become, by age or infirmity, incapable 
of performing the duties of his office ; or he 
may, though chargeable with neither heresy 
nor immorality, become unacceptable, in hfi 
official character, to a majority of the congre* 
gation to which he belongs. In either of these 
cases he may, as often happens with respect 
to a minister, cease to be an acting elder or 
deacon. 

' VII. Whenever a ruling elder or deaOon, 
from either of these causes, or from any othar^ 

< Aot0 Ti. 6, 6. 

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fOBM OF QOVERNBOfiNT. 435 

ftot inferring crime, shall be incapable of serr- 
ing the church to edification, the session shall 
take order on the subject, and state the fact, 
together with the reasons of it, on their r^ 
cords. Provided always^ that nothing of this 
kind shall be done without the concurrence of 
the individual in question, unless" by the advice 
of presbytery. 



CHAPTER XIY. 

OF IiICSNSIKG CANDIDATES OR PROBATIONSBS tO 
PREACH THE GOSPEL 

I. The Holy Scriptures require that Boin« 
trial be previously had of them who are to be 
ordained to the ministry of the gospel, that this 
Bacrcd office may not be degraded, by beinff 
Committed to weak or unworthy men;^ ana 
that the churches may have an opportunity to 
form & better judgment respecting the talentd 
of those by whom they are to be instructed 
Und governed. For this purpose presbyteries 
shall license probationers to preach the gospel, 
t^at after a competent trial of their talents, and 
receiving from the churches a. good report, 
they may, in due time, ordain them to the sa- 
cred office. ^ 

II. Every candidate for licensure shall be 

J 1 Tim. iii. 6. Not a novice. 2 Tim. ii. 2. And the 
things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, 
the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be abl« 
to teach others also. 

k 1 Tim. iii. 7. 8 JoLal2. 

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486 FORM OF OOYSRNMBNT. 

taken on trials by that presbytery to which he 
most naturally belongs ; and he shall be con- 
sidered as most naturally belonging to that 
presbytery within the bounds of which he has 
ordinarily resided. But in case any candidate 
should find it more convenient to put himself 
under the care of a presbytery at a distance 
from that to which he most naturally belongs, 
he may be received by the said presbytery, on 
his producing testimonials either from the pres- 
bytery within the bounds of which he has com- 
monly resided, or from any two ministers of 
that presbytery in good standing, of his exem- 
plary piety, and other requisite qualifications. 
III. It is proper and requisite that candi- 
dates applying to the presbytery to be licensed 
to preach the gospel, produce satisfactory tes- 
timonials of their good moral character, and 
of their being regular members of some par- 
ticular church. And it is the duty of the 
presbytery, for their satisfaction with regard to 
the real piety of such candidates, to examine 
them respecting their experimental acquaint- 
ance with religion, and the motives which influ- 
ence them to desire the sacred office. ^ This 
examination sliall be close and particular, and, 
in most cases, may best be conducted in the 
presence of the presbytery only. And it is 
recommended that the candidate be also re- 



1 Rom. ii. 21. Thou, therefore, which teaoheet an- 
other, teachest thou not thyself ? &o., in connection with 
totter (;'), page 436. 



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CH. xiy.] iroRM or qovernment. 43T 

quired to produce a diploma of bachelor or 
master of arts, from som? college or universi- 
ty : or, at least, authentic testimonials of his 
having gone through a regular course of learo- 

IV. Because it is highly reproachful to reli- 
gion, and dangerous to the church, to intrust 
the holy ministry to weak and ignorant men, ■ 
the presbytery shall try each candidate, as to 
his. knowledge of the Latin language ; and the 
original languages in which the Holy Scrip* 
tures were written. They shall also examine 
him on the arts and sciences; on theology^ 
natural and revealed; and on ecclesiastical 
history, the sacraments, and church govern*- 
ment. And in order to make trial of his tal«> 
ents to explain and vindicate, and practically 
to enforce, the doctrines of the gospel, the 
presbytery shall require of him, 

1. A Latin exegesis on some common head 
in divinity. 

2. A critical exercise ; in which the candi« 
date shall give a specimen of his ' taste and 
judgment in sacred criticism; presenting an 
explication of the original text, stating its con- 
nection, illustrating its force and beauties, re- 
moving its difficulties, and solving any import* 
ant questions which it may present. 

3. A lecture, or exposition of several verses 
of scripture; and, 

4. A popular sermon. 

« See letter {j), and (A), page 436. 

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488 n>BM ow GovEBKiainF. 

y. These, or other similar exercises, at the 
discretion of the pr^bytery, shall be exhibited 
until they shall have obtained satisfaction as to 
the candidate's piety, literature, and aptness to 
teach in the churches.'' The lecture and popu- 
lar sermon, if the presbytery think proper, may 
be delivered in the presence of a congregation. 

YI. That the most effectual measures may 
be taken to guard against the admission of in- 
sufficient men into the sacred office,^ it is recom- 
mended that no candidate, except in extraordi- 
nary cases, be licensed, unless, after his har- 
ing completed the usual course of academical 
studies, he shall have studied divinity at least 
two years, under some approved divine or pro- 
fessor of theology. 

YII. If the presbytery be satisfied with his 
trials, they shall then proceed to license him in 
the following manner: The moderator shall 
propose to him the following questions : viz. 

1. Do you believe the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments to be the word of God, 
and only infallible rule of faith and practice 7 

2. Do you sincerely receive and adopt the 
confession of faith of this church, as contain- 
ing the system of doctrine taught in the Holy 
Scriptures ? 

8. Do you promise to study the peace, unity^ 
aad purity of the church ? 

■ Tim. iii. 2.— Apt to teaoli. See alio tke foregoiag 
quotations. 
• See letter (J), page 435. 

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CH. ZIT.] VOBM 07 GOVSBNMXNT. 489 

4. Do yoa promise to submit yourself, in the 
Lord, to the government of this presbytery, or 
of any other presbytery in the bounds of which 
you may be called 7 

YIII. The candidate having answered these 
questions in thd a£Srmative, and the moderator 
having offered up a prayer suitable to the oc- 
casion, he shall address himself to the candi- 
date to the following purpose : — '^ In the name 
^' of the Lord Jesus Christ, and by that autho- 
"rity which he hath given to the church for 
^^ its edification, we do license you to preach 
^^ the gospel, wherever God in his providence 
^^ may call you : and for this purpose, may the 
^^ blessing of God rest upon you, and the Spirit 
"of Christ fill your heart. — Amen/** and re- 
cord shall be made of the licensure in the fol- 
lowing or like form : viz. 

At the day of 

the presbytery of having 

received testimonials in favour of 
of his having gone through a regular course 
of literature ; of his good moral character ; 
and of his being in the communion of the 
church ; proceeded to take the usual parts of 
trial for his licensure : and he having given 
satisfaction as to his accomplishments in litera- 
ture ; as to his experimental acquaintance with 
religion ; and as to his proficiency in divinity 
and other studies; the presbytery did, and 
hereby do, express their approbation of all 
these parts of trial : and he having adopted 

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440 J'ORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

the confession of faith of this church, and sat- 
isfactorily answered the questions appointed to 
be put to candidates to be licensed ; the pres- 
bytery did, and hereby do license him, the said 
to preach the Gospel of Christ, 
as a probationer for the holy ministry, within 
the bounds of this presbytery, or wherever 
else he shall be orderly called. 

IX. When any candidate for licensure shall 
have occasion while his trials Sire going on, to 
remove from the bounds of his own presbytery 
into those of another, it shall be considered as 
regular for the latter presbytery, on his produ- 
cing proper testimonials from the former to 
take up his trials at the point at which they 
were left, and conduct them to a conclusion, in 
the same manner as if they had been com- 
menced by themselves. 

X. In like manner, when any candidate, 
after licensure, shall, by the permission of his 
presbytery, remove without its limits, an ex- 
tract of the record of his licensure, accompanied 
with a presbyterial recommendation, signed by 
the clerk, shall be his testimonials to the pres- 
bytery under whose care he shall come. 

XI. When a licentiate shall have been 
preaching for a considerable time, and his ser- 
vices do not appear to be edifying to the 
churches, the presbytery may, if they think 
proper, recall his license. 



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fOEM 0¥ QOYEBNMENT. 441 



CHAPTER XV. 

or THE SLECTION AND ORDINATION OF BISHOPS OB 
PASTORS, AND EYANQELISTS. 

L When any probationer shall have preachr 
ed so much to the satisfaction of any congre* 
gation, as that the people appear prepared to 
elect a pastor, the session shall take measures 
to convene them for this purpose : and it shall 
always be a duty of the session to convene 
them, when a majority of the persons entitled 
to vote in the case, shall, by a petition, request 
that a meeting may be called. 

II. When such a meeting is intended, the 
session shall solicit the presence and counsel of 
some neighbouring minister to assist them in 
cohducting the election contemplated, unless 
highly inconvenient on account of distance ; ia 
which case they may proceed without such as- 
sistance. 

III. On a Lord's-day, immediately after pub- 
lic worship, it shall be intimated from the pul- 
pit, that all the members of that congregation 
are requested to meet on ensuing, 
at the church, or usual place for holding public 

^worship; then and there, if it be agreeable to 
them, to proceed to the election of a pastor for 
that congregation. 

rV". On the day appointed, the minister in- 
vited to preside, if he be present, shall, if it be 
deemed expedient, preach a sermon ; and after 
sermon he shall announce to the people, that 

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442 irOBM OF GOVSRNBnSNT. 

he will immediately proceed to take the votes of 
the electors of that congregation, for a pastor, 
if such be their desire : and when this desire 
shall be expressed by a majority of voices, he 
shall then proceed to take votes accordingly. 
In this election, no person shall be entitled to 
vote who refuses to submit to the censures of 
the church, regularly administered ; or who does 
not contribute his just proportion, according to 
his own engagements^ or the rules of that con- 
gregation, to all its necessary expenses. 

v . When the votes are taken, if it appear 
that a large minority of the people are averse 
from the candidate who has a majority of votes, 
and cannot be induced to concur in the call, the 
presiding minister shall endeavour to dissuade 
the congregation from prosecuting it further. 
But if the people be nearly, or entirely, unani- 
mous ; or if the majority shall insist upon their 
right to call a pastor, the presiding minister, in 
that case, aft^r using his utmost endeavours to 
persuade the congregation to unanimity, shall 
proceed to draw a call, in due form, and to have 
It subscribed by the electors ; certifying at the 
same time, in writing, the number and circum- 
stances of those who do not concur in the call ; 
all which proceedings shall be laid before the 
presbytery, together with the call. 

yi. The call shall be in the following or like 
form: viz. 

The congregation of being, on 

sufficient grounds, well satisfied of the ministe- 

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CH. Xy.j lOEM Of OOYBRNMSNT. 448 

rial qualifications of you and 

having good hopes, from our past experience 
of your labours, that your ministrations in the 
Gospel will be profitable to our spiritual inter- 
ests, do earnestly call and desire you to under- 
take the pastoral office in said congregation ; 
promising you, in the discharge of your duty, 
all proper support, encouragement, and obe- 
dience in the Lord* And that you may be free 
from worldly cares and avocations, we hereby 
promise and oblige ourselves to pay to you the 
sum of in regular quar- 

terly (or half yearly, or yearly) payments, 
during the time of your being and continuing 
the regular pastor of this church. In testimony 
whereof, we have respectively subscribed our 
names, this day of A. D. 

Attested 5^ A. B., Moderator of the meeting* 
YU. But if any congregation shall choose to 
subscribe their call by their elders and deacons, 
or by their trustees, or by a select committee, 
they shall be at liberty to do so. But it shall, 
in such case, be fully certified to the presbytery, 
by the minister, or other person who presided, 
that the persons signing have been appointed, 
for this purpose, by a public vote of the con- 
gregation ; and that the call has been, in all 
other respects, prepared as above directed. 

Vin. When a call shall be presented to any 
minister or candidate, it shall always be viewed 
as a sufficient petition from the people for his 
instalment. The acceptance of a call, by a 

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444 VDftM OT GOVEBNMENT. 

tninister or candidate, shall alwajs be eonsid- 
ered as a request, on his part, to be installed 
at the same time. And when a capdidate shall 
be ordained in consequence of a call from any 
congregation, the presbytery shall, at the same 
time, if practicable, install him pastor of that 
Congregation. 

IX. The call, thus prepared, shall be pre- 
sented to the presbytery, under whose care tho 
person called shall be ; that, if the presbytery 
think it expedient to present the call to him, it 
may be accordingly presented: and no minister 
or candidate shall receive a call but through 
the hands of the presbytery. 

X. If the call be to a licentiate of another 
presbytery, in that case the commissioners de- 
puted from the congregation to prosecute the 
call, shall produce, to that judicatory, a certifi- 
cate from their own presbytery, regularly at- 
tested by the moderator and clerk, that the call 
has been laid before them, and that it is in 
order. If that presbytery present the call to 
their licentiate, and he be disposed to accept it, 
they shall then dismiss him from their jurisdic- 
tion, and require him to repair to that presby- 
tery, into the bounds of which he is called ; and 
there to submit himself to the usual trials pre- 
paratory to ordination. 

XI. Trials for ordination, especially in a dif- 
ferent presbytery from that in which the can- 
didate was licensed, shall consist of a careful 
examination as to his acquaintance with expert* 

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CH. XV.] tORM OF OOYERNMSNT 445 

mental religion ; as to his knowledge of pbiloch 
ophy, theology, ecclesiastical history, the Greek 
and Hebrew languages, and such other branches 
of learning as to the presbytery may appear 
requisite ; and as to his knowledge of the con- 
stitution, the rules and principles of the gov* 
ernment, and discipline of the church ; together 
with such written discourse, or discourses, 
founded on the word of God, as to the pres- 
bytery shall seem proper. ^ The presbytery,* 
being fully satisfied with his qualifications for 
the sacred office, shall appoint a day for his 
ordination, which ought to be, if convenient, 
in that church of which be is to be the minister. 
It is also recommended that a fast day be ob- 
served in the congregation previous to the day 
of ordination.* 

XII. The day appointed for ordination being 
come, and the presbytery convened, a member 
of* the presbytery, previously appointed to that 
duty, shall preach a sermon adapted to the oc- 
casion. The same, or another member ap- 
pointed to preside, shall afterwards briefly recite 
from the pulpit, in the audience of the people, 
the proceedings of the presbytery preparatory 
to this transaction : he shall point out the na- 
ture and importance of the ordinance; and 
endeavour to impress the audience with a pro- 
per sense of the solemnity of the transaction. 

Then addressing himself to the candidate, 

p See the proofs in sections I, 2, 8. 4, of chapter It. 
4 Acts xiii. 2. 8. 
88 

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446 VOEM OF GOYERNiaBNT. 

he shall propose to him the following ques- 
tions, viz : 

1. Do you believe the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments to be the word of God, 
the only infallible rule of faith and prac- 
tice?' 

2. Do you sincerely receive and adopt the 
confession of faith of this church, as containing 
the system of doctrine taught in the Holy 
Scriptures ? • 

3. Do you approve of the government and 
discipline of the Presbyterian Church in these 
United States?* 

4. Do you promise subjection to your breth- 
ren in the Lord ? " 

5. Have you been induced, as far as yon 
know your own heart, to seek the office of the 
holy ministry from love to God, and a sincere 
desire to promote his glory in the gospel of 
his Son?^ ^ * 

6. Do you promise to be zealous and faithful 
in maintaining the truths of the gospel, and 
the purity and peace of the church ; whatever 
persecution or opposition may arise unto you 
on that account ? * 

7. Do you engage to be faithful iind diligent 
in the exercise of all private and personal du- 

' 2 Tim. iii. 16. Eph. ii. 20. 
■ 2 Tim. L 13. - 
» See letter (») aboYe. 
o 1 Pet. ▼. 5. 

1 Cor. ii. 2. 2 Cor. W. 6. 
V Acts XX 17 to 31. 

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CH. XV. J FORM or OOYERNMBTTF. 447 

• 

ties, which become you as a Christian and a 
minister of the gospel ; as well as in all rela* 
tive duties, and the public duties of your office ; 
endeavouring to adorn the profession of the 
gospel by your conversation ; and walking with 
exemplary piety before the flock over which 
God shall make you overseer?* 

8. Are you now willing to take the charge 
of this congregation, agreeably to your decla- 
ration at accepting their call? And do you 
promise t<5 discharge the duties of a pastor to 
them, as God shall give you strength ? ^ 

XIII. The candidate having answered these 
questions in the affirmative, the presiding 
minister shall propose to the people the follow- 
ing questions : — 

1. Do you, the people of this congregation, 
continue to profess your readiness to receive 

whom you have called 
to be your minister ? 

2. Do you promise to receive the word of 
truth from his mouth, with meekness and love ; 
and to submit to him in the due \ exercise of 
discipline ? ■ 

3. Do you promise to encourage him in his 
arduous labour, and to assist his endeavours for 
your instruction and spiritual edification ? * 

4. And do you engage to continue to him, 

' See the epistles to Timothy and Titus throughout 

J 1 Pet Y. 2. 

■ James i. 21. Heb. ziii. 17. 

a 1 These. ▼. 12, 18. 

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448 voBU OF QOYEaNMEirr. 

while he is your pastor, that competent worldly 
maintenance which you have promised ; and 
whatever else you may see. needfal for the 
honour of religion, and his comfort among 
you ? ^ 

XrV. The people having answered these 
questions in the affirmative, by holding up their 
right hands, the candidate shall kneel down in 
the most convenient part of the church. Then 
the presiding minister shall, by prayer, * and 
with the laying on of the hands of the pres- 
bytery, * according to the apostolic example, 
solemnly ordain him to the holy office of the 
gospel ministry. Prayer being ended, he shall 
rise from his knees ; and the minister who pre- 
sides shall first, and afterward all the members 
of the presbytery in their order, take him by 
the right hand, saying, in words to this purpose, 
" We give you the right hand of fellowship, to 
** take part of this ministry with us." • After 
which the minister presiding, or some other 
appointed for the purpose, shall give a solemn 
charge in the name of God, to the newly 
ordained bishop, ' and to the people, « to per- 
severe in the discharge of their mutual duties ; 
and shall then, by prayer, recommend them 

k 1 Cor. ix. 7 to 16. 
c Acts xiii. 2, 8. 

* 1 Tim. iv. 14. 

• Gal. ii. 9. Acts i. 26. 
f 2 Tim. iv. 1, 2. 

f Mark iv. 24. Heb. ii. 1. See also letters (y), (^ 
and (fl), page 447. 

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Voiu OV QOTERKMSNT. 449 

toth to the grace of G-od, and his holy keeping, 
tod finally, after singing a pdalm, shall dismiss 
the congregation with the usual blessing. And 
the presbytery shall duly record the trans- 
action. 

XY. As it is sometimes desirable and im- 
portant that a candidate who has not received 
a call to be the pastor of a particular congre* 
gation, should, nevertheless, be ordained to the 
work of the gospel ministry, as an evangelist 
to preach the gospel, administer sealing ordi- 
nances, and organize churches, in frontier or 
destitute settlements ; in this case, the last of 
the preceding questions shall be omitted, and 
the following used as a substitute : — viz. 

Are you now willing to undertake the work 
of an evangelist ; and do you promise to dis- 
t^harge the duties which may be incumbent on 
you in this character, as God shall give you 
strength ? 

CHAPTER XVI. 

or TRANSLATION, OR REMOVING A MINISTER FROM ONl 
CHARGE TO ANOTHER. 

I. No bishop shall be translated from one 
church to another, nor shall he receive any call, 
for that purpose, but by the permission of the 
presbytery. 

II. Any church, desiring to call a settled 
minister from his present charge, shall, by com- 
missioners, properly authorized, represent to 

88* 

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460 VOEM OF OOYE&NMSIT. 

the presbytery the ground on which they pl^ad 
his removal. The presbytery, having maturely 
considered their plea, may, according as it ap« 
pears more or less reasonable, either recom- 
mend to them to desist from prosecuting the 
call, or may order it to be delivered to the 
minister to whom it is directed. If the parties 
be not prepared to have the matter issued at 
that presbytery, a written citation shall be 
given to the minister and his congregation, to 
appear before the presbytery at their next 
meeting. This citation shall be read from the 
pulpit in that church, by a member of the 
presbytery appointed for that purpose, imme> 
diately after public worship ; so that at least 
two Sabbaths shall intervene betwixt the cita- 
tion and the meeting of the presbytery at 
which the cause of translation is to be consid- 
ered. Xhe presbytery being met, and having 
heard the parties, shall, upon the whole view 
of the case, either continue him in his former 
charge, or translate him, as they shall deem to 
be mobt for the peace and edification of the 
church ; or refer the whole affair to the synod 
at their next meeting, for their advice and di- 
rection. 

III. When the congregation calling any set- 
. tied minister is witLin the limits of another 
presbytery, that congregation shall obtain leave 
from the presbytery to which they belong, to 
apply to the presbytery of which he is a mem- 
ber: and that presbytery, having cited him 



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CH. XVI.] JPORM OF GaVEBNMXNT. 45X 

and hi8 congregation as before directed, shall 
proceed to hear and issue the cause. If they 
agree to the translation, they shall release him 
from his present charge; and having given * 
him proper testimonials, shall require him to 
repair to that presbytery, within the bounds of 
which the congregation calling him lies, that 
the proper steps may be taken for his regular 
settlement in that congregation : and the pres- 
bytery to which the congregation belongs, hav- 
ing received an authenticated certificate of his* 
release, under the hand of the clerk of that 
presbytery, shall proceed to install him in the 
congregation, as soon as convenient. Provided 
always, that no bishop or pastor shall be trans- 
lated without his own consent previously ob- 
tained. 

IV. When any minister is to be settled in a 
congregation, the instalment, which consists in 
constituting a pastoral relation between him 
and the people of that particular church, may 
be performed either by the presbytery, or by a 
committee appointed for that purpose, as may 
appear most expedient : and the following or- 
der shall be observed therein : 

V. A day shall be appointed for the instal- 
ment at such time as may ^appear most conve- 
nient, and due notice thereof given to the con- , 
gregation. 

VI. When the presbytei*y, or committee 
shall be convened and constituted, on the day 
appointed, a sermon shall be delivered by some 

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452 VOKM OF GOVERNMENT. 

one of tbe members previously appointed tb^e- 
to ; immediately after which, the bishop who is 
to preside shall state to the congregation the 
design of their meeting, and briefly recite the 
proceedings of the presbytery relative thereto. 
And then, addressing himself to the minister to 
be installed, shall propose to him the following 
or similar questions : 

1. Ai-e you now willing to take the charge 
of this congregation, as their pastor, agreeably 
to vour declaration at accepting their call ? 

2. Do you conscientiously believe and de- 
clare, as far as you know your own heart, that 
in taking upon you this charge, you are influ- 
enced by a sincere desire to promote the glory 
of God, and the good of his church ? 

8. Do you solemnly promise, that, by the 
assistance of the grace of God, you will en- 
*deavour faithfully to discharge all the duties 
of a pastor to this congregation, and will be 
careful to maintain a deportment in all re- 
spects becoming a minister of the gospel of 
Christ, agreeably to your ordination engage- 
ments ? 

To all these having received satisfactory an- 
swers, be shall propose to the people the same 
or like questions as those directed under the 
bead of ordination ; which, having been also 
satisfactorily answered, by holding up the right 
hand in testimony of assent, he shall solemnly 
pronounce and declare the said minister to be 
regularly constituted the pastor of thai congre" 

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FORM OF GOVERN MENT. , 453 

gation. A charge shall then be giyen to both 
parties, as directed in the case of ordinatiqn ; 
and, after prayer, and singing a psalm adapted 
to the transaction, the congregation shall be 
dismissed with the usual benediction. 

VII. It is highly becoming, that, after the 
solemnity of the instalment, the heads of fami- 
lies of that congregation who are then present, 
or at least the elders, and those appointed to 
take care of the temporal concerns of that 
church, should come forward to their pastor, 
and give him their right hand, in token of cor« 
Aial reception and affectionate regard. 



CHAPTER XYII. 

OF BIISIGNINQ A FASTORAL CHABQS. 

When any minister shall labour undef such 
grievances in his congregation, as that he shall 
desire leave to resign his pastoral charge, the 
presbytery shall cite the congregation to ap- 
pear, by their commissioners, at their next 
meeting, to show cause, if any they have, why 
the presbytery should not accept the resigna- 
tion. If the congregation fail to appear, or 
if their reasons for retaining their pastor be 
deemed by the presbytery insufficient, he shall 
have leave granted to resign his pastoral 
charge, of which due record shall be made : 
and that church shall be held to be vacant. 
till supplied again, in an orderly, manner, with 

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454 TOItxV OF QOYERMMENT. 

another minister: and if any congregatioik 
shall desire to be released from their pastor, a 
similar process, mutatiB mutandis^ shall be ob- 
served. 



CHAPTER XYIIL 

OF MISSIONS. 



When vacancies become so numerous in any 
presbytery that they cannot be supplied with 
the frequent administration of the word and 
ordinances, it shall be proper for such presby- 
tery, or any vacant congregation within their 
bounds, with the leave of the presbytery, to 
apply to any other presbytery, or to any synod, 
or to the General Assembly, for such assistance 
as they can afford. And, when any presby- 
tery shall send any of their ministers or pro- 
bationers to distant vacancies, the missionary 
shall be ready to produce his credentials to the 
presbytery or presbyteries, through the bounds 
of which he may pass, or at least to a com- 
mittee thereof, and obtain their approbation. 
And the General Assembly may, of their 
own knowledge, send missions to any part to 
plant churches, or to supply vacancies : and, 
for this purpose, may direct any presbytery to 
ordain evangelists, or ministers without relation 
to particular churches : provided always, that 
such missions be made with the consent of the 

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FORM OI* OOY£RNMBNT. 455 

parties appointed ; and that the judicatory 
sending them, make the necessary provision 
for their support and reward in the performance 



of this service 



CHAPTER XIX. 

OF MODERATORS. 

I. It is equally necessary in the judicatories 
of the church, as in other assemblies that there 
should be a moderator or president ; that the 
business may be conducted with order and 
despatch. 

II. The moderator is to be considered as 
possessing, by delegation from the whole body, 
all authority^ necessary for the preservation of 
order ; for convening and adjourning the judi- 
catory ; and directing its operations according 
to the rules of the church. He is to propose 
to the judicatory every subject of deliberation 
that comes before them. He may propose 
what appears to hira the most regular and 
speedy way of bringing any business to issue. 
He shall prevent the members from interrupt- 
ing each other ; and rai|uire them, in speaking, 
always to address the chair. He shall prevent 
a speaker from deviating from the subject; 
and from using personal reflections. He shall 
silence those who refuse to obey order. He 
shall prevent members who attempt to leave 
the judicatory without leave obtained from 

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456 FORM OF OOYERNMENT. 

I 

him. He shall, at a proper season, vrhen the 
deliberations are ended, pat the question and 
call the votes. If the judicatory be equally 
divided, he shall possess the casting vote. If 
he be not willing to decide, he shall pat the 
question a second time; and if the judicatory 
be again equally divided, and he decline to 
give his'vote, the question shall be lost. In all 
questions he shall give a concise and clear state 
of the object of the vote ; and the vote being 
taken, shall then declare how the question is 
decided. And he shall likewise be empowered, 
on any extraordinary emergency, to convene 
the judicatory, by his circular letter, before the 
ordinary time of meeting. 

III. The moderator of the presbytery shall 
be chosen from year to year, or at every meet- 
ing of the presbytery, as the presbytery may 
think best. The moderator of the synod, and 
of the General Assembly, shall be chosen at 
each meeting of those judicatories: and the 
moderator, or, in case of his absence, another 
member appointed for the purpose, shall open 
the next meeting with a sermon, and shall hold 
the chair till a new moderator be chosen. 



CHAPTER XI. 

or CLERKS. 



Every judicatory shall choose a clerk, to 
record their transactions, whose continuance 

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^QBM OF OOTBRNUBrr. 467 

sball be during pleasure. It shall be the duty 
of the clerk) besides recording the transactions, 
.to preserve the records carefully ; and to grant 
extracts from them, whenever properly re- 
quired: and such extracts, under the hand 
of the clerk, shall be considered as authentic 
vouchers of the fact which they declare, in any 
ecclesiastical judicatory, and to every part of 
the church. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

OF VACANT CONGREGATIONS ASSEMBLING FOR PITBLIG 
WORSHIP. 

Considering the great importance of weekly 
assembling the people, for the public worship 
of God, in order thereby to improve their 
knowledge ; to confirm their habits of worship, 
and their desire of the public ordinances ; 
to augment their reverence for the most high 
God ; and to promote the charitable affections 
which unite men most firmly in society : it is 
recommended, that every vacant congregation 
meet together, on the Lord's day, at one or 
more places, for the purpose of prayer, singing 
praises, and reading the holy Scriptures, toge- 
ther with the works of such approved divines, 
as the presbytery, within whose bounds they 
are, may recommend, and they may be able to 
procure ; and that the elders or deacons be the 
persons who shall preside, and select the por- 
89 

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458 FORM. OF OOVEllNMfilfT. 

tions of Scripture, and of tho other books to be 
read ; and to 8ee that the whole be conducted 
in a becoming and orderly manner. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

or COKKISSIONERS TO THE GENERAL ASSEKBLT. 

I. The commissioners to the General Assem- 
bly shall always be appointed by the presbytery 
from which they come, at its last stated meet- 
ing, immediately preceding the meeting of the 
General Assembly ; provided, that there be a 
sufficient interval between that time and the 
meeting of the Assembly, for the commission- 
ers to attend to their duty in due season; other- 

• wise, the presbytery may make the appointment 
at any stated meeting, not more than seven 
months preceding the meeting of the Assembly. 
And as much as possible to prevent all failure 
in the representation of the presbyteries, aris- 
ing from unforeseen accidents to those first 
appointed, it may be expedient for each pres- 
bytery, in the room of each commissioner, to 
appoint also an alternate commissioner to sup- 
ply his place, in case of necessary absence. 

II. Each commissioner, before his name shall 
be enrolled as a member of the Assembly, shail 
produce from his presbytery, a commission 
under the hand of the moderator and clerk, in 
the following, or like form : viz. 

" The presbytery of being met at 

" on the day of 

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VOaM Of QOTX&NMENT. 459 

*^ doth hereby appoint ' bishop of the 

"congregation of . [or 

"ruling elder in the congregation of as 

" the case may be ;"] (to which the presbytery 
may, if they think proper, make a substitution 
in the following form) " or in case of his absence, 
** then bishop of the congregation of 

** [or ruling elder in the con- 

" gregation of as the case may be :] 

**to be a commissioner, on behalf of this presby- 
** tery, to the next General Assembly of the 
** Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
*^ America, to meet at on the 

** day of A. D. or wherever, 

** and whenever the said Assembly may happen 
^to sit; to consult, vote, and determine, on all 
** things that may come before that body, ac- 
** cordmg to the principles and constitution of 
** this church, and the word of God. And of . 
^^ his diligence herein, he is to render an ac- 
** count at his return. 

Signed hy order of the presbytery^ 

Moderator^ 
Clerhr 

And the presbytery shall make record of the 
appointment. 

III. In order, as far as possible, to procure 
a respectable and full delegation to all our ju- 
dicatories, it is proper that the expenses of 
ministers and elders in their attendance on 
these judicatories, be defrayed by the bodies 
which they respectively represent. 

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BOOK 11. 

OF DISCIPLINE. 

CHAPTER I. 

aSNEBAI. PRINCIPLES OF DISCIPLINE. 

I. Discipline is the exercise of that autho- 
rity and the application of that system of laws 
which the Lord Jesus Christ has appointed in 
his church. 

II. The exercise of discipline is highly inb- 
portant and necessary. Its ends are, the re^ 
moval of offences ; the vindication of the hon- 
our of Christ ; the promotion of the purity and 
general edification of the church ; and also the 
benefit of the offender himself. 

III. An offence is any thing in the princi- 
ples or practice of a church member, which is 
contrary to the word of God ; or which, if it 
be not in its own nature sinful, may tempt 
others to sin, or mar their spiritual edifical^ion. 

IV. Nothing, therefore, ought to be consid- 
ered by any judicatory as an offence, or ad- 
mitted as matter of accusation, which cannot 
be proved to be such from Scripture ; or from 
the regulations and practice of the church, 
founded on Scripture ; and which does not in- 
volve those evils, which discipline is intended 
to prevent. 

(460J 

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BISOIBLINJB. 461 

y. The exercise of discipline in each a man* 
ner as to edify the church, requires not only 
much of the spirit of piety, but also much pru* 
dence and discretion. It becomes the rulers 
of the church, therefore, to take into view all 
the circumstances which may give a different 
character to conduct, and render it more or less 
offensive ; and which may, of course, require a 
very different mode of proceeding in similar 
cases, at different times, for the attainment of 
the same end. 

YI. All baptized persons are members of the 
church, are under its care, and subject to its 
government and discipline: and when they 
have arrived at the years of discretion, they 
are bound to perform all the duties of church 
members. 

VII. Offences are either private or public 
to each of which, appropriate modes of pr(^ 
ceeding belong. 



CHAPTER 11. 

OF PRIVATE OFFENCES. 



I. Private offences are such as are known 
only to an individual, or, at most, to a very 
few. 

II. Private offences ought not to be imme- 
diately prosecuted before a church judicatory, 
because the objects of discipline may be quite 
as well, and, in many cases, much better at« 

89* 

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462 msocPLiNK. 

tained, hj a different coarse; and because a 
public prosecution, in such circumstances, would 
tend unnecessarily to spread the knowledge of 
offences, to exasperate and harden offenders, to 
extend angry and vexatious litigation, and thus 
to render the discipline of the church more 
injurious than the original offence. . 

III. No complaint or information, on the 
subject of personal and private injuries, shall 
be admitted, unless those means of reconcilia- 
tion, and of privately reclaiming the offender, 
have been used, which are required by Christ, 
Matt, xviii. 15, 16. And in case of offences, 
which, though not personal, are private, that 
is, known only to one, or a very few, it is proper 
to take the same steps, as far as circumstances 
admit. 

IV. Those who bring information of private 
and personal injuries before judicatories, with- 
out having taken these previous steps, shall 
themselves be censured, as guilty of an offence 
against the peace and order of the church. 

V. If any person shall spread the knowledge 
of an offence, unless so far as shall be unavoid- 
able, in prosecuting it before the proper judica- 
tory, or in the due performance of some other 
indispensable duty, he shall be liable to cen- 
sure, as a slanderer of his brethren. 



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DX80IPLIKB. 168 



CHAPTER III. 

OF PUBLIC OFFENCES. 

I. A PUBLio offence is that which is attended 
with such circumstances as to require the cog- 
nizance of a church judicatory. 

II. This is always the case when an offence 
is either so notorious and scandalous, as that 
no private steps would obviate its injurious 
effects ; or when, though originally known to 
one, or a few, the private steps have been in- 
effectual, and there is, obviously, no way of 
removing the offence, but by means of a judi- 
cial process. 

III. An offence, gross in itself, and known to 
several, may be so circumstanced, that it plainly 
cannot be prosecuted to conviction. In such 
cases, however grievous it may be to the pious, 
to see an unworthy member in the church, it is 
proper to wait until God, in his righteous provi- 
dence, shall give further light ; as few things 
tend more to weaken the authority of discipline, 
and to multiply offences, than to commence 
process without sufficient proof. 

IV. When any person is charged with a 
crime, not by an individual, or individuals, 
coming forward as accusers, but by general 
rumour, the previous steps prescribed by our 
Lord in case of private offences, are not neces- 
sary ; but the proper judicatory is bound to 
t%ke immediate cognizance of the affair. 



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464 BIBCIPIdNS. 

V. In order to render an offence proper for 
the cognizance of a judicatory on this ground, 
the rumour must specify some particular sin or 
sins ; it must be general, or widely spread ; it 
must not be transient, but permanent, and ratjier 

faining strength than declining : and it must 
e accompanied with strong presumption of 
truth. Taking up charges on this ground, of 
course, requires great caution, and the exercise 
of much Christian prudence. 

VI, It may happen, however, that in conse- 
quence of a report, which does not fully amount 
to a general rumor, as just described, a slan* 
dered individual may request a judicial inves- 
tigation, which it may be the duty of the judi- 
catory to institute. 



CHAPTER lY. 

or ACTUAL FROCISS. 



I. When all other means of removinfp an 
ofience have failed, the judicatory to which 
cognizance of it properly belongs, shall judi- 
cially take it into consideration. 

II. There are two modes in which an offence 
may be brought before a judicatory : either by 
an individual or individuals, who appear as 
accusers, and undertake to substantiate the 
charge ; or by common fame. 

III. In the former case, process must bo 

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BIBOIPIiINX. 465 

pursued in the name of the accuser or accu- 
sers. In the latter, there is no need of naming 
any person as the accuser. Common fame 
ifil the accuser. Yet a general rumor may be 
raised by the rashness, censoriousness, or mal- 
ice, of one or more individuals. When this 
appears to have been the case, such individ- 
uals ought to be censured in proportion to the 
degree of criminality which appears attached 
to their conduct. 

lY. Great caution ought to be exercised in 
receiving accusations from any person who is 
known to indulge a malignant spirit towards 
the accused ; who is not of good character ; 
who is himself under censure or process ; who 
is deeply interested, in any respect, in the con- 
viction of the accused; or who is known to be 
litigious, rash, or highly imprudent. 

V. When a judicatory enters on the consid- 
eration of a crime or crimes alleged, no more 
shall be done, at the first meeting, unless by 
consent of parties, than to give the accused a 
copy of each charge with the names of the wit- 
nesses to support it ; and to cite all concerned 
to appear at the next meeting of the judicatory, 
to have the matter fully heard and decided. 
Notice shall be given to the parties concerned, 
at least ten days previously to the meeting of 
the judicatory. 

YI. The citations shall be issued and signed 
by the moderator or clerk, by order, and in the 
name of the judicatory. He shall also furnish 

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4M DISOIFUNS. 

citatiofifl for such witneasea as the accused shall 
nomiDate, to appear on his behalf. 

YII. Although it is required that the accused 
t>e informed of the names of all the witnesses 
who are to be adduced against him, at leaat ten 
days before the time of trial, (unless he eon- 
49ent to waiye the right and proceed immedi- 
ately) It is not necessary that he, on his party 
give a similar notice to the judicatory of all 
the witnesses intended to be adduced by him 
for his exculpation. 

YUI. In exhibiting charges, the times, place% 
and circumstances should, if possible, be ascer- 
tained and stated, that the accused may have 
«n opportunity to prove an alibif or to extenu- 
ate or alleviate his offence. 

IX. The judicatory, in many cases, may find 
it more for edification, to send some members 
to converse, in a private manner, with the ao- 
oused person ; and if he confess his guilt, to ei^ 
deavour to bring him to repentance, than to 
proceed immediately to citation. 

X. When an accused person, or a witness, 
refuses to obey the citation, he shall be cited 
a second time; and if he still continue to 
refuse, he shall be excluded from the commu- 
nion of the church, for his contumacy, until he 
repent. 

XI. Although, on the first citation, the per- 
son cited shall declare in writing, or otherwise, 
his fixed determination not to obey it ; this 
declaration shall in no case, induce the judica- 



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CH. IT.] DXsom^Nx. 467 

torjr to Seriate from the regular couree pre- 
scribed for citations. They shall proceed as 
if no such declaration had been made. The 
person cited may afterwards alter his mind. 

XII. The time which must elapse between 
the 'first citation of an accused person, or a 
witness, and the meeting of the judicatory at 
which he is to appear, is at least ten days. But 
the time allotted for his appearance in the sub- 
sequent citation is left to the discretion of the 
judicatory ; provided always, however, that it 
be not less than is quite sufficient for a sea- 
sonable and convenient compliance with the 
citation. 

Xni. The second citation ought always to 
be accompanied with a notice, that if the per- 
son cited do not appear at the time appointed, 
the judicatory, besides censuring him for his 
contumacy, will, after assigning some person 
to manage his. defence, proceed to take the 
testimony in his case, as if he were present. 

XIV. Judicatories, before proceeding to 
trial, ought to ascertain that their citations 
have been duly served on the persons for whom 
they were intended, and especially before they 
proceed to ultimate measures for contumacy. 

XV. The trial shall be fair and impartial. 
The witnesses shall be examined in the pre- 
sence of the accused ; or, at least, after he 
shall have received due citation to attend ; and 
he shall be permitted to ask any questions 
tending to his own exculpation. 

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408 maoamm. 

XYL The judgment shall be regalsrly en* 
tered on the records of the jadicatory : and 
the parties shall be allowed copies of the whole 
proceedings, at their own expense, if they 
demand them. And in case of references or 
appeals, the judicatory referring, or appealed 
from, shall send authentic copies of the whole 
process to the higher judicatory. 

XVII. The person found guilty shall be ad* 
monished or rebuked, or excluded from chureh 
privileges, as the case shall appear to deserve, 
until he give satisfactory evidence of repent- 
ance. 

XVIII. As cases may arise in which many 
days, or even weeks, may intervene before it 
is practicable to commence process against an 
accused church member, the session may, in 
such cases, and ought, if they think the edifi- 
cation of the church requires it, to prevent the 
accused person from approaching the Lord's 
table until the charge against him can be ex- 
amined. 

XIX. The sentence shall be published only 
in the church or churches which have been 
offended. Or, if the offence be of small im- 
portance, and such as it shall appear most for 
edification not to publish, the sentence may 
pass only in the judicatory. 

XX. Such gross offenders as will not be re- 
claimed by the private or public admonitions 
of the church, are to be cut off from its com- 
munion, agreeably to our Lord's direction. 

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CH. rv.] Btflcipuirai. 469 

Matt, xviii. 17, and the apcetolical injunc- 
tion respecting the incestaous person, 1 Cor. y. 
lto5. 

XXL No professional counsel shall be per- 
mitted to appear and plead in cases of process 
in any of our ecclesiastical courts. But if any 
accused person feel unable to represent and 
plead his own cause to adyantage, he may re- 
quest any minister or elder, belonging to the 
judicatory before which he appears, to prepare 
and exhibit his cause as he may judge proper. 
But the minister or elder so engaged, shall not 
be &llowedy after pleading the cause of the ac- 
cused, to sit in judgment as a member of the 
•judicatory. 

XXII. Questions of order, which arise in the 
course of process, shall be decided by the mo- 
derator. If an appeal is made from the chair, 
the question on the appeal shall be taken with- 
out debate. 

XXIII. In recording the proceedings, in 
cases of judicial process, the reasons for all 
decisions, except on questions of order, shall 
be recorded at length ; that the record may 
exhibit every thing which had an influence on 
the judgment of the court. And nothing but 
vrbat is contained in the record, may be taken 
into consideration in reviewing the proceedings 
in a superior court. 

40 



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470 Bi8on*LiNis. 

CHAPTER y. 

or PKOCESS AQAIN8T ▲ BISHOP OB MINISTXB. 

I. As the honour and success of the gospel 
depend, in a great measure, on the character 
of its ministers, each presbytery ought, with 
the greatest care and impartiality, to watch 
over the personal and professional conduct of 
all its members. But as, on the one hand, no 
minister ought, on account of his oflSce, to be 
screened from the hand of justice, nor his of- 
fences to be slightly censured ; so neither ought 
scandalous charges to be received against him,, 
by any judicatory, on slight grounds. 

II. Process against a gospel minister shall 
always be entered before the presbytery of 
which he is a member. And the same can- 
dour, caution, and general method, substitu- 
ting only the presbytery for the session, are to 
be observed in investigating charges against 
him, as are prescribed in the case of private 
members. 

III. If it be found that the facts with which 
a minister stands charged, happened without 
the bounds of his own presbytery, that presby- 
tery shall send notice to the presbytery, within 
whose bounds they did happen, and desire 
them either (if within convenient distance) to 
cite the witnesses to appear at the place of 
trial ; or (if the distance be s6 great as to ren- 
der that inconvenient) to t^e the examination 

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DZ80IPLINJB. 471; 

themselves, and transmit an authentic record 
of their testimony: always giving due notice 
to the accused person of the time and place of 
such examination. 

IV. Nevertheless, in case of a minister being 
supposed to be guilty of a crime, or crimes, at 
such a distance from his usual place of resi- 
dence, as that the offence is not likely to be- 
come otherwise known to the presbytery to 
which he belongs ; it shall, in such case, be the 
duty of the presbytery within whose bounds 
the facts shall have happened, after satisfying 
themselves that there is probable ground of ac** 
cusation, to send notice to the presbytery of 
vhich he is a member, who are to proceed 
against him, and either send and take the tes-^ 
timony themselves, by a commission of their 
own body, or request the other presbytery to 
take it for them, and transmit the same, pro- 
perly authenticated* 

y. Process against a gospel minister shall 
not be commenced, unless some person or per- 
sons undertake to make out the charge ; or un- 
less common fame so loudly proclaims the 
scandal, that the presbytery find it necessary, 
for the honour of religion, to investigate the 
charge. 

VI. As the success of the gospel greatly de- 
pends upon the exemplary character of its 
ministers, their soundness in the faith, and holy 
conversation; and as it is the duty of all 
Christains to be very cautious in taking up a{i 



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472 mecsPLSHM. 

ill report of any man, bat« especially of a min- 
ister of the gospel ; therefore, if any mau knows 
a minister to be guilty of a private, censarable 
fault, he should warn him in private. But if 
the guilty person persist in his fault, or it be- 
come public, he who knows it should apply to 
some other bishop of the presbytery for his ad* 
vice in the case. 

YII. The prosecutor of a mmister shall be 
previously warned, that if he fail to prove the 
charges, he must himself be censured as a slan- 
derer of the gospel ministry, in proportion to 
the malignancy or rashness that shall appear in 
the prosecution. 

yill. When complaint is laid before the 
presbytery, it must be reduced to writing ; and 
nothing further is to be done at the first meet- 
ing, (unless by consent of parties) than giving 
the minister a full copy of the charges, with 
the na^mes of the witnesses annexed ; and citins 
all parties, and their witnesses, to appear and 
be heard at the next meeting ; which meeting 
shall not be sooner than ten days after such 
citation. 

IX. When a member of a church judicatory 
is under process, it shall be discretionary with 
the judicatory whether his privileges of de- 
liberating and voting, as a member, in other 
matters, shall be suspended until the process is 
finally issued, or not. 

X. At the next meeting of the presbytery, 
the charges shall be read to him^ and he shall 



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OH. y.] DISCIPLINE^ 47& 

be called upon to say whether he is guilty or 
not. If he confess, and the matter be base and 
flagitious; such as drunkenness^ uncleanness, 
or crimes of a higher nature, however penitent 
he may appear, to the satisfaction of all, the 
presbytery must, without delay, suspend him 
from the exercise of his office, or depose him 
from the ministry ; and, if the way be clear for 
the purpose, appoint him a due time to confess 
publicly before the congregation offended, and 
to profess his penitence. 

XI. If a minister accused of atrocious crimes, 
being twice duly cited, shall refuse to attend 
the presbytery, he shall be immediately sus- 
pended. And if, after another citation, he still 
refuse to attend, he shall be deposed as contu* 
macious. 

XII. If the minister, when he appears, will 
not confess ; but denies the facts alleged against 
him ; if, on hearing the witnesses, the charges 
appear important, and well supported, the pres^ 
bytery must, nevertheless, censure him ; and 
admonish, suspend, or depose him, according 
to the nature of the offence. 

XIII. Heresy and schism may be of such a 
natui-e as to infer deposition ; but errors ought 
to be carefully considered ; whether they strike 
at the vitals of i^eligion, and are industriously 
spread ; or, whether they arise from the weak- 
ness of the human understanding, and are not 
likely to do much injury. 

XIV. A minister under process for heresy 

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474 nsoiPLiNS. 

or schism, should be treated with Christian and 
brotherly tenderness. Frequent conferences 
ought to be held with him, and proper admoni- 
tions administered. For some more dangerous 
errors, however, suspension may become ne- 
cessary. ^ 

XV. If the presbytery find, on trial, that 
the matter complained of amounts to no more 
than such acts of infirmity as may be amended, 
and the people satisfied; so that little or 
nothing remains to hinder his usefulness, they 
shall take all prudent measures to remove the 
ofience. 

XYI. A minister deposed for scandalous 
conduct, shall not be restored, even on the 
deepest sorrow for his sin, until after some 
time of eminent and exemplary, humble and 
edifying conversation, to heal the wound made 
by his scandal. And he ought in no case to 
be restored, until it shall appear, that the 
sentiments of the religious public are strongly 
in his favour, and demand his restoration. 

XVII. As soon as a minister is deposed, his 
congregation shall be declared vacant. 



CHAPTER VI. 

or WITNSSSIS. 



I. Judicatories ought to be very careful 
and impartial in receiving testimony. All per- 

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DlflOIFLINB. 475 

fions are not competent as witnessess ; and all 
who are competent are not credible. 

IL A competent witness is one who ought 
to be admitted and heard. The competency 
of a witness may be affected by his want of 
the proper age ; by a want of any of the senses' 
essential to a knowledge of the matter which 
he is called to establish; by. weakness of un- 
derstanding ; by infamy of character ; by being 
under church censure for falsehood or perjury ; 
by ne^umess of relationship to any of the par- 
ties; and by a variety of considerations which 
cannot be specified in detail. 

III. Where there is room for doubt with 
regard to any of these points, either party has 
a right to challenge witnesses ; and the judica-* 
tory shall candidly attend to the exceptions, 
and decide upon them. 

IV. The credibility of a witness, or the 
degree of credit due to his testimony, may be 
affected by relationship to any of the parties ; 
by deep interest in the result of the trial ; by 
general rashness, indiscretion, or malignity of 
character; and by various other circumstances ; 
to which judicatories shall carefully attend, and 
for which they shall make all proper allowance 
in their decision. 

V. A husband or wife shall not be com- 
pelled to bear testimony against each other in 
any Judicatory. 

vl. The testimony of more than one witness 
is necessary in order to establish any charge ; 

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476 DISCIPLINE. 

. yet if several credible witnesses bear testimony 
to different similar acts, belonging to the same 
general charge, the crime shall be considered 
as proved. ' : 

VII. No witness, afterward to be examined^ 
except a member of the judicatory, shall bo 
present during the examination of another 
witness on the same case, unless by consent of 
parties. 

VIII. To prevent confusion, witnesses shall 
be examined first by the party introducing them, 
then cross-examined by the opposite party: 
after which, any member of the judicatory, or 
either, party, may put additional interroga- 
tories. But no question shall be put or 
^answered, except by permission of the mod^ 
rator. 

IX. The oath or aflBrmation to a witness, 
shall be administered by the moderator, in the 
following or like terms : " You solemnly pro* 
" mise, in the presence of the omniscient and 
** heart-searching God, that you will declare the 
** truth, the whole truth, and nothing" but the 
" truth, according to the best of your knowledge, 
*' in the matter in which you are called to wit- 
"ness, as you shall answer it to the great Judge 
>' of quick and dead.** 

X. Every question put to a witness shall, if 
required, be reduced to writing. When an- 
swered, it shall, together with the answer, be 
recorded, if deemed by either party of sofficient 
importance. 

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OH. VI.] DisoiPUinB. 477 

XI. The records of a judicatory, or any part 
of them, whether original or transcribed, if 
regularly authenticated by the moderator and 
clerk, or either of them, shall be deemed good 
and sufficient evidence in every other judica- 
tory- 

All. In like manner, testimony taken by 
one judicatory, and regularly certified, shall 
be received by every other judicatory, as no 
Iftss valid than if it had been taken by them- 
selves. 

XIII. Cases may arise in which it is not 
convenient for a judicatory to have the whole, 
or, perhaps, any part of the testimony in a 
particular cause,. taken in their presence. In 
this case a commission of the judicatory, con- 
sisting of two or three members, may be ap- 
pointed, and authorized to proceed to the place 
where the witness or witnesses reside, and 
take the testimony in question, which shall be 
considered as if taken in the presence of the 
judicatory : of which commission, and of the 
time and place of their meeting, due notice 
shall be given to the opposite party, that he 
may have an opportunity of attending. And 
if the accused shall desire on his part to take 
testimony at a distance, for his own exculpa- 
tion, he shall give notice to the judicatory of 
the time and place when it is proposed to take 
it, that a commission, as in the former case, 
may be appointed for the purpose. 

XIV. When the witnesses have all been ex- 

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478 IffgQIPLINI 

umined, tbe accused and the prosecutor sliall 
bave the privilege of commenting on their teft- 
timony to any reasonable extent. 

X V . A member of the judicatory may be 
called upon to bear testimony in a case which 
comes before it. He shall be qualified as 
other witnesses are; and after having given 
his testimony, he may immediately resume his 
seat as a member of the judicatory. 

XVL A member of the church summoned 
as a witness, and refusing to appear, or, hav- 
ing appeared, refusing to give testimony, may 
be censured for contumacy, according to the 
circumstances of the case. 

XVII. The testimony given by witnesses^ 
must be faithfully recorded, and read to them, 
for their approbation or subscription. 



CHAPTER VII. 

OP THE VARIOUS WATS IN WHICH A CAUSE MAT BB 
CARRI£l> FROM A LOWER JUDICATORT TO A HIGHER. 

I. In all governments conducted by men, 
wrong may be done, from ignorance, from pre- 
judice, from malice, or from other causes. To 
prevent the continued existence of this wrong, 
is one great design of superior judicatories. 
And although there must be a last resort, be- 
yond which there is no appeal ; yet the secu- 
rity against permanent wrong will be as great 
as the nature of the case admits, when those 

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BISOIPLIKE. 479 

who had no concern in the origin of the pro- 
ceedings, are brought; to review them, and to 
annul or confirm them, as they see cause; 
when a greater number of counsellors are made 
to sanction the judgments, or to correct the 
errors of a smaller ; and, finally, when the 
whole church is called to sit in judgment on the 
acts of a part. 

II. Every kind of decision which is formed 
in any church judicatory, except the highest, is 
subject to the review of a superior judicatory, 
And may be carried before it in one or the 
other of the four following ways. 



SECTION I. 

GSNSBA.L REVIEW AND CONTROL. 

I. It is the duty of every judicatory above ' 
a church session, at least once a year, to re- 
view the records of the proceedings of the ju- 
dicatory next below. And if any lower judi- 
catory shall omit to send up its records for this 
purpose, the higher may issue an order to pro- 
duce them, either immediately, or at a particu- 
lar time, as circumstances may require. 

II, In reviewing the records of an inferior 
judicatory, it is proper to examine, First, 
Whether the ' proceedings have been constitu- 
tional and regular: Secondly, Whether they 
have been wise, equitable, and for the edifica- 
tion of the church; Thirdly, Whether they 
have been correctly recorded. 

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480 DisoiFcnni 

m. In most cases the superior judicatorj 
maj be considered as fulfilUng its dntj, by 
simply recording, on its own minutes, the 
animadversion or censure which it may think 
proper to pass on records under review ; and 
also by making an entry of the same in the 
book reviewed. But it may be that, in the 
course of review, cases of irregular proceedings 
may be found so disreputable and injurious as 
to demand the interference of the superior 
judicatory. In cases of this kind the inferior 
judicatory may be required to review and cor* 
rect its proceedings. 

IV. No judicial decision, however, of a judi- 
catory shall be reversed, unless it be regularly 
brought up by appeal or complaint. 

y. Judicatories may sometimes entirely neg- 
lect to perform their duty ; by which neglect, 
heretical opinions or corrupt practices may be 
allowed to gain ground ; or offenders of a very 
gross character may be suffered to escape : or 
some circumstances in their proceedings, of 
very great irregularity, may not be distinctly 
recorded by them. In any of which cases^ 
their records will by no means exhibit to the 
superior judicatory a full view of their proceed- 
ings. If, therefore, the superior judicatory be 
well advised, by common fame, that such neg- 
lects or irregularities have occurred on the part 
of the inferior judicatory, it is incumbent on 
them to take cognizance of the same ; and to 
examine, deliberate, and judge in the whole 

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CH vn.] ' DimvKiNB. 4S1 

inatteir, as completely as if it had been re- 
corded, and thus brought up by the review of 
the records. 

YL* When any important delinquency, or 
grossly unconstitutional proceedings, appear in 
the records of any judicatory, or are charged 
against them by common fame, the first step 
to be taken by the judicatory next above, is to 
cite the judicatory alleged to have offended, to 
appear at a specified time and place, and to 
show what it has done, or failed to do in the 
case in question : after which the judicatory 
thus issuing the citation, shall remit the whole 
matter to the delinquent judicatory, with a 
direction to take it up, and dispose of it in a 
constitutional manner, or stay all further pro* 
ceedings in the case, as circumstances may 
require. 



SECTION II. 

OV BXFSBBIfCBfl. 

I. A REFERENCB is a judicial representation, 
made by an inferior judicatory to a superior, 
of a case not yet decided ; which representa- 
tion ought always to be in writing. 

II. Cases which are new, important, difficult, - 
of peculiar delicacy, the decision of which may 
establish principles or precedents of extensive 
influence, on which the sentiments of the infe* 
rior judicatory are greatly divided, or on which, 
for any reason, it is highly desirably that a 

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4SSr joscnojxm. 

larger body should first decide, are proper auIk 
jects of reference/ 

III. References are either for mere advice, 
preparatory to a decision by the inferiop judi- 
catory ; or for ultimate trial and decision by the 
superior. 

IV. In the former case, the reference only 
suspends the decision of the judicatory from 
which it comes : in the latter case, it totally 
relinquishes the decision, and submits the whole 
cause to the final judgment of the superior 



V. Although reference may in some cases, as 
before stated, be highly proper ; yet it is, gene- 
rally speaking, more conducive to the public 
good, that each judicatory should fulfil its duty 
by exercising its judgment. 

VI. Although a reference ought, generally, 
to procure advice from the superior judicatory ; 
yet that judicatory is not necessarily bound to 
give a final judgment in the case, even if re- 
quested to do so; but may remit the whole 
cause, either with or without advice, back to 
the judicatory by which it was referred. 

VII. In case of reference, the members of 
the inferior judicatory making it, retain all the 
privileges of deliberating and voting, in the 
course of trial and judgment before the supe- 
rior judicatory, which they would have had, if 
no reference had been made. 

VIII. Beferences are, generally, to be car- 
ried to t^e judicatory immediately superior. 

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CH. Yii.] vimanm: 

IX. In cases of reference, the judicatory re- 
ferring ought to have all the testimony^ and 
other documents, duly prepared, produced, and 
in perfect readiness ; so that the superior judi- 
catory may be able to consider and issue the 
case with as little difficulty or delay as possible. 



SECTION m. 

or APPIAL8. 

I. An appeal is the removal of a cause 
already decided, from an inferior to a superior 
judicatory, by a party aggrieved. 

II. All persons who have submitted to a 
regular trial in an inferior, may appeal to a 
higher judicatory. 

III. Any irregularity in the proceedings of 
the inferior judicatory ; a refusal of reasonable 
indulgence to a party on trial ; declining to 
receive important testimony; hurrying to a 
decision beforfe the testimony is fully taken; 
a manifestation of prejudice in the case ; and 
mistake or injustice in the decision — are all 
proper grounds of appeal. 

IV. Appeals may be, either from a part of 
the proceedings of a judicatory, or from a defi- 
nitive sientence. 

V. Every appellant is bound to give notice 
of his intention to appeal, and also to lay the 
reasons thereof, in writing, before the judica- 
tory appealed from, either before its rising, or 
within ten days thereafter. If this vtotice, or 

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494 DfSCOFLINS. 

these ' reasons, be not giren to the judicatory 
while in session, they shall be lodged with the 
moderator. 

yi. Appeals are generally to be carried in 
regular gradation^ from an inferior judicatory 
to the one immediately superior. 

yiL The appellant shall lodge his appeal, 
and the reasons of it, with the clerk of the 
higher judicatory, before the close of the second 
day of their session. 

YIIL In taking up an appeal, after ascer- 
taining that the appellant on his part has con- 
ducted it regularly, the first step shall be to 
read the sentence appealed from : secondly, to 
read the reasons which were assigned by the 
appellant for his appeal, and which are on 
record : thirdly, to read the whole record of 
the proceedings of the inferior judicatory ia 
the case, including all the testimony, and the 
reasons of their decision : fourthly, to hear the 
original ^parties : fifthly, to hear any of the 
members of the i'nferior judicatory, in explana> 
tion of the grounds of their decision, or of their 
dissent from it. 

IX. After all the parties shall have been 
fully heard, and all the information gained by 
the members of the superior judicatory, from 
those of the inferior, which shall be deemed 
requisite, the original parties, and all the mem- 
bers of the inferior judicatory, shall withdraw ; 
when the clerk shall call the roll, that every 
member may have an opportunity to ezpresa 

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OH. vn.J macaum, 488 

his opinion on the case ; after which the final 
vote shall be taken. 

X. The decision may be either to confirm or 
reverse, in whole, or in part, the decision of 
the inferior judicatory ; or to remit the cause, 
for the purpose of amending the record, should 
it appear to be incorrect or defective ; or for a 
new trial. 

XI. If an appellant, after entering his appeal 
to a superior judicatory, fail to prosecute it, it 
shall be considered as abandoned, and the sen- 
tence appealed from shall be final. And an 
appellant shall be considered as abandoning 
his appeal, if he do not appear before the judi* 
catory appealed to, on the first or second day 
of its meeting, next ensuing the date of his 
notice of appeal : except in cases in which 
the appellant can make it appear that he was 
prevented from seasonably prosecuting his ap- 
peal by the providence of God. 

XII. Members of judicatories appealed from 
cannot be allowed to vote in the superior judi- 
catory, on any question connected with the 
appeal. 

XIII. If the members of the inferior judi- 
catory, in case of a sentence appealed from, 
appear to have acted according to the best of 
their judgment, and with good intention, they 
incur no censure, although their sentence be 
reversed. Yet, if they appear to have acted 
irregularly or corruptly, they shall be censured 
as the case may require. 

41* 

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XIY. If SB appellant » fomid to manifeBt a 
litigious or other nnehristiaB spirit, in the pnn 
ieeiitioii of his appeal, lie shaD be censored 
according to the degree of his offence. 

Xy . The n c c caoa iy operation of an appeal 
is, to suspend all further proceedings on the 
groond of the sentence appealed from. Bat if 
a sentence of sospension, or ezconunanication 
from church priTileges, or of deposition from 
office, be the sentence appealed from, it sfaaU 
be considered as in force until the appeal shall 
be issued. 

XYL It shall always be deemed the dntj 
of the judicatory, whose judgment is appealed 
from, to send authentic copies of all their re> 
cords, and of the whole testimony relating to 
the matter of the appeal. Aild if any judica- 
tory shall neglect its duty in this respect ; espe- 
cially, if thereby an appellant, who has con- 
ducted with regularity on his part, is depriTed 
of the privilege of having his appeal season- 
ably issued ; such judicatory shall be cen- 
sured according to the circumstances of the 
case. 

XVII. An appeal shall in no case be en- 
teredy except by one of the original parties. 



SECTION IV. 

Of OOMPLAIHTS. 



I. Another method by which a cause 
Mch has been decided by an interior judica- 

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CH. yn.] macsphim. 48f 

ibrjj iDAj he carried before a superior, is by 
complaint. 

II. A complaint is a representation made ic 
a superior, by any member or members of a 
minority of an inferior judicatory, or by any 
other person or 3)ersons, respecting a decision 
by an inferior judicatory, which, in the opin* 
ion of the complainants, has been irregularly 
or unjustly made. 

III. The cases in which complaint is proper 
and advisable, are such as the following, vias; 
The judgment of an inferior judicatory may 
be favourable to the only party who has been 
placed at their bar ; or the judgment in ques- 
tion may do no wrong to any individual ; or the 
party who is aggrieved by it may decline thd 
trouble of conducting an appeal. In any of these 
cases no appeal is to be expected. And yet 
the judgment may appear to som^ of the mem- 
bers of the judicatory, to be contrary to the 
constitution of the church, injurious to the 
interests of religion, and calculated to degrade 
the character of those who have pronounced 
it. In this case the minority have not only a 
right to record, in the minutes of the judica- 
tory, their dissent from this judgment, or their 
protest against it, but they have also a right 
to complain to the superior judicatory. 

IV. Notice of a complaint shall always be 
given before the rising of the judicatory, or 
within ten days thereafter, as in case of aa 
appeal. 

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188 disctpline: 

T. This complaint brings the whole proceed* 
ings in the case under the review of the supe- 
rior judicatory ; and if the complaint appears 
to be well founded, it may have the effect not 
only of drawing down censure upon those 
who concurred in the judgment complained 
of; but also of reversing that judgment, and 
placing matters in the same situation in which 
they were before the judgment was pronounced. 

VI. In cases of complaint, however, as in 
those of appeal, the reversal of a judgment of 
an inferior judicatory is not necessarily con* 
nected with censure on that judicatory. 

VII. None of the members of the judica- 
tory whose act is complained of, can vote in 
the superior judicatory, on any question con- 
nected with the complaint. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF PISSSNTS AND PROTESTS. 

I. A DISSENT is a declaration on the part 
of one or more members of a minority, in a 
judicatory, expressing a different opinion from 
that of the majority in a particular case. A 
dissent, unaccompanied with reasons, is always 
entered on the records of the judicatory. 

II. A protest is a more solemn and formal 
declaration, made by members of a minority 
as before-mentioned; bearing their testimony 

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DiscnpuNV. 48^ 

agftbfit what tb^y deem a misohievous or erro- 
neous judgment ; and is generally accompanied 
ivith a detail of the reasons on which it is 
founded. 

III. If a protest or dissent be coached in 
decent and respectful language, and contain 
no offensive reflections or insinuations against 
the majority of the judicatory, those who offer 
it have a right to have it recorded on the 
minutes. 

IV. A dissent or protest may be accompa- 
nied with a complaint to a superior judicatory^ 
or not, at the pleasure of those who offer it* 
If not thus accompanied, it is simply left to 
speak for itself, when the records containing 
it come to be reviewed by the superior judi- 
catory, 

y. It may sometimes happen that a protest, 
though not infringing the rules of decorum, 
either in its language or matter, may impute 
to the judicatory, whose judgment it opposes 
some principles or reasonings which it never 
adopted. In this case the majority of the ju- 
dicatory may with propriety appoint a com- 
mittee to draw up an answer to the protest, 
which, after being adopted as the act of the 
judicatory, ought to be inserted on the records. 

VI. When, in such a case, the answer of the 
majority is brought in, those who entered their 
protest may be of the opinion that fidelity t6 
their cause calls upon them to make a reply to 
the answer. This, however, ought by no means 

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400 BIBOIPUNS. 

to be admitted; as the majority might, of 
course, rejoin, and litigation might be perpet- 
uated, to the great inconvenience and disgrace 
of the judicatory. 

VIL When, however, those who have pro- 
tested, consider the answer of the majority as 
imputing to them opinions or conduct which 
they disavow; the proper course is to ask 
leave to take back their protest, and modify it 
in such manner as to render it more agreeable 
to their views. This alteration may lead to a 
corresponding alteration in the answer of the 
majority ; with which the whole affair ought to 
terminate. 

YIII. None can join in a protest against a 
decision of any judicatory, excepting those 
who had a right to vote in said decision* 



CHAPTER IX. 

« NEW TESTIMONY. 

I. If, after a trial before any judicatory, new 
testimony be discovered, which is supposed to 
be highly important to the exculpation of the 
accused, it is proper for him to ask, and for the 
judicatory to grant, a new trial. 

II. It sometimes happens, in the prosecution 
6f appeals, that testimony, which had not been 
exhibited before the inferior judicatory, is re- 
presented to exist, and to be of considerable 
importance in the case. 

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mBoiPLiNii. 491 

m. Representations of this kind ought not 
to be lightly, or of course, sustained. But the 
superior judicatory ought to be well satisfied, 
that the alleged testimony is of real importance, 
before they determine to put the inferion judi- 
catory to the trouble of a new trial. 

IV. When such testimony, therefore, is al- 
leged to exist, either by the appellant, or the 
judicatory appealed from, it will be proper for 
the superior judicatory to inquire into the na- 
ture and import of the testimony ; what is in- 
tended to be proved by it ; and, whether there 
is any probability that it will really establish 
the point intended to be established. 

V. If it appear that the fact proposed to be 
established by the new testimony is important ; 
that is, if it appear to be such a fact as, if 
proved, would materially alter the aspect of the 
cause ; and if there be any probability that the 
testimony in question will be sufficient to es- 
tablish the alleged fact ; then the superior judi- 
catory ought to send the cause' back to the 
inferior for a new trial. 

VI. Cases may arise, however, in which the 
judicatory appealed from, and the appellant 
may concur in requesting the superior judicatory 
to take up and issue the appeal, with the ad- 
ditional light which the new evidence may 
aflford. » In this case, and especially if very 
serious injury is likely to happen, either to 
the appellant, or to the church, by the delay 
which a new trial would occasion, the superior 

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4fA. pneisLiirB. 

judicatory may proceed to hear the new testf* 
XQony, and to issne the appeal, with the aid of 
the additional light which that testimony may 
afford. 

VII. When, however, the judgment of tiie 
inferior judicatory is reversed ; and it is ap^ 
parent that the new testimony had considera- 
ble influence in procuring the reversal ; it onght 
to be so stated in the decision of the superior 
judicatory ; inasmuch as it would be injustice 
to the inferior judicatory to reverse their deci-' 
aion, upon grounds which were never b^or« 
them, without explaining the fact. 



CHAPTER X. 

JURISDICTION. 



L When a member shall be dismissed from 
one church, with a view to his joining another, 
if he commit an offence previous to his joining 
the latter, he shall be considered as under the 
jurisdiction of the church which dismissed him, 
and amenable to it, up to the time when he 
actually becomes connected with that to which 
he was dismissed and recommended. 

II. The same principle applies to a minister, 
who is always to be considered as remaining 
under the jurisdiction of the presbytery which 
dismissed him, until he actually becomes a 
memhar of another. 



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Di8ei3Pi;iNX. 49S 

' III. If, however, either s minister, or a prt 
vate member, shall be charged with a crime 
which appears to have been committed daring 
the interval between the date of his dismission^ 
and his actually joining the new body, but 
which did not come to light until after he had 
joined the new body, that body shall be em- 
powered and bound to conduct the process 
against him* 

• IV. No presbytery shall dismiss a minister, 
or licentiate, or candidate for licensure, without 
specifying the particular presbytery, or other 
ecclesiastical body, with which he is to be con« 
nected. 



CHAPTER XL 



LIMITATION OF TIME. 



I. When any member shall remove from 
one congregation to another, he shall produce 
satisfactory testimonials of his church member- 
ship and dismission, before he be admitted as 
a regular member of that church ; unless the 
church to which he removes has other satisfac- 
tory means of information. 

II. No certificate of church membership 
shall be considered as valid testimony of the 
good standing of the bearer, if it be more than 
one year old, except where there has been no 
opportunity of presenting it to a church. 

III. When persons remove to a distance- 

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494 DisciPLniK. 

Mid neglect, for a consi(lerable time, to apply 
for testimonials of dismission, and good stand* 
ing, the testimonials given them shall testify to 
their character only up to the time of their 
removal, unless the judicatory have good infor- 
mation of a more recent date. 

lY. If a church member have been more 
than two years absent from the place of his 
ordinary residence and ecclesiastical connec- 
tions, if he apply for a certificate of member- 
ship, his absence, and the ignorance of the 
church respecting his demeanour for that time^ 
shall be distinctly stated in the certificate. 

y. Process, in case of scandal, shall com- 
mence within the space of one year after the 
crime shall have been committed; unless it 
shall have recently become flagrant. It may 
happen, however, that a church member, after 
removing to a place far distant from his former 
residence, and where his connection with the 
church is unknown, may commit a crime, on 
account of which process cannot be institued 
within the time above specified. In all such 
cases, the recent discovery of the church mem- 
bership of the individual, shall be considered 
as equivalent to the crime itself having recently 
become flagrant. The same principle also ap- 
plies to ministers if similar circumstances should 
occur. 



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TH£ 

DIRECTORY 



W0B6HIP OF GOD IN THB PRESBTTERIAU CHUKOH 
IN* THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,* 

AB liMBHDB]) AMD &ATXFnBD BY TBS 6BHBBAL AggBMBLT, 
In May, 1821. 



CHAPTER!. 

OT fHB SANCMFICATION OF THB LORD's DAT, 

I. It is the duty of every person to remember 
♦te Lord's day; and to prepare for it, before 
its approach. All worldly business should be 
00 ordered, and seasonably laid aside, as that 
apre may not be hindered thereby from sancti- 
fying the Sabbath, as the Holy Scriptures re- 
quire. 

II. The whole day is to be kept wholly to the 
Lord ; and to be employed in the public an4 
private exercises of religion. Therefore, it is 
requisite, that there be a holy resting, all the 
day, from unnecessary labours; and an ab* 
staining from those recreations which may 

• The Scripture-warrant for what is specified in thB 
▼arions articles of this directory, will be found at large 
in the Confession of Faith and Catechisms, in the places 
where the subjects are treated in a doctrinal form. 

(496) 

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406 DIRICTOBT TOB WOBBHSP. 

be lawful on other days ; and also, as much 
as possible, from worldly thoughts and conver- 
sation. 

III. Let the provisions for the support of the 
family on that day, be so ordered, that servants 
or others be not improperly detained from the 
public worship of God; nor hindered from 
Sanctifying the Sabbath. 

lY. Let every person and family, in the 
morning, by secret and private prayer, for them- 
selves and others, especially for the assistance 
of God to their minister, and for a blessing upon 
his ministry, by reading the Scriptures, and by 
holy meditation, prepare for communion with 
God in his public ordinances. 

V. Let tne people be careful to assemble at 
the appointed time ; that, being all present at 
ihe beginning, they maytmite, with one heart| 
in all the parts of public worship : and let none 
unnecessarily depart, till after the blessing be 
|>ronounced. 

YI. Let the time after the solemn services 
x>{ the congregation in public are over, be spent 
in reading, meditation, repeating of sermons, 
catechizing, religious conversation, prayer for 
a blessing upon the public ordinances, the sing- 
ing of psalms, hymns, or spiritual songs ; — 
visiting the sick, relieving the poor, and in per- 
forming such like duties of piety, charity, and 
mercy. 



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^BMXOilT IDR W0R8BXP; t0V 



CHAPTER 11. 

or THE 18SEMBLINQ OF THE CONQREQATION, AND THIIl 
BEHAVIOUR DURING DITINB SERYICB. 

I. When the time appointed for public wor- 
ship is come, let the people enter the churchj 
and take their seats in a decent, grave, ana 
reverent manner. 

II. In time of public worship, let all thd 
people attend with gravity and reverence ; for- 
bearing to read any thing, except what the 
xninister is then reading or citing ; abstaining 
from all whisperings, from salutations of persons 
present, or coming in ; and from gazing about, 
sleeping, smiling, and all other indecent beha- 
viour. 



CHAPTER III. 

or THB PUBLIC BEADINQ OF THE HOLY SCBIPTUBIS. • 

I. The reading of the Holy Scriptures, in 
the congegation, is a part of the public wor- 
ship of God, and ought to be performed by the 
ministers and teachers. 

II. The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testament, shall be publicly read, from the 
most approved translation, in the vulgar tongue^ 
that all may hear and understand. 

III. How large a portion shall be read at 

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mXWOTOBY VOB W0B8H1P. 49§ 

in the congregation coald not read : therefore^ 
it is recommended, that it be laid aside, as far 
as convenient. 

IV. The proportion of the time of publie 
vorship to be spent in singing, is left to the 
prudence of every minister : but it is recom- 
mended, that more time be allowed for this 
excellent part of divine service than has been 
lisual in most of our churches. 

CHAPTER Y. 

or PUBLIC PBATIB. 

I. It seems very proper to begin th^ public 
worship of the sanctuary by a short prayer ; 
humbly adoring the infinite majesty of the 
living God ; expressing a sense of our distance 
from him as creatures, and unworthiness as 
sinners; and humbly imploring his gracious 
presence, the assistance of his Holy Spirit in 
the duties of his worship, and his acceptance 
of us through the merits of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ. 

II. Then, after singing a psalm, or hymn, it 
is proper that, before sermon, there should 
be a full and comprehensive prayer : Firsts 
Adoring the glory and perfections of God, as 
they are made known to us in the works of 
creation, in the conduct of providence, and in 
the clear and full revelation he hath made of 
himself in his written word : Second^ Giving 

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«t the time. Bat we think it necessary toofi- 
eerve, that although we do not approve, as is 
well known, of confining ministers l;o set or 
fixed forma of prayer for public worship ; yet 
it is the indispensable duty of every minister, 
previously to his entering on his ofiSce, to pre- 
pare and qualify himself for this part of his 
duty, as well as for preaching. He ought, by 
a tnorough acquaintance with the Holy Scrip- 
tares, by reading the best writers on the suV 
jecty by meditation, and by a life of communion 
with God in secret, to endeavour to acquire 
both the spirit and the gift of prayer. Not 
only so, but when he is to enter on particular 
acts of worship, he should endeavour to coo|- 
pose his spirit, and to digest bis thoughts for 
prayer, that it may be performed with dignity 
and propriety, as well as to the profit of tho^o 
who join in it ; and that he may not disgrace 
that important service by mean, irregular, or 
extravagant effusions. 



CHAPTER YI. 

OF THE PREACHING OF THE WORD, 

I. Thb preaching of the word being an in- 
stitution of Qod for the salvation of men, great 
attention should be paid to the manner of per- 
forming it. Every minister ought to give diK- 
gent applioation to it ; and endeavour to prove 
himself a workman that needeth not to be 
ashamed; rightly dividing the word of tmtiL 

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DiUGToaT worn, w<m«Eavw &B 

n. The Bnbjeet of a sermon should be fsomi& 
verse or verses of Scripture ; and its object, to 
explain, defend and apply some part of the 
system of divine truth ; or, to point out the 
nature, and state the bounds and obligation, 
of some duty. A text should not be merely a 
motto, but should fairly contain the doctrine 
proposed to be handled. It is proper also that 
large portions of Scripture be sometimes ex- 
pounded, and particularly improved, for the 
instruction of the people in the meaning and 
use of the Sacred Oracles. 

III. The method of preaching requires much 
study, meditation, and prayer. Ministers ought, 
in general, to prepare their sermons with care ; 
and not to indulge themselves in loose, extem- 
porary harangues ; nor to serve God with that 
whiqh cost them naught. They ought, how- 
ever, to keep to the simplicity of the gospel ; 
expressing themselves in language agreeable 
to Scripture, and level to the understanding of 
the meanest of their hearers ; carefully avoid- 
ing ostentation, either of parts or learning. 
They ought also to adorn, by their lives, the 
doctrine which they teach ; and to be examples 
to the believers, in word, in conversation, in 
eharity, in spirit, in faith, in purity. 

IV. As one primary design of public ordi- 
nances is to pay social acts of homage to the 
most high God, ministers ought to be careful 
BOt to make their sermons so long as to inter- 
far* with or exclude the more important dutiefr' 

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SBi pnticfFOET roR worship. 

of prayer and praise ; but preserve a just propor- 
tion between the several parts of public worship. 

y. The sermon being ended, the minister is 
to pray, and return thanks to almighty God : 
then let a psalm be sung ; a oollection raised 
for the poor, or other purposes of the church ; 
and the assembly dismissed with the apostolic 
benediction. 

VL It is expedient that no person be intro- 
duced to preach in any of the churches under 
our care, unless by the consent of the pastor 
or church session. 



CHAPTER YII. 

or THE ADMINISTRATION OP BAPTISV. 

I. Baptism is not to be unnecessarily de- 
layed ; nor to be administered, in any case, by 
any private person ; but by a minister of Christ, 
called to be the steward of the mysteries of God. 

II. It is usually to be administered in the 
church, in the presence of the congregation ; 
and it is convenient that it be performed imme- 
diately after sermon. 

III. After previous notice is given to the 
minister, the child to be baptized is to be pre- 
sented, by one or both the parents, signifying , 
their desire that the child may be baptized. 

ly* Before baptism, let the minister use 
■ome words of instractiony respecting the mA- 

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vaaxaoBY tob worship. SOS 

iation, nature, ose, and ends of this ordinance ; 
showing, 

'^ That it is instituted by Christ ; that it is a 
** seal of the righteousness of faith : that the 
« seed of the fkithful have no less a right to this 
'^ ordinance, under the gospel, than the seed of 
** Abraham to circumcision, under the Old Tes- 
^' tament ; that Christ commanded all nations 
^'to be baptized; that he blessed little child- 
^^ ren, declaring that of such is the kingdom of 
*^ heaven ; that children are federally holy, and 
*' therefore ought to be baptized ; that we are, 
*'by nature, sinful, guilty, and polluted, and 
** have need of cleansing by the blood of Christ, 
**and by. the sanctifying influences of the 
** Spirit of God." 

The minister is also to exhort the parents 
to the careful performance of their duty : re- 
quiring, 

" That they teach the child to read the word 
** of God ; that they instruct it in the principles 
** of our holy religion, as contained in the Scrip- 
** tures of the Old and New Testament ; an 
*' excellent summary of which we have in the 
" Confession of Faith of this church, and in 
*' the Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the 
" Westminster Assembly, which are to be re- 
'' commended to them, as adopted by this 
*' church, for their direction and assistance, in 
*' the discharge of this important duty ; that 
** they pray with and for it ; that they set an 
f' example of piety and godliness before it; 

48 

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608 MBBCxrosr vo(b wcfusBXPi 

^^ and endeavour, bj all the means of God'tf 
^^ appointment, to bring np their child in the 
** nurture and admonition of the Lord," 

V. Then the minister is to pray for a bless- 
ii^ to attend this ordinance ; after which, call- 
ing the child by its name, he shall say, 

^* I baptize thee, in the name of the Father^ 
<^and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost/' 

As he pronounces these words, he is to bap- 
tise the child with water, by pouring or sprink- 
ling it on the face of the child, without adding 
any other ceremony : and the whole shall be 
poncluded with prayer. 

Although it is proper that baptism be ad- 
ministered in the presence of the congrega- 
tion ; yet there may be cases when it will be 
expedient to administer this ordinance in pri- 
vate houses : of which the minister is to be the 
judge. 



CHAPTER YIII. 

OF THE ADMINISTBATION OF THE LOHD's SUPPSS. 

I. The communion, or supper of the Lord, 
is to be celebrated frequently ; but how often, 
may be determined by the minister and elder- 
ship of each congregation, as they may judge 
most for edification. 

II. The ignorant and scandalous are not to 
be admitted to the Lord's supper. 

lU. It is proper that public notice should 

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nammoBT fob worshii». ^ 607 

be given to the congregation, at least tbe Sab- 
bath before the administration of this ordi- 
nance, and that, either then, or on some day 
of the week, the people be instructed in its 
nature, and a due preparation for it ; that all 
may come in a suitable manner to this holy 
feast. 

» IV. When the sermon is ended, the minister 
shall show, 

"That this is an ordinance of Christ; by 
•* reading the words of institution, either from 
** one of the evangelists, or Jrom 1 Cor. xi. chap- 
iter; which, as to him may appear expedient, 
** he may explain and apply ; that it is to be 
*^ observed in remembrance of Christ, to show 
<* forth his death till he come ; that it is of ines- 
<Himable benefit, to strengthen his people 
** against sin ; to support them under troubles ; 
** to encourage and quicken them in duty ; to 
^* inspire them with love and zeal ; to increase 
** their faith, and holy resolution ; and to beget 
"peace of conscience, and comfortable hopes 
"of eternal life.'* 

He is to warn the profane, the ignorant, and 
^scandalous, and those that secretly indulge 
themselves in any known sin, not to approach 
the holy table. On the other hand, he shall 
invite to this holy table, such as, sensible of 
their lost and helpless state of sin, depend upon 
the atonement of Christ for pardon and accept- 
ance with God ; such as, being instructed in 
the gospel doctrine, have a competent know- 
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508 DiaBOTOftT JVOa WO&lffiEDP. 

ledge to discern the Lord's body, and sach a0 
desire to renounce their sins, and are deter- 
mined to lead a holy and godly life. 

y. The table, on which the elements are 
placed, being decently covered, the bread in 
convenient dishes, and the wine in cups, and 
the communicants orderly and gravely sitting 
around the table, (or in their seats before it,) in 
the presence of the minister ; let him set the 
elements apart, by prayer and thanksgiving. 

The bread and wine being thus set apart by 
prayer and thanksgiving, the minister is te 
take the bread, and break it, in the view of 
the people, saying, in expressions of this 
sort : — 

" Our Lord Jesus Christ, on the same nigh* 
<^ in which he was betrayed, having taken bread, 
'^ and blessed and broken it, gave it to his dia« 
^^ ciples ; as I, ministering in his name, give this 
" bread unto you ; saying, [here the bread is to 
" be distributed] Take, eat :^ this is my body, 
^' which is broken for you : this do in remem- 
"brance of me." 

After having given the bread, he shall take 
the cup, and say — 

''After the same manner our Saviour also 
''took the cup; and having given thanks, as 
'^hath been done in his name, he gave it to 
*' the disciples ; saying, [while the minister is 
^'repeating these words let him give the cup] 
^' This cup is the new testament in my blood, 
" which is shed for many, for the remission of 

sins : drink ye all of it." 

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ii 



CH. Vm.] DIBBOSK>BT FOB WOBSHIP, 609 

The minister himself is to communicalJe, at 
such time as may appear to him most conve- 
nient. 

The minister may, in a few words, put the 
communicants in mind — 

"Of the grace of God, in Jesus Christ, held 
** forth in this sacrament ; and of their obliga- 
** tion to be the Lord's ; and may exhort them 
*' to walk worthy of the vocation wherewith they 
** are called ; and, as they have professedly 
** received Christ Jesus the Lord, that they be 
^' careful so to walk in him, and to maintain 
"good works." 

It may not be improper for the minister to 
give a word of exhortation also to those who 
have been only spectators, reminding them — 

" Of their duty ; stating their sin and danger, 
" by living in disobedience to Christ, in nefg- 
<' lectiug this holy ordinance ; and calling upon 
^ them to be earnest in making preparation for 
" attending 7ipon it, at the next time of its cele- 
"bration." 

Then the minister is to pray and give thanks 
to God, 

" For his rich mercy, and invaluable good- 
" ness, vouchsafed to them in that sacred com- 
"munion; to implore pardon for the defects 
" of the whole service ; and to pray for the ac- 
" ceptance of their persons and performances ; 
" for the gracious assistance of the Holy Spirit, 
" to enable them, as they have received Christ 
" Jesus the Lord, so to walk in him ; that they 
48* 

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510 DIBSOTOBT JOB WOBSHIP. 

" may hold fast that which they have received, 
" that no man take their crown ; that their con- 
" versation may be as becoraeth the gospel ; 
" that they may bear about with them, con- 
" tinually, the dying of the Lord Jesus, that 
" the life also of Jesus may be manifested in 
*' their mortal body ; that their light may so 
"shine before men, that others, seeing their 
" good works, may glorify their Father who is 
"in heaven." 

The collection for the poor, and to defray 
the expense of the elements, may be made 
after this ; or at such other time as may seem 
meet to the eldership. 

Now let a psalm or hymn be sung, and the 
congregation dismissed, with the following or 
some other gospel benediction : 

" Now the God of peace, that brought again 
" from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great 
" Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of 
" the everlasting covenant, make you* perfect 
"in every good work to do his will, working 
'*in you that which is well-pleasing in his 
"sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be 
" glory for ever and ever. Amen.** 

VL As it has been customary, in some parts 
of our church, to observe a fast before the 
Lord's supper ; to have a sermon pn Saturday 
and Monday ; and to invite two or three minis- 
ters on such occasions ; and as these seasons 
have been blessed to many souls, and may tend 
to keep up a stricter union of ministers and 

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BXKBOTOST ]*0B WOBSHUP. 511 

congregations ; we think it not improper that 
they who choose it may continue in this prac- 
tice. 



CHAPTER IX. 

OF THE ADMISSION OF PERSONS TO SEALINQ ORDI* 

NANCES. 

I. Children, born within the pale of the 
visible church, and dedicated to God in bap- 
tism, are under the inspection and government 
of the church ; and are to be taught to read 
and repeat the catechism, the apostles' creed, 
and the Lord's prayer. They are to be taught 
to pray, to abhor sin, to fear God, and to obey 
the Lord Jesus Christ. And, when they come 
to years of discretion, if they be free from 
scandal, appear sober and steady, and to have 
sufficient knowledge to discern the Lord's 
body, they ought to be informed it is their 
duty and their privilege to come to the Lord's 
supper. 

II. The years of discretion, in young Chris- 
tians, cannot be precisely fixed. This must be 
left to the prudence of the eldership. The 
officers of the church are the judges of the 
qualifications of those to be admitted to sealing 
ordinances ; and of the time when it is proper 
to admit young Christians to them. 

lU. Those who are to be admitted to sealing 

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612 DIUEOTORT POll WOKSHTP. 

ordinances, shall be examined as to their knowl- 
edge and piety. 

IV. When unbaptized persons apply for ad* 
mission into the church, they shall, in ordinary 
cases, after giving satisfaction with respect to 
their knowledge and piety, make a public pro- 
fession of their faith, in the presence of the 
congregation ; and thereupon be baptized. 



CHAPTER X. 

OF THE MODE OF INFLICTING CHURCH CENSURES. 

I. The power which Christ hath given the 
rulers of his church is for edification, and not 
for destruction. As, in the preaching of the 
word, the wicked are, doctrinally, separated 
from the good ; so, by discipline, the church au- 
thoritatively makes a distinction between the 
holy and tne profane. In this, she acts the 
part of a tender mother, correcting her child- 
ren only for their good, that every one of them 
may be presented faultless, in the *day of the 
Lord Jesus. 

II. When any member of the church shall 
have been guilty of a fault deserving censure, 
the judicatory shall proceed with all tenderness, 
and restore their offending brother in the spirit 
of meekness ; considering themselves, lest they 
also be tempted. Censure ought to be inflicted 
ynth great solemnity; that it may be the means 

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DI&IOTOAT FOB WOESHIP. « 618 

of impressing the mind of the delinquent with 
a proper sense of his danger, while he stands 
excluded from the privileges of the church of 
the living God ; and that, with the divine bles- 
sing, it may lead him to repentance. 

III. AVhen the judicatory has resolved to 
pass sentence, suspending a member from 
church privileges, the moderator shall address 
him to the following purpose : 

" Whereas you are guilty [by your own con- 
"fession, or convicted by sufficient proof, as the 
" case may be] of the sin of [here mention the 
" particular offence] we declare you suspended 
^' from the sacraments of the church, till yon 
" give satisfactory evidence of the sincerity of 
^} your repentance.'' To this shall be added 
such advice, admonition, or rebuke, as may be 
judged necessary ; and the whole shall be 
concluded by prayer to almighty God, that he 
would follow this act of discipline with his 
blessing. We judge it prudent, in general, 
that such censures be inflicted in the presence 
of the judicatory only; but, if any church 
think it expedient to rebuke the offender pub- 
licly, this solemn suspension from the sacra- 
ments may be in the presence of the congre- 
gation. 

IV. After any person hath been thus sus- 
pended from the sacraments, it is proper that 
the minister, and elders, and other Christians, 
should frequently converse with him, as well as 
pray for him in private, that it would please 

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014 ' mammmT vob woBram 

God to giye him repentance. And it may b« 
requisite, likewise, particularly on days pre* 
paratory to the dispensing of the Lord's sup- 
per, that the prayers of the church be offered 
np for those unhappy persons who, by their 
wickedness, have shut themselves out from this 
holy communion. 

Y. When the judicatory shall be satisfied as 
to the reality of the repentance of any offender, 
he shall be admitted to profess his repentance ; 
and be restored to the privileges of the church. 
Which restoration shall be declared to the peni- 
tent in the presence of the session, or of the 
eongregation, and followed with prayer and 
thanksgiving. 

. YL When any offender has been adjudged 
to be cut off from the communion of the church, 
it is proper that the sentence be publicly pro- 
nounced against him. 

YII. The design of excommunication is, to 
operate upon the offender as a means of re- 
claiming him ; to deliver the church from the 
scandal of his offenee ; and to inspire all with 
fear, by the example of his punishment! 

The minister shall give the church or con- 
gregation a short narrative of the several steps 
which have been taken with respect to their 
offending brother, and inform them, that it has 
been found necessary to cut him off from the 
communion : and shall in the presence of the 
church or congregation pronounce this sen- 
tenccj in the following or like form : viz. 

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muoTOftT roB worsbsp Sift 

He shall begin by sbonring the Buthority of 
the church to cast out unworthy members, from 
Matt, xviii. 16, 16, 17, 18 ; 1 Con v. 1, 2, 8, 
4, 5 ; and shall briefly explain the nature, use, 
and consequences of this censure ; warning the 

Eeople to avoid all unnecessary intercourse with 
im who is cast out. 

Then he shall say, 

^ Whereas A. B. hath been, by sufficient 
*' proof, convicted of, [here insert the sin] and 
^^ after much admonition and prayer, obsti* 
^^ nately refuseth to hear the church, and hath 
^^ manifested no evidence of repentance; there- 
^' fore, in the name, and by the authority of 
" the Lord Jesus Christ, I pronounce him to 
^'be excluded from the communion of the 
"church." 

After which, prayer shall be made that thd 
blessing of God may follow his ordinance, for 
the conviction and reformation of the excom- 
municated person, and for the establishment 
of all true believers. 

VIII. When one who hath been excommu- 
nicated shall be so affected with his state as to 
be brought to repentance, and to desire to be 
re-admitted to the privileges of the church ; the 
session, having obtained sufficient evidence of 
his sincere penitence, shall, with the advice and 
concurrence of the presbytery, restore him. In 
order to which, the minister shall, on two 
Lord's days previous thereto, inform the con- 
gregation of the measures which have been 

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K16 SEBXaXORT won W0R8BIP. 

taken with. the exoommanicated person, and 
of the resolution of the session to receive him 
again to the communion of the church. 

On the day appointed for his restoration, 
when the other parts of divine service are 
ended, before pronouncing the blessing, the 
minister shall call upon the excommunicated 
person, and propose to him, in the presence of 
the congregation, the following questions : 

'^ Do you from a deep sense of your great 
." wickedness, freely confess your sin, in thus 
" rebelling against God, and in refusing to hear 
*^ his church, and do you acknowledge that you 
*^ have been in justice and mercy cut off from 
^^ the communion of the saints? Angwer^ I do. 
" Do you now voluntarily profess your sincere 
"repentance and deep contrition, for your sin 
*^and obstinacy: and do you humbly ask the 
" forgiveness of God, and of his church ? An- 
" 9wery I do. Do you sincerely promise, through 
^^ divine grace, to live in all humbleness of mind 
^^and circumspection; and to endeavour to 
" adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour, by 
^'having your conversation as becometh the 
"gospel? AnsweVy I do.'* 

Here the minister shall give the penitent a 
suitable exhortation, addressing him in the 
bowels of brotherly love, encouraging and com- 
forting him. Then he shall pronounce the sen- 
tence of restoration, in the following words : 

" Whereas you A. B., have been shut out 
*' from the communion of the faithfol, but have 

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BIRBCTORT I'OR WORSHIP. 617 

^* now manifested such repentance as satisfies 
*• the church : in the name of the Lord Jesns 
** Christ, and by his authority, I declare you 
** absolved from the sentence of excommunica- 
**tion formerly denounced against you; and I 
♦*do receive you into the communion of the 
** church, that you may be a partaker of all the 
** benefits of the Lord Jesus, to your eternal 
" salvation." 

The whole shall be concluded with prayer, 
and the people dismissed with the usual bless- 
ing. 

■- ^ 

CHAPTER XL ' 

OF THS SOLEMNIZATION OF HABBIAOX. 

L Marriage is not a sacrament ; nor pecn- 
Kar to the church of Christ. It is proper that 
every commonwealth, for the good of society, 
make laws to regulate marriage ; which all 
citizens are bound to obey. 

II. Christians ought to marry in the Lord : 
therefore it is fit that their marriage be solem- 
nized by a lawful minister ; that special instruc- 
tion may be given them, and suitable prayers 
made, when they enter into this relation. 

III. Marriage is to be between one man and 
one woman only : and they are not to be within 
the degrees of consanguinity or aflSnity prohi- 
bited by the word of God. 

IV. The parties ought to be of such years 

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51S BIBBCTOaY FOR WOfiSHIP. 

of discretion as to be capable of making their 
own choice : and if they be under age, or live 
with their parents, the consent of the parents 
or others, under whose care they are, ought to 
be previously obtained, and well certified to 
the minister, before he proceeds to solemnize 
the marriage. 

V. Parents ought neither to compel their 
children to marry contrary to their inclina* 
tions, nor deny their consent without just and 
important reasons. 

yi. Marriage is of a public nature. The 
welfare of civil society, the happiness of fami- 
lies, and the credit of religion, are deeply inter- 
ested in it. Therefore the purpose of marriage 
ought to be su£Bciently published a proper time 
previously to the solemnization of it. It is 
enjoined on all ministers to be careful that, in 
this mdtter, they neither transgress the laws 
of God, nor the laws of the community : and 
that they may not destroy the peace and com- 
fort of families, they must be properly certi- 
fied with respect to the parties applying to 
them, that no just objections lie against their 
marriage. 

VII. Marriage must always be performed 
before a competent number of witnesses ; and 
at any time, except on a day of public humilia- 
tion. And we advise that it be not on the 
Lord's day. And the minister is to give a cer- 
tificate of the marriage when required. 

YIII. When the parties present themselves 

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OH. ZI.] DnaOTORT 70B WORSHIP. 519 

for marriage, the minister is to desire, if there 
is any person present who knows any lawful 
reason why these persons may not be joineJ 
together in the marriage relation, that they will 
now make it known, or ever after hold their 
peace. 

No objections being made, he is then sever- 
ally to address himself .to the parties to be mar- 
ried, in the following or like words : 

'^ You, the man, declare in the presence of 
** God, that you do not know any reason, by 
" precontract or otherwise, why you may not 
"lawfully marry this woman." 

Upon his declaring he does not, the minister 
shall address himself to the bride, in the same 
or similar terms : 

" You, the woman, declare in the presence 
" ef God, that you do not know any reason, by 
*' precontract or otherwise, why you may not 
*' lawfully marry this man." 

Upon her declaring she does not, he is to 
begin with prayer for the presence and blessing 
of God. 

The minister shall then proceed to give them 
some instruction from the scriptures, respect- 
ing the institution and duties of this state, 
showing — 

"That God hath instituted marriage for the 
*' comfort and happiness of mankind, in declar- 
*' ing a man shall forsake his father and mother, 
f ' and cleave unto his wife ; and that marriage 
^^ is honourable in all ; that he hath appointed 

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620 DIBBOTOBT TOE W0B8BIF. 

<^ various duties, which are incumbent upon 
**' those who enter into this relation ; such as, a 
^' high esteem and mutual love for one another ; 
^^ bearing with each other's infirmities and 
'^ weaknesses, to which human nature is sub- 
^' ject in its present lapsed state ; to encourage 
^' ea9h other under the various ills of life ; to 
^' comfort one another in sickness ; in honesty 
^' and industry to provide for each other's tem- 
*^ poral support; to pray for and encourage one 
^^ another in the things which pertain to God, 
'^ and to their immortal souls ; and to live to-. 
" gether as the heirs of the grace of life." 

Then the minister shall cause the bridegroom 
and bride to join their hands, and shall pro- 
nounce the marriage covenant, first to the man, 
in these words : 

"You take this woman, whom you Kbld 
" by the hand, to be your lawful and married 
" wife ; and you promise, and covenant, in the 
^ presence of God and these witnesses, that you 
" will be unto her a loving and faithful hus- 
" band, until you shall be separated by death." 

The bridegroom shall express his consent^ 
by saying, "Yes, I do." 

Then the minister shall address himself to 
the woman, in these words : 

" You take this man, whom you hold by the 
" hand, to be your lawful and married husband : 
** and you promise, and covenant in the pre- 
" sence of God and these witnesses, that you 
" will be unto him a loving, faithful, and obe- 

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^IftBOTOBT FOR WORSHIP. 621 

<' dient wife until you shall be separated by 
« death." 

The bride shall express her consent, by say- 
ing, "Yes, I do." 

Then the minister is to say, 

"I pronounce you husband and wife, accord- 
** ing to the ordinance of God ; whom there- 
** fore God hath joined together let no man piit 
** asunder." 

After this the minister may exhort them in 
a few words, to the mutual discharge of their 
duty. 

Then let him conclude with prayer suitable 
to the occasion. 

Let the minister keep a proper register for 
the names of all persons whom l^e marries, and 
of the time of their marriage, for the perusal 
of all whom it may concern. 



CHAPTER XII. 

OF THB YISITATION OF THE SICK. 

I. When persons are sick, it is their duty, 
before their strength and understanding fail 
them, to send for their minister, and to make 
known to him, with prudence, their spiritual 
state ; or to consult him on the concerns of 
their precious souls. And it is his duty to visit 
them, at their request, and to apply himself, 
with all tenderness and love, to administer spi- 
ritual good to their immortal souls. 

II. He shall instruct the sick out of the scrip 
44* 

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622 PIEBOTOBT FOB WORSHIP. 

tores, that diseases arise not out of the ground, 
nor do they come by chance ; but that they are 
directed and sent by a wise and holy God, 
either for correction of sin, for the trial of 
grace, for improvement in religion, or for other 
important ends: and that they shall work to- 
gether for good to all .those who make a wise 
improvement of God's visitation, neither de- 
spising his chastening hand, nor fainting under 
his rebukes. 

III. If the minister finds the sick person to 
be grossly ignorant, he shall instruct him in 
the nature of repentance and faith, and the 
way of acceptance with God, through the me- 
diation and atonement of Jesus Christ; 

lY. He shall exhort the sick to examine 
himself, to search his heart, and try his former 
ways, by the word of God; and shall assist 
him, by mentioning some of the obvious marks 
and evidences of sincere piety. 

V. If the sick shall signify any scruple, 
doubt, or temptation, under which he labours, 

'the minister must endeavour to resolve his 
doubts, and administer instruction and direc- 
tion, as the case may seem to require. 

VI. If the sick appear to be a stupid, thought- 
less, and hardened sinner, he shall endeavour 
to awaken his mind ; to arouse his conscience ; 
to convince him of the evil and danger of sin ; 
of the curse of the law, and the wrath of God 
due to sinners ; to bring him to an humble and 
penitential sense of his iniquities ; and to state 
before him the fulness of the grace and mercy 

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CH. XII.] BIREGTORT FOB WORSHTP. 62$ 

of God, in and through the glorious Redeemer ; 
the absolute necessity of faith and repentance, 
in order to his being interested in the favour 
of God, or his obtaining everlasting happiness. 

VII. If the sick person shall appear to have 
knowledge, to be of a tender conscience, and to 
have been endeavouring to serve God in up- 
rightness, though not without many failings 
and sinful infirmities ; or if his spirit be broken 
with a sense of sin, or through apprehensions 
of the want of the divine favour ; then it will 
be proper to administer consolation and encou- 
ragement t(f him, by setting before him the free- 
ness and riches of the grace of God, the all- 
guflSciency of the righteousness of Christ, and 
the supporting promises of the Gospel. 

VIII. The minister must endeavour to guard 
the sick person against ill-grounded persuasions 
of the mercy of God, without a vital union to 
Christ ; and against unreasonable fears of death, 
and desponding discouragements ; against pre- 
sumption upon his own goodness and merit, 
upon the one hand, and against despair of the 
mercy and grace of God in Jesus Christ, on the 
other. 

IX. In one word, it is the minister's duty to 
administer to the sick person instruction, con- 
viction, support, consolation, or encouragement, 
as his case may seem to require. 

At a proper time, when he is most com- 

Eosed, the minister shall pray with and for 
im* 

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624 DIBECrORT FOE WORSHIP. ^ 

X. Lastly, the minister may improve the 
present occasion to exhort those about the 
sick, to consider their mortality ; to turn to 
the Lord and make their peace with him ; in 
health to prepare for sickness, death and judg- 
ment. 



CHAPTER Xm. 

OF THE BURIAL OF TH£ DEAD. 

L When any person departs this life, let the 
corpse be taken care of in a decent manner; 
and be kept a proper and sufficient time before 
interment. 

11. When the season for the funeral comes, 
let the dead body be decently attended to the 
grave, and interred. During such solemn oc- 
casions, let all who attend conduct themselves 
with becoming gravity ; and apply themselves 
to serious meditation or discourse : and the 
minister, if present, may exhort them to con- 
sider the frailty of life, and the importance of 
being prepared for death and eternity. 



CHAPTER'XIV. 

OF FASTING, AND OF THE OBSERVATION OF THE DATS 
OF THANKSGIVING. 

I. There is no day under the gospel com- 
manded to be kept holy, except the Lord's day, 
which is the Christian Sabbath. 

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DIBECTOBT TOR WORSHIP. 525 

n. Nevertheless, to observe days of fasting 
and thanksgiving, as the extraordinary dispen- 
sations of divine providence may diireet, wd 
judge both scriptural and rational. 

III. Fasts and thanksgivings may be ob« 
served by individual Christians ; or families, 
in private ; hy particular congregations ; by a 
number of congregations contiguous to each 
other ; by the cpngregations under the care of 
a presbytery, or of a synod ; or by all the con- 
gregations of our church. 

IV. It must be left to the judgment and dis- 
cretion of every Christian and family t6 deter- 
mine when it is proper to observe a private 
fast or thanksgiving ; and to the church-ses- 
sions to determine for particular congregations, 
and to the presbyteries or synods to determine 
for larger districts. When it is deemed expe- 
dient that a fast or thanksgiving should be 
general, the call for them must be judged of 
by the synod or General Assembly. And if 
at any time the civil power should think it 
proper to appoint a fast or thanksgiving, it is 
the duty of the ministers and people of our 
communion, as we live under a Christian gov- 
ernment, to pay all due respect to the same. 

V. Public notice is to be given a convenient 
time before the day of fasting or thanksgiving 
comes, that persons may so order their tempo- 
ral affairs, that they may properly attend to the 
duties thereof. 

VI. There shall be public worship upon all 

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626 DntECTORY FOR WORSHIP. 

such days : and let the prayers, psalms, por- 
tions of Scripture to be read, and sermons, 
be all in a special manner adapted to the occa- 
sion. 

YIL On fast days, let the minister point oub 
the authority and providences calling to the 
observation thereof; and let him Spend a more 
than usual portion of time in solemn prayer, 
particular confession of sin, especially of the 
sins of the day and place, with their aggrava- 
tions, which have brought down the judgments 
of heaven. And let the whole day be spent 
in deep humiliation and mourning before God. 

Vin. On days of thanksgiving, he is to give 
the like information respecting the authority 
and providences which call to the observance 
of them ; and to spend a more than usual part 
of the time in the giving of thanks, agreeably 
to the occasion, and in singing psalms or hymns 
of praise. 

It is the duty of people on these days to re- 
joice with holy gladness of heart; but let 
trembling be so joined with our mirth, that no 
excess or unbecoming levity be indulged. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE DIRECTORY FOR SECRET AND FAMILY WORSHIP. 

I. Besides the public worship in congrega- 
tions, it is the indispensable duty of each per- 

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niBECTORY FOB WORSHIP.. 627 

ion, alone, in secret ; and of every family, by 
itoelf in private, to pray to, and worship God. 

II. Secret worship is most plainly enjoined 
by our Lord. In this duty every one, apart by 
himself, is to spend some time in prayer, read- 
ing the Scriptures, holy meditation, and serious 
self-examination. The many advantages aris* 
ing from a conscientious discharge of these 
duties, are best known to those who are found 
in the faithful discharge of them. 

III. Family worship, which ought to be per- 
formed by every family, ordinarily morning 
and evening, consists in prayer, reading the 
Scriptures, and singing praises. 

IV. The head of the family, who is to lead 
in this service, ought to be careful that all the 
members of his household duly attend; and 
that none withdraw themselves unnecessarily 
from any part of family worship ; and that all 
refrain from their common business while the 
Scriptures are read, and gravely attend to the 
same, no less than when prayer or praise is 
offered up. 

y. Let the heads of families be careful to 
instruct their children and servants in the prin- 
ciples of religion. Every proper opportunity 
ought to be embraced for such instruction. 
But we are of opinion, that the Sabbath eve- 
nings, after public worship, should be sacredly 
preserved for this purpose. Therefore we 
highly disapprove of paying unnecessary pri- 
vate visits on the Lord's day ; admitting straa* 

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528 DIBBOTORT FOB WORSHIP. 

gers into the families, except when necessity 
or charity requires it ; or any other practices, 
whatever plausible pretences may be offered in 
their favour, if they interfere with the above 
important and necessary duty. 



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APPlENDIX, 



GENERAL RULES FOR JUDICATORIES ♦ 

1. The moderator shall take the chair pre-^ 
cisely at the hour to which the judicatory 
stands adjourned; shall immediately call the 
members to order ; and, on the appearance of 
a quorum, shall open the session witS prayer. 

2. If a quorum be assembled at the hour 
appointed, and the moderator be absent, the 
last moderator present shall be requested to 
take his place without delay. 

3. If a quorum be not assembled at the hour 
appointed, any two members shall be compe- 
tent to adjourn from time to time, that an 
opportunity may be given for a quorum to 
assemble. 

4. After calling the roll, and marking the 
absentees, the minutes of the last sitting shall 
be read, and, if requisite, corrected. 

• The following rules, not having been sobmitted to 
the presbyteries, make no part of the Constitution of the 
Presbyterian Church. Yet the General Assembly of 
1821, considering uniformity in proceedings in all the 
subordinate judicatories, as greatly oonduciye to dVder 
and despatch of business, and having revised and ap- 
proved these rules, recommend them to the synods, pres- 
byteries, and sessions, as a system of regulations, which, 
if^they think proper, may be advantageously adopted by 
them. 

46 (529) 

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GENERAL RULES FOR JCTDICATORISS. 

5. It shall be the duty of the moderator, at 
all times, to preserve order, and to endeavour 
to conduct all business before the judicatory to 
a speedy and proper result. 

6. It shall be the duty of the clerk, as soon 
as possible after the commencement of the ses- 
sions of every judicatory, to form a complete 
roll of the members present, and put the same 
into the hands of the moderator. And it shall 
also be the duty of the clerk, whenever any 
additional members take their seats, to ^dd 
their nan^s, in their proper places, to the said 
roll. 

7. It shall be the duty of the clerk, imme- 
diately to file all papers, in the order in which 
they have been read, with proper endorse- 
ments, and to keep them in perfect order. 

8. It shall be the duty of the moderator, 
carefully to keep notes of the several articles 
of business which may be assigned to particu- 
lar days, and to call them up at the time ap- 
pointed. 

9. The moderator may speak to points of 
order, in preference to other members, rising 
from his seat for that purpose ; and shall de- 
cide questions of order, subject to an appeal 
to the judicatory by any two members. 

10. Business left unfinished at the last sit- 
ting is ordinarily to be taken up first. 

11. A motion made must be seconded, and 
afterwards repeated by the moderator, or read 
aloud, before it is debated ; and every motion 

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.QiSHXRAL RUXiES lOE J0I>IOATOBa& fiSl 

shall bo reduced to Writing, if the moderator 
or any member require it. 

12. Any member, who shall have made a 
motion, shall have liberty to withdraw it with 
the consent of his 6econd,v before any debate 
has taken place thereon ; but not afterwards, 
without leave of the judicatory. 

13. Motions to lay on the table, to take up 
business, and to adjourn, and the call for the 
previous question, shall be put without debate. 
On questions of order, postponement, or com- 
mitment, no member shall speak more than 
once. On all other questions, each member 
may speak twice, but not oftener, without ex- 
press leave of the judicatory. 

14. When a question is under debate, no 
motion shall be received, unless to adjourn, to 
lay on the table, to postpone indefinitely, to 
postpone to a day certain, to commit, or to 
amend ; which several motions shall have pre- 
cedence in the order in which they are herein 
arranged; and the motion for adjournment 
Bhall always be in order. 

15. An amendment may be moved on any 
motion, and shall be decided before the original 
motion. 

16. If a motion under debate contains seve- 
ral parts, any two members may have it di- 
vided, and the question taken on each part. 

17. The previous question shall be in this 
form: " Shall the main question be now put?" 
and when demanded by a majority of the mem- 

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6S2 aXNEBAX. BTJLEfl ZOB JlTDICATOftlBS. 

bers present, shall be put without debate ; and 
until it is decided, shall preclude all amend* 
ment and further debate on the main ques- 
tion. 

18. If the previous question be decided in 
the affirmative, the main question shall be im* 
mediately put without debate ; if in the nega- 
tive, the debate may proceed. 

19. A question shall not be again called up, ^ 
or reconsidered at the same sessions of the ' 
judicatory at which it has been decided, unless 
by the consent of two-thirds of the member^ 
who were present at the decision ; and, unless 
the motion to reconsider be made and seconded 
by persons who voted with the majority. 

20. A subject which has been indefinitely 
postponed, either by the operation of the pre- 
vious question, or by a direct motion for ind^ 
finite postponement, shall not be again called 
up during the same sessions of the judicatory^ 
unless by the consent of three-fourths of the 
members who were present at the decision. 

21. Every member when speaking, shall 
address himself to the moderator, and shall 
treat his fellow members, and especially the 
moderator, with decorum and respect. 

22. Without express permission, no member 
of a judicatory, while business is going on, 
shall engage in private conversation ; nor shall 
members address one anothery nor any person 
present, but through the moderator. 

23. No speaker shall be interrupted, unless 



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GENERAL EULES FOR JUDICATORIES. 533 

he be out of order, or for the purpose of cor- 
recting mistakes or misrepresentations. 

24. It is indispensable that members of ec- 
clesiastical judicatories maintain great gravity 
and dignity while judicially •convened; that 
they attend closely, in their speeches, to the 
subject under consideration, and avoid prolix 
and desultory harangues : and when they de- 
viate from the subject, it is the privilege of any 
member, and the duty of the moderator, to call 
them to order. 

25. No member, in the course of debate, 
shall be allowed to indulge in personal reflec- 
tions. 

26. If more than one member rise to speak ^ 
at the same time, the member who is most 
distant from the moderator's chair shall speak 
first. 

27. When more than three members of the 
judicatory shall be standing at the same time, 
the moderator shall require all to take their 
seats, the person only excepted who may be 
speaking. 

28. If any member act, in any respect, in a 
disorderly manner, it shall be the privilege of 
any member, and the duty of the moderator, 
to call him to order. 

29. If any member consider himself as ag- 
grieved by a decision of the moderator, it shall 
be his privilege to appeal to the judicatory; 
and the question on such appeal shall be taken 
without debate. 

45 » 

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534 GSNEBAL RULES K)B J0DICATOBI1BS. 

30. Members ought not, "without weighty 
reasons, to decline voting, as this practice 
might leave the decision of very interesting 
questions to a small proportion of the judica- 
tory. Silent members, unless excused from 
voting, must be considered as acquiescing with 
the majority. 

31. It is the duty of the moderator to appoint 
all committees, except in those cases in which 
the judicatory shall decide otherwise. 

32. The person first named on any committee, 
shall be considered as the chairman thereof, 
whose duty it shall be to convene the commit- 
tee ; and, in case of his absence, or inability to 

, act, the second named member shall take his 
place, and perform his duties. 

33. When various motions are made with 
respect to the filling of blanks with particular 
numbers or times, the question shall always 
be first taken on the highest number, and the 
longest time. 

34. When the moderator has commenced 
taking the vote-, no further debate or remark 
shall be admitted, unless there has evidently 
been a mistake; in which case, the mistake 
shall be rectified, and the moderator shall re- 
commence taking the vote. 

35. When a vote is taken by ballot in any 
judicatory, the moderator shall vote with the 
other members ; but he shall not vote in any 
other case, unless the judicatory be equally 



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OflNBBAL BCLES FOB JUDIOATOBISd. 585 

divided ; when, if he do not choose to vote, the 
question shall be lost. 

36. The yeas and nays on any question shall 
not be recorded, unless it be required by one- 
third of the members present. 

87. All judicatories have a right to sit in 
private, on business which, in their judgment, 
ought not to be matter of public speculation. 

38. Besides the right to sit judicially in pri 
vate, whenever they think it right to do so, all 
judicatories have a right to hold what are com- 
monly called ^Hnterlocuiory meeting s^^* or a 
sort of committees of the whole judicatory, in 
which members may freely converse together 
without the formalities which are usually ne- 
cessary in judicial proceedings. 

89. Whenever a judicatory is about to sit in 
a judicial capacity, it shall be the duty of thd 
moderator, solemnly to announce from the 
chair, that the body is about to pass to the 
consideration of the business assigned for trial ; 
and to enjoin on the members to recollect and 
regard their high character, as judges of a court 
of Jesus Christ, and the solemn duty in which 
they are about to act. 

40. In all process before a judicatory, where 
there is an accuser, or prosecutor, it is expe- 
dient that there be a committee of the judicatory 
appointed, (provided the number of members 
be sufficient to admit of it without inconve- 
nience) who shall be called the Judicial Oom^ 
mittee ; and whose duty it shall be to digest 

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536 GENERAL RULES f OR JUDICATORIES. 

and arrange all the papers, and to prescribe, 
under the direction of the judicatory, the whole 
order of the proceedings. The members of this 
committee shall be entitled, notwithstanding 
their performance of this duty, to sit and vote 
in the cause, as members of the judicatory. 

41. But in cases of process on the ground of 
general rumour^ where there is, of course, no 
particular accuser, there fnay be a committee 
appointed, (if convenient) who shall be called 
the Committee of Prosecution^ and who shall 
conduct the whole cause on the part of the 
prosecution. The members of this committee 
shall not be permitted to sit in judgment in the 
case. 

42. No member shall retire from any judi- 
catory, without the leave of the moderator, nor 
withdraw from it to return home, without the 
consent of the judicatory. 

43. The moderator of every judicatory, above 
the church session, in finally closing its sessions, 
in addition to prayer, may cause to be sung an 
appropriate psalm or hymn, and shall pro- 
nounce the apostolical benediction. 



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INDEX. 



Abcutt, original of man, 68. 

of wiU to good lost, 63. 

bow recovered, 64, 90, 369, 870. 
Aooeptanoe, grounds o^ 70^ 219, 

of good works In Christ, 92, 93. 
in prayer through Christ, 359. 
Access, to God through Christ, 76, 
198, 209. 
through Christ only, 359. 
gx^eater boldness of, under Hie 
New Testament, 112. 
Aeeosers, indiyiduals, or common 
&me, 464. 
cautions respecting, 465, 466. 
Actions, governed by Providence, 

34, 36, 183, 383. 
Actual sins. Bee Sin 
AdmiRsion, to sealing ordinances, 

511. 
Adoption, nature and privileges at 

75, 77, 222, 387. 
Adultery, 136, 299, 301, 394. 
Aggravations, of sin, 320, 828. 
Amen, why used, 379, 401. 
Angels, decree concerning, 27, 179. 
Ga:eation of^ 181. 

providence in relation to, 87, 184. 
employment of; 1S4. 
not to be -worshipped, 117, 258. 
Antichrist, the pope is, 142. 
Antiquity, no sanction to human 

device, 266. 
Apocrypha, 12. 
Appeals, of. 483, 486. 
who may appeal, 483, 486. 
grounds of, 480. 
steps in taking up, 480. 
effect of deciding, 485, 486. 
operation of, 486. 
dutv of the Judicatory appealed 
from, 486. 
Appellants, of, 484, 485. 
Ascension, of Christ, 58, STT, 886. 



Assembly, of the General, 429, 48L 
of what it consists, 429. 
quorum of, 430. 
jurisdiction of; 430. 
powers of, 430. 
meeting of, how opened, 481. 
sessions o^ how opened aod 

closed, 431. 
how dissolved, 431. 
Assurance, of grace and salvatioiit 

99. 
grounds of, 81, 100, 280. 
attainable in fhJs life, 99, 28a 

887. » » --? 

strengthened by good works, 89. 
believers may be without lOL 

231, 849. 
may be shaken, or intermitted. 

103, 232. 
believers never destitute of th^ 

principles ot its revival, 108^ 

duty of all to seek, 102, 878, 

finiits of; 102, 
Atheism, 254. 
Attributes, of God, 18— 24^ 175, 260^ 



Baptism, of, 148 -160, 841, 898. 
perpetuity of. 149, 355. 
to be administered but once, 168L 

865. 
by whom, 147, 150, 354, 604. 
to whom, 160, 342, 898. 
mode of, 160. 

not necessary to salvation, 162. 
neglect of, a sin, 151. 
efficacy o^ 152. 
how to be improved, 343. 
agreement of, with the Lord'a 

supper, 354. 
difference of; from theJEjonfa 

supper, 865. 

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INB^X. 



, administration ol^ 504. 
raoepted caaee, 605. 
by whom the child is to be pre- 
■ented, 504. 
Belieren, cannot finally fall from 
grace, 05, 220. 
benefits reecived from Christ by, 
215, 218, 387-^8. 
Bishops, or pastors, of, 412. 
election of, 441—443. 
call of; 443— 444. 
ordination of, ill 119 . 
translation of; 449-450. 
Instalment of, 451—453. 
BlindnMi, judicial, 40. 
Body, and blood of Christ, bow 
present in the Lord's supper, 
157,346. 
mystical, believers members of 
the, 138, 153, 345. 
Bodies, state oi^ after death, and at 
the resurrection, 164— 166, 235 

• OOQ QQg 

Burial, of the dead, 524. 

Call, form of a, 442. 
how subscribed, 443. 
presentation and acceptance of, 

443. 
prosecution of before another 



presbytery, 444. 
Uing. See^ 



CaUing. See EfechidL (Ming. 
Candidates, or probationers, of 
licensing, 435. 
warrant for trials oi; 436. 
where to be taken on trials, 436. 
testimonials required o^ 436. 
examinations of; 436. 
other parts of trials of, 437. 
how long required to have studied 

divinity, 438. 
fi)rm of licensing, 438. 
jbrm of the record of licensure, 

439. 
removal of, while trials are going 

on, 44a 
after the licensure of, 440. 
when the license ot, may be re- 
called, 440. 
Cause, ways of carrying to a higher 

court, 478. 
Celibacy, vows of, unlawfVil, 129, 

303. 
Censures. See Church ceruures. 
Ceremonial law. See Law. 
Certificate, of chumh membership, 
490. 



Children, dying in Uikn^ haw 

saved, ^. 
members of the visible ehnrcb 

138, 213, 342. 
to be baptized, 151, 342, 399. 
.daqr of the church to, 51L. 
Chri(«t, why so called, 198. 
the Mediator, 52-^4, 194, 884. 
truly God, 54, 178, 194, 384. 
truly man, 54, 55, 195, 384. 
God and man in one person, 55, 

56, 195, 384. 
reqnJaite that he should be both, 

196—198. 
ordained Mediator from eternity, 

52. 
anointed to his office by tb« 

Spirit, 56, 198. 
called to his office by the Father, 

57.- 
willingly undertakes his oflloe^ 

57. 
humiUation o^ 54, 57, 58, 196, 

202, 205, 884, 386. 
•uffeiines and death o^ 57, M^ 

exaltation of; 58, 205, 210. 880 
resurrection of, 58, 205, 386. 
ascension of, 58, 207, 386. 
session of, at the right hand of 

the Father, 58, 208, 386. 
intercession of; 58, 61, 209. 
coming to judge the world, 68L 

164, 210, 386. 
offices of, as prophet, 63, 199, 888L 
as priest, 53, 200, 389. 
as king, 53, 200, 385. 
efficacy of his obedience and 8»> 

orifice, 59, 60, 198, 211. 
satisfacUon o^ 59, 72, 198, 206L 

385. 
benefits of redemption by, com- 
municated before hh iucarnap 

tion, 60. 
acts according to both natures, 60. 
effectually applies redemption, 

to whom, and how, 61, 211. 
union of the elect with, 215. 
their communion with, 218, 232L 

233, 285, 239. 
Christian liberty. See Liberty, 
Church,ofthe, 138— 142. 
the object of God's special provi* 

dence, 42, 213. 
Christ tbe only bead of the, 141. 
catholic invisible, defined, 13^ 

214. , ^ ^ 



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INDEX. 



sm 



^1 



Chtirch, given to Christ from eter- 
nity, f 3, 54. 
nbers of, benefits that they 
DJoy by Christ, 215, 219, 232, 
32, 235, 239—241. 
catholic Tif ible, defined, 138, 213, 

409. 
no ordinary possibility of salTa- 

tion oat of, 139. 
privileges of, 139, 213. 
perpetuity of, 141. 
rights of every, 409. 
Churches particularly defined, 410. 
warranted, 410. 
more or less pure, 140. 
purest, subject to mixture and 
error, 141. 
Church censures, of, 169 — ^161. 
to whom the administration o^ 

is committed, 160. 
use of, 160. 
on whom to be infiicted, 115, 158, 

160. 
degrees of, 161. 

who are to be absolved from, 160. 
mode of inflicting them, 512, 517. 
end for which the power of in- 
flicting them is given, 512. 
the spirit and manner in which 

they should be inflicted, 512. 
See Sxcommuni^^ation, Stupen' 
titm. 
Church Government, of, 417. 
appointed by Christ 159, 201, 

judicatories to which the power 

of, is committed, 417. 
nature and enumeration of their 
powers, 418. 
Church Officers, of, 411. 
appointed by Christ, 139, 407. 
powers of, 160. 
only ministerial and declarative, 

408. 
See Bishops, Elders^ Deacons. 
Church Ordinances. See Ordi' 

nances. 
Church Session, of the, 419—421. 
Citation, rules concerning 466, 467. 
Civil Magistrate. See MagistraU. 
Clerks, of, 456, 530. 
Commandments, the ten, 252 — 319, 
889—395, 402. 
are the sum of the moral law, 

105, 246^ 888. 
a perfect rule of rlgfateonmeas, 



Commandments, mles Ibr 
standing the, 246^260. 

preface to, explained, 250, 88QL 

sum of, 252, 282, 388. 

the first, 252-260, 389. 

the second, 260—268, 890 

the third, 268—276, 391. 

the fourth, 276—282, 391. 

the fifth, 288—293, 393. 

the sixth, 294—299, 394. 

the seventh, 299—304, 394. 

the eighth, 304—309, 394. 

the ninth, 309—317, 395. 

the tenth, 318, 395. 

no mere man able perftofly to 
keep the, 319, 396. 
Commissioners to the General Aa- 
sembly, of, 468—469. 

rule for appointing, 468. 

form of commission of, 459. 

expenses of^ to be defrayed, 459. 
Committees, rules oencerning, 534. 
Common fame, 463, 464, 469, 480. 
Communion, of saints, of the, 142 
—144, 218, 232, m, 235, 289.- 
241. 

a privilege of the visible church, 

confirmed in the Lord's supper, 

153, 345. 
does not infer community of 
goods, 144. 
Complaints, of, 486. 
when advisable, 487. 
notice of, when to be given, 487. 
effect of, 488. 

no member of the judicatory 
complained of, may vote, 488. 
Condition of the covenant of worksL 

47, 104, 186, 383. 
Confession of Faith, 9—170. 
Confession of sins, to whom to be 

made, 87. 
Congregations, assembling of, and 
behaviour in worship, 497. 
vacant, to assemble for wcnrship, 
457. 
Conscience, God alone Lord of the, 
113, 406. 
liberty of, 113, 114, 406. 
Constitutional rules, how made ob- 
ligatory, 431. 
Controversies, final appeal in, 16. 
the supreme Judge in, 18. 
by whom determined ministei^ 



Corn 



ally, 168. 
itroL '■ 



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MO 



nfMOL. 



10^46^407,478. 
Correction, &th«rly, of Gkxl's chil< 

dten, 89, 74. 
Oormptloii, of nature, 43, 44, 187, 

> the aoiuree of actual Bin, 44, 187. 
how propagated, 43, 44, 188. 
remaina daring thia life in the 

regenerate, 46, 79, 228. 
all motions of, tmly sin, 46. 
. OoTenant, no ex^oyment of QoA 
without a, 46. 
of works, 83, 47, 104, 186, 883. 
Covenant of grace, 48, 190, 191, 384. 
with whom madO) 191. 
fUth requisite to an interest in 

the, 4h, 192, 220. 
the Mediator of the, 62, 194. 
diflferent administrations of, 40 — 

62, 193, 194. 
not two, but one, 62. 
why called a testament, 4A, 
Councils. See Synod$ and CbuncOi. 
Creation, of the world, 82, 181, 382. 
of angels, 181. 
of man, 32, 182, 882. 
Creed, the, 404. 

Curse and wrath of God, man liable 
to the, 4d» 188, 838, 384, 89a. 

DsACOifS, cft, 414 
who eligible for, and by whom 

elected, 432. 
ordination o^ 482-434. 
office ot, perpetual, 434. 
may cease to act, in what cases, 

the order to be taken in snch 
cases, 434. 
Dead, not to be prayed for, 119, .36L 

burial of the, 624. 
Death, ot, 234. 
of Christ, 58, 204, 386. 
the Lord's supper a memorial of 
the, 168, 345, 399. 
Decalogue. See Ommandmenig, 
Decrees of God, of the, 26, 27, 179, 
882. 
how executed, 180, 382, 
See Election^ Fi-edetUnaHon, Pre- 
teritum. 
Degrees, within which marriage is 

unlawful, 130, 617. 
Deposition, fW>m office, 472, 478. 
Directory, for wonhip, 495-^28. 
Discipline, book of; 460--494. 
Disdplineb general ptindplet od^ 400. 



^ natsM ti, moial or i||i 

rituaf, 408. 
ends at, 460. 

how to be exercised, 461. 
all baptised persons suMeet tBL 

461. ^^ 

Dissents, of, 488. 
the recording o^ 489. 
may be aooompauoied with a com- 

plaint, 489. 
DiTorce, in what cases lawftaL IStL 

137. 
a public and orderly pxoeednra 

to be observed in, 187. 
Duty to God, shown by the light 

of nature, 116. 
required of man, 241, 888. 
rule o^ 12, 174, 241, 382, 388. 
Duttes required in the first oom« 

mandment, 252; 389. 
second, 260, 390. 
third. 270, 391. 
fourth, 276, 392. 
fifth, 284, 286, 288, 292, 803 
sUth, 294, 894. 
seventh, 300, 394. 
eighth, 804^ 396. 
nioth, 310, 895. 
tenth, 818, 896. 

SFnCTUAL CALURG) of, 66, 216, S86L 
is of free and special grace alone, 

67, 216. 
man passive in, 67. 
extends to the elect only, 29, 66, 

217. 
who are united to Christ in, 216. 
Ekters, of ruling, 413. 
election of, 432. 
ordination of, 432—484. 
ofllce of, perpetual, 434. 
may cease from acting, how, 434. 
order to be observed in such case, 

436. 
Elect, only effectually called and 

saved, 29, 66, 69, 217. 
such as ere incapable of being 

called by the word, how saved, 

68. 
Election, is of mere free grace, 28» 

179,384. 
lh>m eternity in Christ, 28, 179, 

384. 
not only to the end, but also to 

the means, 29, 180. 
doctrine <^ nse to be made of the 

31. 



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XHSSX. 



Hi 



^kfttoDi of diiirdk offleen, light 
0^ in the society, 408. 
of mling elden and deaooiu.432. 
of biahops or paaton, 441, 442. 
XtMharirt. See LorcPi Supper, 
XTangelist, ordination of an, 449. 
Kzaltation, of ChriBt» <», 206—209. 
JSxoommunicatiQn, o^ 161, 467, 61& 
dfltaign of; 613. 

mode of procedure in, 513, 614. 
in what ease, and how, to be xo> 
moved, 615—617. 
Xzpiation, only by the Uood of 
Chrl0t,329. 

Vaith, of saying, 80—83, 221, 890. 
requlBite to aalTatioOy 192, 212, 

•cte o4 81, 347. 

how it jQstifles, 70, 222. 

Is the gift of Ood, 48, 71, 220. 

wrought by the Spirit, 61, 80, 212^ 

221. 
the instnuiMnt of jiutiiieatioi^ 

71,222. 
wrought ordinarily by the min- 

ifltxy of the word. 80, 221. 
different degrees of, 82. 
fruits and eridenoes o^ 81, 88, 

192. 
Mfurance^ not of the essence o^ 

101, 222. 
implicit not to be required, 114. 
in a Justified person, is not aloneu 

71,222. 
ITall of man, nature and effects of 

the, 4:^-46, 185—190, 883» 884. 
why permitted, 42. 
•U mankind are intolTed in the, 

43,186,383. 
Famify worship^ daily required, 

directory Ibr, 520. 
Tasting, a duty, 121, 262, 524. 

by whom to be observed, 526* 

how to be observed, 626. 
JEellowflhip, See Ommunion, 
Forbearance, Christian. 407. 
Foreknowledge, of God. 26^ 85, 180. 
Forgiveness. See Pardon, 
Form of government. 406—450. 
Form, of licensure^ 439. 

of a call, 442. 

of a commission, 468. 

of an oath, or affirmation, 47ft. 
Free will, o^ 88, 62-«5, 185, 883. 

iesmu. 
46 



of tfa% 

432. 
See ^sssfyiUv 
Glory of Ood, the end of hk det 
and works, 80, 82, 85, 43, 48^ 
168. 179. 
the chief end of man, 171, 8M^ 
881. 
Olory, communion in, with OhrlsL 
in this life, 233. 
after death, 286. 

»t the resurreetion and the day ' 
of Judgment, 237, 239-241. 
Ood, doctrine eonceming, 20 gflu 
176—179, 882. 
•zistenoe of, shown by the Ugfal 

of nature, 16, 171. 
but one only. 18, 176^ 882. 
is the only object of worship, 28, 
24, 117. 252, 259, 367. 
Godhead, three persons in the, 22, 

177, 382. 
Government, Form o^ 405. 
preliminary prindples o^ 405— 
409. 
Graee, acts and works of God's 
free, 28, 67, 73, 179, 191, 215, 
218, 222, 223, 384, 386, 387. 
covenant of, 48, 52, 191, 194. 
ordinary means of; 830, 896. 
Graces, saving^ all wrought by the 

always aeooDHway fsith, 71, 72^ 

HBAvnr, of, 165, 168, 235, 240. 
Hell, of; 166, 169, 190, 236, 238. 
Holy Ghost See 4^ 
Hopes, fiilse^ 99. 

Humiliation of Ghrist, 54» 55,202— 
204,385. 

Imo&AiiT, the, not to be admitted 

to the Loxd's table, 168. 850. 
Image of God, man made after the, 

83,182,882. 
renewed by sanetiflcation, 224^ 

887. 
Imputation, of the guilt of Adam's 

first sin, 43, 187, 384. 
of Christ's righteousness, 70^ 731^ 

227 886 
lubility. 68,90, 187, 248» 818, 800, 

876, 396. 
Ineanation, of the Son of God, 5^ 

195,197,208,884. 



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642 



IKDXX. 



InfimtSy how 8aT< 
of church memben to Im bap- 
tized, 161, 842, 898, 504. 
fiupiration, of Scripture, 12, 16. 
Instalment of a pastor, defined, 461. 

how to be conducted, 451 — 453. 
Interoeasion of Christ, how made, 
209. 
belongs to his priestly ofSloe, 200, 
885. 
Interlocutory meetings, 685, 586. 

Jesns, why so called, 198. 

BeeChritu 
Judgment, the last, 166^ 170, 23a- 

241. 
Christ the Judge, at, 63, 59, 166, 

205,210,886. 
who shall be Judged at, 69, 167, 

288. 
design o^ 168. 
the time o^ oonoealed, and why, 

169. 
of the righteous, 168, 289, 887. 
of the wicked, 169, 238. 
private^ rights cd^ , inalienable^ 

408. 
Judicatories, church, the sereral 

kinds o^ 417. 
powers o^ 418. 
only ministerial and declaratory, 

general rules Ibr, 529—636. 
members oil rules ooncezning^ 
580,531. 
Jurisdiction, oi; 492. 
Justice, of God, ftilly satisfied by 

Christ, 59, 72, 196, 219, 885. 
Justification, of; 70, 219, 227, 887. 
sulgects o^ 29, 70, 78. 
instrument ot, 71, 222. 
time of, 78, 74. 

free grace o^ 72, 78, 218, 220, 887. 
state of, cannot be fiedlen from, 

74,227. 
Inseparably Joined with sanctifi- 

cation, Wfl. 
wherein it differs from sanotiiiear 
tion,227. 

Kwn, the power ot, 160. 

to whom committed, 160. 

magistrates may not assume the 

. power oil 131. 
tOB^Oaii^ offleed^ U9^ 200, 



of Christ, tfaadmidi ft 



the,^ 

Knowledge, of God, infinite, 28. 
derivable from the light of na^ 

ture, 9, 116, 171. 
sufDlcien^ only from ScriptnxCL 

9,117,171. 

LABGxa catechism, the, 171—379. 
Law, ceremonial, abrogated, 10<V 
112. 
Judicial, how tu obligatory, 107. 
moral defined, 242. 
giTeu to Adam, with power to 

obey, 33, 104, 241, 388. 
continues to be binding, 105, 107. 
use of the, under the gospeL 108 

—111, 242-246. 
wherein comprehended, 246— 388U 
Liberty, Christian, 04 111—113;. 
end ot 114. 
abuse of, 114-116. 
of conscience, 113, 406 
License, form of, 439. 
licensing, candidates, oi; 435— 440. 
Light, of nature, what shown bj 
the, 9, 116, 123, 171. 
insufficiency of the^ 9, 69, 171« 
212. *^ 
Limitation, of time, 493. 
as to certificates of church memp 

bership,493,494. 
as to criminal process, 494. 
Lord's Day, of the sanctification of 
the, 495. 
in the fiunOy, 496. 
in public, 496. 
Bee Sabbath, 
Lord's Supper, institution, nature^ 
and ends of the, 153, 844, 898. 
not a sacrifice for sin, 154. 
elements of, not to be adored, 150. 
the substance of the elements ol^ 

not changed, 156, 157. 
how, and by whom, to be admin- 
istered, 156, 156, 345. 
relation of the elements oC to 

Christ, 156. 
how Christ is present in the, 157, 

846. 
benefits receiyed hi th«^ 157, 841^ 
846,398. 
Lord's Supper, who may noi %t 
admitted to the, 158, 860. 
cases of doubting that may mt^ 

exclude from the, 848. 
preparation tv tiK 847, 808L 



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648 



£ofd^ Supper, dutiM mqtdied In 
partaking of the, 861. 
after partaking of the, 852. 
•irberein it i^ees irlth and dif- 
fers fh>m baptism, 354 — 856. 
adminlstratiou of the, 606—510. 

Uaqistratx, of the dvil, 130—134. 
ordained of God, 115, 130. 
Christians may execute the office 

of the, 131. 
may not assume eoclesiafltieal 

powers, 131. 
duties of, to the ehuroh and the 

people, 132, 288. 
. duties of the people to the, 183, 

286. 
eodesiastical persons not exempt 

flrom the authority of the, 133. 
the pope has no power OTer the, 

Is subject to the discipline of the 

church, 116. 
Man, how created, 82, 182, 382. 
0tato of, before the lUl, 33, 182, 

184,882. 
God's covenant with, 46, 185, 388. 
fiJI 0^ and its effects, 42, 46, 186, 

187—190. 
. itato of, under the oorenant of 

grace, 48-62, 190—194. 
the chief end of, 171, 881. 
Marriage, of, 134, 617. 
«nd of, 184, 184. 
f>r whom lawful, 135, 517, 618. 
with whom it should not be 

formed, 136. 
l>etween whom unlawful, 186. 
■ what may warrant a dissolution 

ot, 136—138. 
eolemnization ol^ 617. 
dTil law respecting^ to be ob- 
served, 617. 
of Christiana, should be solemn- 

iaed by a lawful minister, 517. 
of their children, duty of parents 

relative to the, 618. 
precautions and procedure In 

solemnising, 618—521. 
Mass, abomination of the, 165. 
Means of Grace, under the law, 48, 

198. 
under the gospel, 61, 104, 830, 

896. 
liow made effeetoal, 140, 830, 888, 

897. 
Mediator. SeeOftrW. 



Merit, none in ns, 01, 371. 
of Christ. See Ohrittf SUi^faO' 
Uon. 
Minister, none but one lawfully 
ordained may preach and ad* 
minister the sacraments, 147 
160, 334, 345. 
how he should preach, 336. 
BeelMtalmenLOrdiruUionyTrant' 
lotion. 
Ministry, given by Christ, 139l 

407. 
Missions, of, 454. 

Moderators, authority and duties 
of, 456, 468, 476, 629, 630, 633, 
634,635,536. 
of church sessions, ministers 

perpetual, 419, 420. 
of a Presbytery, Synod, and Gen* 

eral Assembly, 456. 
how chosen, 456. 

Natuu. Se» CbrrupUon, Light 

Oath, a lawfU defined, 126. 

in what manner and droom- 
stances to be taken, 126, 127. 

obliges in all oases, except to aln, 
127, 128. 

form of, before a Judioatoxy, 476. 
QflFenoe, defined, 460. 

modes of prosecuting for an, 464. 
Qfienoes, private, 461. 

steps to be taken relative to^ 461, 

of spreading the knowledge ol 

462. 
public, 463, 464. 
under what oiroumstanoes pxo« 

cess for, may, or may no^ bo 

instituted, 464, 466. 
Officers. See Church Officen, 
Officers of Christ, 63, 199—201, 885. 
Ordinances, bv whom appointed, 

and for what end, 139, 416. 
under the law, 49, 193. 
under the gospel, 51, 194. 
in a particular church, 416. 
admiflsion to sealing, 611. 
Ordination of bishops or pastors, 

trials for, 444. 
how to be conducted, 411 4 49 . 
questions proposed at, 446. 
of an evangelist, 449. 
of ruling elders and deaoons, l88 



Original Sin, 43, 187, 188, 884. 



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niDxx. 



pABOOir of gltt, 70, 74 86, 218, 22L 

912, aa% 400. 

Pastor. See Bithopy MnisUr. 
Pastoral Charge^ resignation of a, 

Pwftctions of God. ^6»AUrtbvU». 
Perseveranoe of Saints, 96, 224^ 229, 

887. 
on irhat it depends, 96, S29. 
Personal union of the two natures 

in Christ. 66, 195, 884. 
Persons of the Godhead, 24, 177, 

882. 
oo<«qualit7 oi^ proved, 178. 
Postponement, tSsct of indefinite, 

Power of a Church Jndieatoiy, only 

ministerial and decla ra tory, 

406. 
Prayer, defined, 368, 400. 
required of all men, 118. 
to be made to God only, 117, 867. 
where to be made^ 121. 

119, 360, 861. 
Ibr whom not to be made, 119, SSL 
in the name of Christ, what, and 

whT, 368, 859. 
iv what and whom to be made, 
help of the Spirit in, 869. 
Lord's the, 868—879, 400, 401, 

public, <a, 499-602. 
Preaching, of; 602—604. 

of God's word, to whom aom- 
mitted,334 

manner otf 836. 
Predestination, the doctrine d, 27, 
179. 

bow to be handled, 81. 
Presbytery, of the, 422—427. 

of what it constats, 422. 

representation in, 423. 

quorum of; 423. 

powers 0^ 423-426. 

records and reports fill, 426, ^26. 

meetings of, 426. 

corresponding members o^ 43^. 
Pieterition, the doctrine o^ SO, 40, 

180. 
Previous question, the, 681, 682. 
Probationers. See OnndidaLu. 
Process, of actual, 464-409. 

•gainst a bishop or minister, 470 
--474. 

In ease of offence^ 471 — 473. 

in rose of heresy or schism, 478, 
474. 



PxoceM, roles eaaBeming. B8K 
Protests, of; 488. 

of recording a, 480. 

may be accompanied with a eoM> 
plaint, 489. 

of answering a, 480, 490. 

who can join in a, 490. 
Piovidenoe, o^ 84-42, 188^18^ 

Psalms, of singing, 408. 

QmBnom, proposed at the ordimf^ 

tion of ruling eLdeia and d«^ 

cons, 438. 
at licensing candidates, 488. 
at the (Mnlinatkm of iiilnlilaia 

446—448. 
at the ordinatloii of an rrsngn 

list, 449. 
at the installation of a min&rtib 

461. 
at the restoxatioa of an vatmof' 

municated person, 616l 
in debalAk rules concemiaiib ^^ 

629, 680, 
Quorum of a church bcbsIoo, ^UL 
of a presbytery, 423. 
of a synod, 427. 
of the General Assembly, 480L 
If notpresanL whatmay be4aa% 

629. ^^ 

RxADma of the 8eriptnx«i,fhapii:^ 

110,496. 
Redeemer of the elect, who, 884. 
Bedemption, 64, 69, 60, 211, 8861 
to whom applied, and bow, 20L 

61, 211, 886. 
lUoonsiderbig a quMtion, mli «■■ 

ceming, 632. 
Beference, o^ 481. 
subjects of, 481. 

Surpoee and efiiects of; 481, 482; 
uty of the jndicatrary refterin^ 

Bageneration. See Xiffedmi OA 

Ung, 
Baligion, insufHelaney of natonl^ 

BemoTal of a candfclatw, 440L 
of a Ucentiate, 440. 
of a minister, 449-461. 
Bepe n tance unto lifis, o^ 88-4rf 
226, 897. 
necessity of; 86, 828. 
no condemnation wbera II 1l 
88. 



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6^ 



Eepeniaaoe, should be partlonUr, 

and not merely general, 186. 
BeprDbafcion. See Ftderition. 
Besnrrection of Christ, 58, 206. 

of the body, 166, 234. 
Besignation of a pastoral chaige, 
453. 
of an elder or deacon, 434. 
Beriew and COntro^ of general, 470 
^481. 
of records, 479. 

points to be examined in, 470. 
dnty of the superior Judicatory 
in, 480, 481. 
B^hteousness of Christ imputed to 
belieyers, 70, 72, 210, 220, 227, 
886. 
Bnles, general, for Judicatories, 

oonstitutionaL how made obUga- 
tory, 431. 
Bnmor, generaL See Oamnum 

IUbbath, of fhe, 122, 276, 891. 
hoir to be sanctified, 124^ 277, 

892, 495, 496. 
how it is pro&ned, 279, 892. 
reasons forsanctuying thew 280— 

282, 892. 
obligations of heads of ftmilies, 

respecting the, 279, 496. 
Sacraments, of the, 146—148, 839— 

841, 898. 
design of the, 145, 839, 398. 
number of the, 147, 341, 898. 
how made effectual, 147; 838, 

898. 
by whom to be dispensed, 147. 
of the Old Testament, the same 

for substance as those of the 

New, 148. 
Sacrifice of Christ, 59, 200, 884. 
the mass abominably ii^urlous 

to the, 165. 
the Lord's Supper not a, 154. 
Solvation in Christ only, 69, 212. 
who obtain, 29, 69, 61, 65, 69, 

214, Ac. 
See Adoption, Church, Cbmmur 

R«m, JSifeOual CaUing, EUct, 

Meant of Orace, Redemption. 
Sanctification, of, 77-80, 223, 387. 
inseparably Joined with Justifica* 

tion, 227. 
In what Justification differs ftom, 

227. 
46* 



Saaotifieatlon, Imperftoi In thU 
life, 79, 229, 819. 

of the Lord's day, 277, 892, 405. 
Satisfection, not made by repent- 
ance, 85. 

not by works, 91. 

not by any creature, 378. 

by Christ only, 59, 70, 196, 219. 

of Christ, imputed to belierers^ 
70, 219. 
Scripture, of the holy, 9—18, 172. 

why necessary, 9, 10. 

canonical books o^ 11, 12. 

authority of, 12. 

eyidences of its being the word 
of God, 13, 178. 

sufficiency and perfection of, 14| 
171, 17i 881. 

perspicuity of, 15. 

is its own inlUlible rule of Inter- 
preting, 18. 

the only rule of ISdth, practice^ 
and worship, 12, 117^172, 174, 
881. 

the Sphrit speaking in, the sn* 
preme Judge of religious con- 
troversies, 18. 

the original text of, the final ap- 
peal, 16. 

to be translated into the Tnlgav 
tongue, 17, 888. 

Illumination of the Spirit neces- 
sary to a saving understanding 
of, 14, 833. 

to be read by all, 882. 

how to be read, 333. 

how made effectual to aalTfttioi^ 
830, 897. 

of the public reading of, 497. 
Sealing Ordinances, of admission 

to, 511. 
Secret Worship, directory Ibr, 526. 
Session, of the church, 419—421. 

quorum o^ 419. 

moderator of, 419, 420. 

powers of, 420. 

rules for the convening, records^ 
and registers of^ 421. 
Shorter Catechism, the, 881—404. 
Sick, of the visiUtion of the, 521-* 

524. 
Sin, definition of, 45, 186, 888. 

original, 187, 384. 

of our first parents, 42^ 185, 88S. 

why permitted, 42. 

effects of the flnrt, 48, U, 187. 
188,388,884. 



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646 INOXZ. 



Sin, demerit of, 40, 828, 896. 

all, not equally heinous, 320,8%. 

aggrayatlona of, 320—328. 

punishment of, 39—41, 98, lOS, 
165,169,189,190,234,238. 
Sinfl, against the first command* 
ment, 254, 389. 

iecond, 263, 390. 

third, 270, 390. 

fourth, 279, 392. 

fifth, 287, 290, 292, 898. 

lixth, 297, 394. 

seventh, 300, 394. 

eighth, 306, 394. 

ninth, 312, 395. 

tenth, 318, 396. 
Singing of Psahms, of the, 498. 
Soul, the, created immortal, 32, 
182. 



ble, ai. 
Snpper. ^ee XonP* aupper. 
Surety, Christ the, 66, 220. 
Sospension from priyUege^ 161,408, 
469. 
form of, 513. 
conduct towards a person under, 

614. 
when, and how it may be re* 

moved, 515. 
from office, 472, 478. 
Synod, of the, 427. 
quorum o^ 427. 

corresponding members oi; 427. 
powers 01^ 428. 
meetings of; 428. 
records and reports of; 428. 
Synods and Councils o^ 162. 
powers of, 168. 
may err, 168. 

ordinarily not to intermeddle 
with dTU allBirs, 164. 

TncPTATioir, why beUerers are left 
to, 89. 
wicked sometimes given over io, 

bow' to be prayed againit, 874^ 
401. 



Teetament, whr the Oorenanft cC 

Grace is called a, 49. 
nnder the law, the Old, 4S. 
nnder the gospel, the New, 61. 
Testimony, of new, 490-492. 
r^ularly authenticated, is vaU^ 

475, 476. 
Thanksgiving^ observation of dayg 

01^524. 
duties on public days o^ 525, 526L 
Time, limitation of, 493. 
Traditions, not to be added tl» 

Scripture, 14. 
Translation. See Removal. 
Transnbstantiation, repugnant to 

Scriptuipe and to common senask 

157. 
Trinity, the doetrine of the, 18, 177. 

382. 
Truth, the tondistone and neees* 

Bity oi; 407. 

Union, of believers with CbrisL 
139, 142, 215, 229. 
Hypostatic, See Bsrsonal Vnkn, 
Unity of God, 19, 24, 176, «82. 
Unregenerate, use of the moral Isw 
to the, 244. 
vorks of the, 98. 

Yones, rules oonoeming, 534. 
Vow, of a, 128. 

to whom to be made, 128. 

an unlawftil, what, 129. 

Wak, Just and necessary, may be 

waged, 181. 
Wicked, condition of; in Ufe, 282. 
after death, 165, 286. 
at and after judgment, 169, 238. 
Will of God, 20, 25, 85, 179, 180. 

revelation of the, 9—11. 
Will, human, not forced, 25, 62. 
originally firee, 83, 63, 185, 888. 
to spiritual good lost by the fidl, 

44, 63, 187, 868. 
renewed in conversion, 64, 6<^ 

216, 886. 
only perfectly free to good i& 
glory, 65. 
Witnesses, oi; 472-478. 
oompeteni^ of; 475. 
oredibiUty o^ 475. 
requisite number of; 475. 
how to be examined, 476. 
form of the oath, or alBxiiiatin* 
0^476. 



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INDEX. 



547 



Witnesses, Tefodng to appear, oen- 

sorable, 466, 478. 
Word of God, the, how made effec- 

toal to salvation, 330, 397. 
to be read by all, 382. 
how to be read, 833, 397. 
by whom to be preached, 334. 
how to be preached, 835. 
how to be heard, 337, 897. 
Works, of good, 88—95. 
are the firuits and oTidenoes of 

&ith, 88. 
use ot, 88—00. 
ability to do, wholly tcom. the 

Spirit of Christy 90. 



Works, not meritorious, 01. 

accepted through Christ, 02. 
Worship, of religious, 11&— 118. 
only olQeot of, 23, 116, 262, 857, 

389. 
God prescribes the kind oil 117, 

261, 390. 
parts of, 118, 120. 
not limited to a particular plao«^ 
121. 
Worship, the Directory fi>r, 40^^ 

Tkab akd Nats, rule concerning; 
636. 



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DiaitizedbvG00<?le 



RESB3CTER1AN Ch\irch in 

the U.S. A 

le constltiitlon 



718 

Pres.6 
P928 

1859 




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